Driver Inattention in Fatal and Injury Traffic Crashes

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					         Driver Inattention
in Fatal and Injury Traffic Crashes

                    Alan M. Smith - Presenter
                         Janace A. Pierce
                           Dale Cooper
                       Leslie Upledger Ray
                        Patricia A. Murrin




       County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency
               Division of Emergency Medical Services
 County of San Diego    Division of Emergency Medical Services
   Cell Phone Ownership, U.S.
 120                                                                    109.5

 100
                                                     86
  80
  60
  40                             33.8

  20           5.3
   0
             1990               1995               1999                 2000

                          Cell Phone Subscribers (million)
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States
County of San Diego            Division of Emergency Medical Services
          Driving Distractions
          •   Cell Phone Use
          •   Electronic Equipment
          •   Radio/CD
          •   Smoking
          •   Eating
          •   Children
          •   Animals
          •   Personal Hygiene
          •   Reading
          •   Other
County of San Diego   Division of Emergency Medical Services
       Background: Distractions
               Makeup
 Wiping cigarette ashes
            Dog in Car
               Fighting
          Picking Nose
         Combing Hair
  Steering w/out Hands
            Cell Phone
             Reaching
               Talking
                 Radio

                          0%   10%   20%    30%      40%   50%   60%     70%
                               Engaged in activity    Crash/Near Crash

Source: Response Insurance National Driving Habits Survey, 1999
County of San Diego       Division of Emergency Medical Services
                      Methods

• This study investigates crashes for which
  inattention was reported as a factor in the
  crash.
   –   Violation categories
   –   Age and gender of drivers-at-fault
   –   Road type
   –   Time of day/Time of week
   –   Subregional areas of the county.


County of San Diego   Division of Emergency Medical Services
                 Data Source
• Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System
  (SWITRS) data for San Diego County.
   – All fatal and injury crashes in the County of San Diego.
   – Crashes in which inattention was reported for at least one
     driver (Inattention as a factor)
   – Crashes in which inattention was reported for the party-
     at-fault (Inattention as a causal factor)
   – Time period: Fiscal year 1995/1996 through Fiscal Year
     1999/2000. Details reported for FY 1999/2000.




County of San Diego    Division of Emergency Medical Services
  Inattention Crashes as Percent
    of All Fatal or Injury Crashes
        FY 95/96 to FY 99/00
             25.0%

                      19.3%          19.4%
             20.0%         18.0%
                                             17.1%   17.6%          17.9%
                                                                                    16.8%
                                                          15.6%          15.9%
                                                                                           14.3%
             15.0%
   Percent




             10.0%

              5.0%

              0.0%
                      FY 95/96       FY 96/97        FY 97/98       FY 98/99        FY 99/00

                         Inattention as a factor in the crash
                         Inattention as a causal factor in the crash


               Source: County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, Division of
County of San Diego                     Division of Emergency Medical Services
               Emergency Medical Services. SWITRS databases FY 95/96 to FY 99/00.
 Top Ten Violation Categories for
Inattention Crashes by Fiscal Year
                                Unsafe Speed

                          Auto Right-of-Way

                    Traffic Signals and Signs

                            Improper Turning

                         Following Too Closely

                          DUI Alcohol/Drugs

                   Unsafe Starting or Backing

                          Wrong Side of Road

                     Pedestrian Right-of-Way

                          Unsafe Lane Change

                                             0.00%   5.00%   10.00%   15.00%   20.00%   25.00%   30.00%   35.00%


                                      FY 99/00          FY 98/99          FY 97/98


 Source: County of San Diego, Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency Medical Services.
 SWITRS databases FY 97/98 to FY 99/00.
 County of San Diego                             Division of Emergency Medical Services
Age and Gender of Drivers at
          Fault
       2000
       1800
       1600
       1400
       1200
       1000
        800
        600
        400
        200
          0
                                                                                85 and older




