TRAFFIC POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

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					                                                            TRAFFIC POLICE
                                                                          4.11
                                                            AND LAW
Road Safety Guidelines

                                                            ENFORCEMENT
                         for the Asian and Pacific Region




                                                            Asian Development Bank
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


TRAFFIC POLICE AND
                                                                                            4.11
LAW ENFORCEMENT
Traffic law enforcement is needed to encourage safer road use and an orderly traffic flow.

Most traffic police forces in the Asian and the Pacific region are characterized by insufficient training, minimal
enforcement equipment or vehicles, and a high turnover in staff. Lack of mobility often results in a
preoccupation with traffic control at junctions and inadequate attention has been given to the use of accident
data in identifying enforcement priorities and targeting moving violations. Although staffing levels are often
high, the lack of trained and experienced officers reduces substantially the potential effectiveness of such
traffic police personnel.

Training is needed in many areas, including traffic management, accident investigation, highway patrolling,
motorcycle riding and car driving, and management skills. Traffic police must be trained in both the technical
tasks of policing and in how to set an example for the general public. Where possible, a career structure
should be available in traffic policing to allow officers to specialize and make maximum use of their additional
training. Control systems should be established to allow for the empowerment of junior level police officers
while minimizing potential for abuse of power.

Modern enforcement equipment such as alcohol testing devices and radar speed detectors should be
acquired. Traffic police personnel should be trained in their use and in related tactics and enforcement
strategies.


PRIORITY ACTIONS NEEDED:
1.    Traffic policing should be based on analysis of accident data and targeted to the roads and loca-
      tions where accidents occur most frequently, and on the associated unsafe driver behaviors and
      moving offenses.

2.    Traffic police training should be expanded and improved to create a specialist traffic police force
      skilled in use of modern enforcement equipment, tactics, and strategies, and with the ability to
      conduct targeted and effective enforcement campaigns.

3.    Efficiency and activity indicators should be adopted to monitor performance, including the
      frequency of use and prosecutions resulting from modern enforcement equipment, such as alcohol
      testing devices and radar speed meters.




Traffic police must focus their attention on preventing road accidents. This is
best done by having a well-trained, efficient organization that is adequately
equipped with modern equipment and vehicles, and by concentrating on
moving offenses and preventing unsafe driver behavior.



                                                                           ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES          4.11 - 1
                         1     INTRODUCTION

                         These sector guidelines on “Traffic Police and Law Enforcement” are from a set of Guide-
                         lines on Road Safety for the Asian and Pacific Region policymakers, developed as part of a
                         regional technical assistance project (RETA 5620: Regional Initiatives in Road Safety)
                         funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
                             The main objective of traffic policing is the safe and efficient flow of traffic, achieved
                         through means of persuasion, prevention, and punishment.


                         2     WHY ARE TRAFFIC                                      There is an even greater need for trained
                               POLICE AND LAW                                   and effective traffic police in developing coun-
                                                                                tries due to the competing demands on scarce
                               ENFORCEMENT                                      road space, a populace largely lacking in road
                               NEEDED?                                          safety awareness, and insufficient guidance
                                                                                provided to road users by road signs, mark-


