Document Sample
                     ANDHRA PRADESH

1. Background:

   At present in India about 125 millions people have no access to potable water. Andhra
   Pradesh rural population currently stands at about 55 million, and the rural drinking water
   requirement is estimated at 845 million cubic meters per annum. At present, there is a
   deficit of 211 mcm, and population in the State is expected to increase to 60 million by
   2020. While many habitations in the State are lacking water supply, many others are
   receiving only partial or quality affected supply. In spite of continuous efforts made by
   Governmental departments and Non-Governmental organisations, there is still a
   consistent need for the provision of safe drinking water to the masses both in urban and
   rural areas in this region. The lack and poor maintenance of water and sanitation
   infrastructure in this area causes recurrent illnesses such as diarrhoea, skin and eye
   diseases, bones and dental problems, typhoid fever within the most disadvantaged
   communities. Villagers suffering from these problems are investing huge amounts of
   money in their health every year.

2. Situation in ASSIST target areas:

   Analysis of the water coming from bore wells and from the distribution system in several
   locations in ASSIST operational areas has revealed high concentrations of fluoride in the
   water, presence of excess nitrate and calcium and presence of E. coli, which makes
   certainly not suitable for human consumption.

   India is geologically rich in fluoride, a mineral that leaking into ground water sources
   leads to severe contamination. The tolerable limit of fluoride has been set at 1 part per
   million (ppm); above this limit there are serious consequences for the health, namely
   deformation of bones and teeth. Guntur and Prakasham Districts are no exception to this
   widespread problem. The level of fluoride in ground water in Bollapalli mandal ranges
   from 2.5 ppm to 3.5 ppm, and in Markapur area it reaches 4 ppm. It goes without saying
   that the consequences on the health conditions of the population are dramatic.
   Piduguralla region besides presenting excess of fluoride is also characterised by excess
   of calcium in the ground water.

   ASSIST has been working in these areas for several years, tackling issue as child labour
   and chronic poverty and reaching the most disadvantaged population. But unless the
   health of the people is preserved, no intervention can really be effective.

3. Project objective:

   The main objective of the present project is to provide safe drinking water to the most
   disadvantaged groups through sustainable systems in order to improve the health
   conditions in the target villages. This project aims at ensuring community based, owned
   and managed water plants.

4. Project description:

   To improve the current situation water treatment plants are necessary to treat and purify
   ground water that presents excess of harmful dissolved solids. ASSIST experience
   shows that the optimal solution to this problem is Reverse Osmosis Plants. Through a
   series of filters and sterilizers such plants are able to remove pathogenic organisms,
   colour and turbidity, dissolved gases, dissolved substances of both organic and inorganic
   origin. They additionally reduce corrosive and tuberculation properties of water which
   affect the pipes finally making water fit for human consumption.

   The optimal Reverse Osmosis Plant will depend on the size of each community:

      A plant providing 500 litres of potable water per hour can cater the needs of a
       community of less than 1,000 people.
      A plant of 1.000 litres per hour is suitable for a community having a population
       between 1.000 and 2.000.
      A plant of 2.000 litres per hour can be installed in a community with a population in
       between 2.000 and 5.000 people.

   Besides the plant itself including different filters and sterilizers, one building has to be
   constructed for the installation of each plant. One water tank for the storage of raw water
   and one tank for the purified water have to be supplied. Bore well, motor and pump set
   also has to be provided for each plant.

   The table below presents the details of the equipment needed for each plant as well as
   the relative total costs and external contribution needed:

  ROP         Purified   Raw      Building      Bore        Motor and    Total External
capacity       water     water     (feet)        well       pump set    cost in Request
               Tank      tank                 (inches)    (horse power) Euro     Euro
     500       1.000     2.000    15’ x 10’       4’’      Submersible    7.000   3.500
litres/hour    litres    litres                           motor of 1 hp
    1.000      2.000     5.000    20’ x 15’      6’’       Submersible  10.000    5.000
litres/hour    litres    litres                           motor of 1 hp
    2.000      2.000     5.000    20’ x 15’      6’’       Submersible  12.500    6.250
litres/hour    litres    litres                           motor of 2 hp

   In order to achieve the project objective, ASSIST is able to mobilise 50% of the needed
   funds from local contributions. This includes possible Government funds as well.
   Required land will be given either by the Government or by the community and unskilled
   labour will be provided by the respective villagers for the construction of the building for
   the plant and for the related excavations. The request for funding under the present
   proposal is therefore fifty percent of the total cost of each plant.

5. Sustainability:

   The local population will assure the maintenance of the plant. One in-charge operator will
   be identified for each plant. He/she is responsible for storing and distributing the water,
   collecting the fees and changing the filters every 6 months. All these actions and the in-
   charge are paid through the collection of a 3 Rs fee per 20 litres of water. ASSIST
   experience shows that villagers greatly collaborate in this kind of projects as they can
   very soon notice improvements in their health status, excess of fluorides causing
   constant body pains and are therefore willing to maintain the plant in the best possible
   condition. Moreover, a Water Committees will be established in each village to
   additionally ensure the proper management of the plant.

Place : Chilakaluripet                     K Vianney                     J Ranga Rao
Date : 28th July 2009               Associate Director (Projects)      Operational Director


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