                                                                                                                                                                 85 and older
                                               25 to 34


                                                          45 to 54


                                                                     65 to 74




                                                                                                                                25 to 34


                                                                                                                                           45 to 54


                                                                                                                                                      65 to 74
                           5 to 9




                                                                                                            5 to 9
                                    15 to 19




                                                                                                                     15 to 19
              Not Stated




                                                                                               Not Stated
                                               MALE                                                                             FEMALE

                                        Inattention Reported                                   Inattention Not Reported

       Source: County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency
       Medical Services. SWITRS database FY 99/00.
County of San Diego                                   Division of Emergency Medical Services
Inattentive Drivers-at-Fault as
Percent of All Drivers-at-Fault
     by Age and Gender
           85 and older

              75 to 84

              65 to 74

              55 to 64

              45 to 54

              35 to 44

              25 to 34

              20 to 24

               15 to 19

               10 to 14


                      0.0%   5.0%     10.0%     15.0%    20.0%    25.0%     30.0%


                                      Female            Male
     Source: County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency
     Medical Services. SWITRS database FY 99/00.
County of San Diego                 Division of Emergency Medical Services
    Top Ten Violation Categories for
   Inattention Crashes by Gender of
             Party-at-Fault
                         Unsafe Speed


                     Auto Right-of-Way


              Traffic Signals and Signs


                      Improper Turning


                  Following Too Closely


                    DUI Alcohol/Drugs


             Unsafe Starting or Backing


                   Wrong Side of Road


               Pedestrian Right-of-Way


                   Unsafe Lane Change


                                      0.0%   5.0%   10.0%   15.0%   20.0%   25.0%   30.0%   35.0%

                                                     Female          Male


  Source: County of San Diego, Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency Medical
  Services. SWITRS databases FY 99/00.
County of San Diego                          Division of Emergency Medical Services
    Percent of Crashes
 by Gender and Road Type
           90.0%
           80.0%
           70.0%
           60.0%
           50.0%
           40.0%
           30.0%
           20.0%
            10.0%
             0.0%
                     Major      Other      Other       Major      Other      Other
                    Freeways    State     Streets     Freeways    State     Streets
                               Highways   and Roads              Highways   and Roads

                        All Crashes                    Inattention Crashes
                                             Male     Female



     Source: County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency
     Medical Services. SWITRS database FY 99/00.
County of San Diego                Division of Emergency Medical Services
 Number of Fatal and Injury Crashes
by Road Type and Inattention Status of
          Party at Fault
                                  Inattention by Driver at Fault
           Type of Road                                                        Total
                                 Not Reported          Reported
   Major Freeways               3517     92.6%       282      7.4%      3799       100%
   Other State Highways         697      85.4%       119      14.6%      816       100%
   Other Streets and Roads      8998     83.0%      1842      17.0%     10840      100%
   Total                        13212    85.5%      2243      14.5%     15455      100%
   Source: County of San Diego, Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency
   Medical Services. SWITRS database FY 1999/2000.




  County of San Diego              Division of Emergency Medical Services
      Inattention Crashes by Time of Day
         Weekend-Day                                                Weekend-Day                          Other
       Weekend-N i ght                                            Weekend-Night                          Streets and
         Eveni ng M-Th                 Other Streets               Evening M-Th                          Roads
Eveni ng Rush Hour M-F                 and Roads           Evening Rus h Hour M-F
          Dayt i me M-F                                              Daytime M-F
Mor ni ng Rush Hour M-F                                    Morning Rus h Hour M-F
      Wee Hour s Tu-F                                            Wee Hours Tu-F


         Weekend-Day                                                Weekend-Day
       Weekend-N i ght                                            Weekend-Night
         Eveni ng M-Th
                                       Other State                 Evening M-Th
                                                                                                         Other State
Eveni ng Rush Hour M-F
                                       Highways            Evening Rus h Hour M-F
                                                                                                         Highways
          Dayt i me M-F                                              Daytime M-F
Mor ni ng Rush Hour M-F                                    Morning Rus h Hour M-F
      Wee Hour s Tu-F                                            Wee Hours Tu-F