                         A
                                s motor vehicles increase in numbers and
                                                                                ings, and facilities. On the streets, the traffic
                                  in their power and capability, traffic
                                                                                police are expected to compensate for any
                                   conditions become harder for the av-
                                                                                deficiency in traffic engineering while
                         erage police officer to control. Specialized train-
                                                                                balancing different r o a d u s e d e m a n d s a s
                         ing is needed to ensure traffic police of-
                                                                                diverse as child pedestrians and handcarts,
                         ficers have a practical understanding of how
                                                                                overloaded trucks , and modern land cruisers.
                         best to achieve safety and an orderly flow of
                                                                                Specialized training becomes a necessity as
                         traffic on the road.
                                                                                the traffic police are held responsible for
                             Traffic police training is expensive and it
                                                                                ensuring a safe and efficient road network
                         is not cost-effective to supply it as a part of
                                                                                under such challenging circumstances.
                         basic training to all police officers. The duties
                         of a traffic officer — dealing with fatal and
                         serious road accidents, and reporting traffic
                         offenses — do not appeal to all police officers.       3     KEY COMPONENTS
                         Furthermore, police driver training is a skill
                         that, taken to high levels, is not within the ca-          The five key components are: organiza-
                         pability of all police officers.                       tion, policy, training, vehicles, and equipment.
Figure 1:
Traffic police sectors       In industrialized countries, traffic enforce-
and activities.          ment has become the province of a nucleus of           3.1 Organization
                                                    highly-trained spe-
                                                    cialist officers whose          In industrialized countries, traffic police
                                                    duty is solely the pre-     typically account for 8-10 percent of the total
                                                    vention of accidents,       police budget and in the countries where traffic
                                                    and the maintenance         policing is particular strong (e.g., Japan), traffic
                                                    of smooth and orderly       police may account for 14-16 percent of the total
                                                    traffic flow. However,      police budget. In most developing countries,
                                                    in developing coun-         traffic police are often underfunded and
                                                    tries, traffic police are   underresourced, and are rarely allocated even 5
                                                    largely untrained, un-      percent of police budgets. Limited resources
                                                    equipped, and poorly        require the efficient organization of the traffic
                                                    paid.                       police to maximize potential effectiveness.

4.11 - 2     ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES
            TRAFFIC POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT


     Force strength is not usually a constraining             lation with accidents than do the safety
factor as staffing, readily available in devel-               offenses; and
oping countries, is often used to compensate               4) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e : paperwork offenses
for lack of equipment and vehicles.                           such as improper vehicle registration or
     Organizational structure in the traffic po-              transfer of ownership.
lice forces of developing countries has tended
to be bottom heavy at the lowest levels, with             Safety violations, or “moving” violations
many police officers not even empowered to            as they are sometimes called, should be tar-
cite traffic violations. Middle management,           geted to focus enforcement efforts at actions
where analysis would normally be conducted,           most closely connected with road accidents.
is often minimal and operational decisions of-        High-risk accident sites should also be
ten come from top management based on pro-            targeted. As traffic regulations usually specify
fessional judgment alone rather than on sys-          the maximum fine for each violation, safety
tematic analysis of data.                             violations should incur the maximum fine to
     In many countries, traffic police are trans-     highlight the seriousness of the offense.
ferred after two to three years and there is lim-
ited opportunity to advance or use any spe-
cialist training received. Career tenure has been     3.3 Tactics
introduced in some countries that allows of-
                                                      a)       Strategic plans and selective
ficers to specialize in traffic policing and helps
                                                               enforcement
create a nucleus of experienced traffic police
officers who become a valuable resource for               Enforcement priorities need to be clearly
their country.                                        identified in a policy document such as a stra-
     In most countries, traffic police salaries are   tegic plan. In recent years, strategic plans have
tied into the civil servants’ pay scales and do       been used to specify police forces’ objectives
not properly reflect the hazardous and demand-        and the actions intended to help achieve the
ing nature of the work. Traffic police are re-        stated objectives. Target deadlines should also
quired to work long shifts on point duty in           be provided to allow monitoring of the work
tropical climates, often for seven days a week.       undertaken.
Leave entitlement is often restricted, which              Selective enforcement, whereby safety vio-
contributes to a high sick leave rate. Too much       lations are identified through accident data
temptation and opportunity for corruption can         analysis and professional judgment, should
exist within traffic policing and woefully in-        provide the basis for staff deployment. Targeted
adequate salaries do not help.                        enforcement campaigns, either stationary or
                                                      mobile, should be undertaken with specified
3.2 Policy                                            objectives and agreed methods of evaluating
                                                      the effectiveness of the campaigns. Experience
    With the wide range of traffic regulations
                                                      has shown many enforcement campaigns, such
and the limited amount of traffic police re-
                                                      as holding a “Traffic Week,” are too short and
sources available, traffic enforcement efforts
                                                      unfocused to have any lasting effect. Traffic
must be prioritized to suit local problems. A
                                                      police frequently underestimate the amount of
recommended order of offenses for considera-
                                                      time and effort it takes to educate road users.
tion is as follows:
   1) safety: offenses that could lead to a road      b)       Verbal warnings
      accident, i.e., speeding, signal violations,
      drunk-driving violations, and pedestrian            Verbal warnings should be used, especially
      crossing violations by drivers;                 in the early stages of an enforcement campaign,
   2) traffic management: offenses that while         when education and regulation compliance are
      not inherently dangerous do not facili-         the objectives rather than punishment. In mo-
      tate smooth movement of traffic, i.e., il-      torized countries, the majority of traffic police
      legal parking or buses loading and un-          interactions with the public result in verbal
      loading passengers within a junction;           warnings with embarrassment and inconven-
   3) equipment: offenses such as lighting or         ience seen as adequate deterrents. The aim
      tire defects that could contribute to an        should always be to d e t e r bad behavior rather
      accident but have a much lower corre-           than to punish it.

                                                             ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES                  4.11 - 3
                                          TRAFFIC POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT


                           c)     Staffing deployment                             patrol routes being assigned so police presence
                                                                                  and hence deterrence effects on motorists are
                               The actual deployment of traffic police will       lower. Mobile patrolling, even with the vehi-
                           be dictated by the numbers of vehicles avail-          cles available, is not always used to maximum
                           able. The main traffic police functions are point      effectiveness with general patrolling and crime-
                           duty, mobile patrolling, accident investigation,       related duties often taking priority. As with
                           and road safety education.                             point duty assignments, mobile patrolling
                               In many developing countries, the vast ma-         should not be uniformly distributed through-
                           jority of traffic police are assigned to station-      out the day and over the network but should
                           ary point duty for traffic control and manage-         target roads and road sections that are most
                           ment. However, much can be achieved by beat            prone to road accidents.
                           officers if they are stationed at high-risk sites.         Accident investigation responsibility is
                           In countries where pedestrian accidents are a          usually assigned to senior officers, if not a spe-
                           problem, traffic police could be used more ef-         cialized unit. While accident investigation is
                           fectively at pedestrian crossings to help pla-         conducted by general police in a few coun-
                           toon the pedestrians, as well as requiring             tries, it is desirable that this function is carried
                           vehicles to stop for pedestrians crossing.             out by the traffic police so that they are able to
                               Another example of how point duties could          give expert evidence in court cases involving
                           be used more effectively is through the staffing       serious accidents. They can and should be
                           of shifts. Due to the physical demands, point          trained in accident investigation techniques
                           duty is broken into several shifts over the day.       and accident reconstruction methods 1 .
                           But in many countries the staffing level is con-           Road safety education advice is usually a
                           stant throughout the day. Additional traffic po-       supplemental role for the traffic police and in-
                           lice should be timetabled to operate during            volves occasional talks and visits to schools.
                           busier hours and stationed at point duty during        This should preferably be carried out in a com-
                           the peak hours for accidents and traffic conges-       plementary way to other road safety education
                           tion. This is now done in Nepal.                       efforts.
                               While a typical level of patrol coverage in
                           the United Kingdom (UK) is shown in Table 1,           3.4 Training
                           the relative scarcity of patrol vehicles available
                           in developing countries results in much larger             Police in any country reflect the society in
                                                                                  which they live and the traffic police in devel-
                   Table 1: Traffic Patrol Coverage                               oping countries are no exception. Moreover,
                                                                                  in many countries, traffic police are the general
Area       Road class      Time period        Level of patrol coverage            public’s primary if not exclusive contact with
Urban      Trunk and       08.00- 00.00    One car and two motorcycles for        the police force and the image of the police
           ‘A’Class                        every 20 miles (32 kilometers) of      force relies on how well the traffic police con-
                                           carriageway.                           duct themselves. Training programs need to
                           00.00- 08.00    One car for every 30 miles of          be capable of producing not only technically
                                           carriageway.                           qualified but also professional officers with in-
           Other           All             One car for every 200 miles of         tegrity who can present a good public image.
                                           carriageway.                               Lack of appreciation for the skills required
                                                                                  by traffic policing has led to insufficient prior-
Rural      Motorways       08.00-00.00     One car for every 10 miles of road
                                           (20 miles of carriageway).
                                                                                  ity being given to training needs. Lack of train-
                                                                                  ing occurs at all levels and senior police offic-
                           00.00-08.00     One car for every 20 miles of road
                                           (40 miles of carriageway).
                                                                                  ers are frequently transferred into traffic polic-
                                                                                  ing without receiving any previous traffic
           All-purpose     08.00-00.00     One car and one motorcycle for         training. This approach is slowly changing as
           trunk roads                     every 20 miles of route.               police officers realize that a small but well-
                           00.00-08.00     One car for every 40 miles of route    trained police force empowered and capable
           Other A and B   08.00-00.00     One car for every 80 miles of route    of conducting focused enforcement campaigns
           Class                                                                  is much more effective than a large force of
                           00.00-08.00     One car for every 160 miles of route   limited use. It is also easier to expand upon a
                                                                                  trained base.