         Weekend-Day                                                Weekend-Day
       Weekend-N i ght                                            Weekend-Night
         Eveni ng M-Th                 Major                       Evening M-Th                          Major
Eveni ng Rush Hour M-F                 Freeways            Evening Rus h Hour M-F                        Freeways
          Dayt i me M-F                                              Daytime M-F
Mor ni ng Rush Hour M-F                                    Morning Rus h Hour M-F
      Wee Hour s Tu-F                                            Wee Hours Tu-F

                          0    200   400   600       800                        0.00   5.00   10.00   15.00   20.00 25.00
                              Number of Crashes                                        Crash Rate Per Hour

Source: County of San Diego, Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency Medical Services.
SWITRS databases FY 99/00.
    INATTENTION CAUSED CRASHES BY SUBREGIONAL AREA
                                            Categorized by Crashes per Mile of Road


                                                            Riverside County




         N




                                                                                                                Imperial County
                            Pacific Ocean




Crashes per Road Mile
     0.0023 - 0.0103
     0.0103 - 0.0363
     0.0363 - 0.0718
     0.0718 - 0.0952
     0.0952 - 0.1508
     0.1508 - 0.1694
     0.1694 - 0.1845
     0.1845 - 0.2524
     0.2524 - 0.3449                                                                          Mexico
     0.3449 - 0.5103


5    0       5     10   15 Miles                                   Source: County of San Diego, Health and
                                                                 Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency
                                                                    Medical Services. Data from FY 99/00.
                              INATTENTION CAUSED CRASHES
                                                                                                Categorized by Road Type

                                                                                                                                                                            Riverside County
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#   Major Freeway Crashes                                                                                                                               ## ##
                                                                                                                                                        ###                #
                                                                                                                                                        ## # # 8 0 5
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#
S   Other State Highway Crashes                                                                                                             # # ## ##
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                                                                                                                                            # ### ## #    #         #
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S   Surface Street Crashes                                                                                                                          # # # ## ## 90 5 ## # #
                                                                                                                                                                ##                 #

       San Diego County
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5         0       5     10        15 Miles                                                                                                                                                       Source: County of San Diego, Health and
                                                                                                                                                                                               Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Medical Services. Data from FY 99/00.
    Inattention Crash Rate Per Roadmile
      by Road Density Per 1000 Acres
                    35.0

                    30.0

                    25.0
       Crash Rate




                    20.0

                    15.0

                    10.0

                     5.0

                     0.0
                       0.00   0.10      0.20        0.30        0.40        0.50        0.60

                                               Road Density


Source: County of San Diego, Health and Human Services Agency, Division of Emergency Medical Services.
SWITRS databases FY 99/00.
County of San Diego                  Division of Emergency Medical Services
                  Conclusions
• Inattention has decreased as a causal factor in spite
  of more pressure on police to report inattention.
• Inattention is reported more frequently on surface
  streets than on freeways and other state routes.
• The frequency of inattention crashes varied by
  gender of party at fault relative to
   – Type of Road
   – Violation Category
   – Time of Crash
• Central San Diego, Mid-City, and Oceanside SRAs are
  the worst areas in San Diego County for inattention
  crashes.

 County of San Diego      Division of Emergency Medical Services
          Recommendations/
            Further Study
• Specific type of inattention

• Education: Be aware ESPECIALLY in familiar
  surroundings
• Retrain attention to driving, not other things

• Increased surveillance
   – Causes

County of San Diego   Division of Emergency Medical Services
         Acknowledgements

• The data collection efforts of the police
  and sheriff throughout the County are
  gratefully acknowledged, as is the
  cooperation of State staff for providing
  the SWITRS data to San Diego County.




County of San Diego   Division of Emergency Medical Services
              Contact Information

                    Alan M. Smith
                 County of San Diego
         Health and Human Services Agency
            Emergency Medical Services
              6255 Mission Gorge Road
                San Diego, CA 92120
                (619) 285-6429 phone
                  (619) 285-6531 fax
           Alan.Smith@sdcounty.ca.gov


County of San Diego   Division of Emergency Medical Services