4.11 - 4      ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES
                                       TRAFFIC POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT


                               Training courses should be provided in traf-         safety feature for the officer. In particular, it is
                           fic management and control (junior and senior            recommended that fluorescent and reflective
                           level courses), traffic law, accident investiga-         material be worn in poor weather and espe-
                           tion, highway patrolling, speed control, and the         cially at night. To complement the contrasting
Plate 1:
                           use of breathalyzers. Driver and rider training,         colors of the marked vehicle, it is suggested
Appropriate vehicles
must be used for traffic   including basic maintenance, should be pro-              that a flashing bar light or similar feature be
enforcement.               vided for all patrol officers. Traffic police train-     fitted to the vehicle roof. This would display
                                                      ing should provide            lights of the color associated with the police
                                                      courses in public rela-       in the country concerned.
                                                      tions and manage-                 Patrol vehicles should also be equipped with
                                                      ment skills. Sections 6       accident rescue tools (to assist in the freeing of
                                                      and 7 of these Sector         trapped victims), fire extinguishers, suitable
                                                      Guidelines offer advice       articles to remove debris from the road surface,
                                                      on the types and              collapsible warning signs, and flashing bea-
                                                      locations o f c o u r s e s   cons. Local decisions must be taken to evalu-
                                                      that are undertaken by        ate what is the most necessary equipment for a
                                                      traffic police in devel-      given environment and any potential impact
                                                      oping countries.              on the speed and handling of the vehicle.

                                                                                    3.6 Equipment
                           3.5 Vehicles
                                                                                        The safety of traffic police officers is para-
                                Selection of motor vehicles for traffic pa-         mount. The nature of their work is that they are
                           trol work should be on the basis of suitability          always in a potentially dangerous environment
                           for the task. An example of unsuitability would          in close proximity to moving traffic. Precau-
                           be the use of a high-powered saloon motor car,           tions must be taken to minimize risk of injury.
                           designed for performance on smooth surfaced              An essential item is a highly conspicuous uni-
                           roads, to undertake a general patrol on poorly           form, or at least one with which a high visibil-
                           maintained roads or unmade tracks. The suit-             ity vest can be worn in comfort.
                           ability of solo motorcycles should also be con-              Other items, such as smog masks,
                           sidered with respect to the nature of the roads          illuminated or reflective batons, and shading
                           on which they are to be deployed.                        for officers engaged in lengthy periods of
                                Bicycles should be considered particularly          traffic control, will vary according to local
                           for patrolling around town as they are more              conditions. Senior officers are urged to consider
                           affordable (about one-hundredth the price of a           the needs and welfare of subordinates and
                           patrol vehicle) and provide the patrol officer           supply the articles that are reasonably required
                           with the view from the nonmotorized perspec-             for the conditions.
                           tive (in many Asian countries, nonmotorized
                           vehicles are the predominant vehicle type).              a)     Speed detection equipment
                           During most hours, cycle patrol speeds would
                           be comparable to motorized vehicles, while                   Apart from protective clothing to ensure
                           response times could be increased or decreased           that they are not exposed to unnecessary dan-
                           depending on traffic congestion. Cycle patrols           ger when attending accidents or controlling
                           are common in some motorized countries and               traffic, traffic police also need to have modern
                           can be used to complement motor vehicle pa-              equipment if they are to be able to do their job
                           trols.                                                   properly. This will include enforcement equip-
                                Due to the benefits of having a conspicu-           ment, such as alcohol testers and radar speed
                           ous vehicle, it is recommended special stand-            guns. Some of the more sophisticated enforce-
                           ard colors and uniforms be adopted using con-            ment equipment is discussed below.
                           trasting shades, in colors appropriate to the area           A wide variety of speed measuring equip-
                           patrolled. Furthermore, it is recommended, that          ment is available in varying degrees of sophis-
                           the uniform of the officers employed on traffic          tication. The enforcement of speed limits is a
                           patrol duties be readily visible in order to in-         necessary road safety function, especially near
                           crease conspicuity. This enables the public to           locations where an accident problem has been
                           see enforcement being undertaken and is a                identified with speed as a significant cause.

                                                                                         ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES                4.11 - 5
                                     TRAFFIC POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT


                             The simplest and cheapest method of meas-          ing when more than one vehicle is within the
                         uring speed is to use a s t o p w a t c h and time a   beam. Used in appropriate circumstances and
                         vehicle over a premeasured distance between            by appropriately trained personnel, the
                         two points. By applying the formula:                   handheld radar is an effective speed detection
                                                                                tool.
                                           DISTANCE
                               SPEED =                                                There are various systems available (e.g.,
                                              TIME
                                                                                s p e e d m a s t e r , t r u v e l o) that can be used as
                         either by calculator or prepared time and dis-         roadside fixed distance systems with a built-
                         tance tables, the speed can be calculated. This        in timer that automatically records the time
                         method is cost-effective, as the only require-         that the front wheels cross between two loops.
                         ment is a stopwatch and a suitable measuring           The time value is compared automatically
                         device — either a tape measure or a measuring          against the known distance to produce a speed
                         wheel — to set up the fixed site. It should be         value. The system is automatic and does not
                         stressed that this method increases in accuracy        rely on human operation, so potential for
                         as the measuring distance increases and a mini-        operator error is eradicated. The device is
                         mum of 100 meters (m) is recommended. As               suitable for level roads in good repair but not
                         the distance increases beyond about 300 m (de-         when the road surface is likely to destabilize
                         pending on the accurate depth of vision by the         the vehicle on the approach or between the
                         operator), the accuracy decreases. S o t h e           timing loops, or on unmade tracks. A camera
                         method is best used for measuring over fixed           may also be attached to record the vehicle as it
                         distances of 100 m to 300 m.                           activates the loops.
                              Speed offenses can also be detected by a                Laser devices, such as the Laser 2000, pro-
                         r a d a r g u n , which is easily operated by one      duce a low intensity laser beam that can be
                         officer and gives a direct reading of a vehicle’s      aimed at approaching vehicles. The pinpoint
                         speed. The inbuilt safety features ensure accu-        of laser light is concentrated, not spread out as
                         racy and prevent the device from giving a read-        in radar devices. It is also visible through the
                                                                                device viewfinder, removing all doubt as to
                                                                                the identity of the target whose speed is being
                                                                                measured. It is possible to use this equipment
                                                                                in heavy traffic flows that would render the
                                                                                radar system inaccurate.
                                                                                      The types of equipment outlined above
                                                                                can, if vehicle resources are insufficient, be
                                                                                effectively operated by traffic personnel
                                                                                adopting a high-profile team approach where
                                                                                several police officers are deployed on foot in
                                                                                a small area in highly visible clothing and are
                                                                                seen to be undertaking accident prevention
                                                                                tasks such as speed detection and vehicle
                                                                                condition checks.
                                                                                      Where a vehicle suitable to undertake speed
                                                                                detection is available, speed enforcement can
                                                                                be undertaken by the method known as p u r -
                                                                                s u i t where the police vehicle follows the target
Plate 2 (above):                                                                vehicle at a fixed distance for a minimum dis-
Police spot checks on                                                           tance (100 m or greater, depending on the dis-
drunk-driving, note                                                             tance that local courts and legislation are pre-
the reflective jackets                                                          pared to accept as proof). Evidence is presented
worn for safety.
                                                                                by the officer that the speed of the followed
                                                                                vehicle was between the maximum of X
                                                                                kilometers per hour (km/h) and a minimum of
                                                                                Y km/h (the latter figure being in excess of
                                                                                the speed limit). It should be remembered that
Plate 3 (right):
Radar being checked                                                             local legislation or legal precedent may require
before use.                                                                     evidence to be given that the speedometer of

4.11 - 6    ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES
                                  TRAFFIC POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT


                                                                               light the deficiencies of driving style or the
                                                                               potentially dangerous situation entered into by
                                                                               the motorist.

                                                                               b)     Automatic detection
                                                                                      cameras

                                                                                   These cameras are presently being intro-
                                                                               duced in many industrialized countries, either
Figure 2:                                                                      in 35 millimeter color film format or using elec-
Radar being checked                                                            tronic digital imaging. The use of these devices
before use.                                                                    is usually a partnership between the highway
                                                                               authority, which provides and maintains the
                                                                               installation, and the police, who operate the
                                                                               system. The cameras are mounted in such a way
Plate 4:                                                                       as to observe the roadway at appropriate points.
VASCAR system.                                                                 Offenses that can be detected are the failure to
                                                                               comply with a red traffic signal, either at a road
                                                                               junction or at a pedestrian crossing, or speed at
                                                                               a length of road where speed has been identi-
                                                                               fied as a major cause of accidents. Such cameras
                                                                               can be positioned in front of or behind the site
                                                                               to record oncoming or receding traffic. The
                                                                               distance of the camera from the sensor site is
                                                                               determined by the camera optics used (see Fig-
                                                                               ure 2).
                      the police vehicle was accurate before and af-               The camera system cannot function effi-
                      ter the check. Some method of periodically               ciently without a satisfactory method of iden -
                      checking the vehicle speedometer might be re-            tifying the driver. As an alternative to prosecu-
                      quired, e.g., a rolling road (an expensive item          tion, a conditional offer fixed penalty notice
                      to install and maintain).                                system may be used. In countries that have
                          The replacement of cable-driven speedom-             adopted red light enforcement cameras at road
                      eters with a type driven by electrical impulse           junctions with historically bad accident records,
                      allows the installation of a V i s u a l A v e r a g e   satisfactory fatal and serious accident reduc-
                      Speed Computer And Recorder (VASCAR ) type               tion figures have been obtained. In one par-
                      of device. This equipment c a n b e easily               ticular case, a before and after survey showed a
                      calibrated by the driver of the police car by run-       reduction of red light running of 57 percent
                      ning the vehicle from stationary at a fixed              and a similar reduction in injury accidents.
                      point to a halt at another fixed point a known               Although such camera equipment has been
                      distance away. By imputing the distance into             successful in industrialized countries, its rel-
                      the device it can be recalibrated to ensure ac-          evance to the needs of most developing coun-
                      curacy. Speeds can still be detected by pursuit,         tries at this stage is debatable as it is expen-
                      but a fixed distance is not required.                    sive, requires a capability to maintain sophis -
                          In developed countries, VASCAR and other             ticated equipment, requires an ability to trace
                      similar devices can also provide inputs to video         vehicle owners, a n d a n efficient judicial
                      cameras mounted on police vehicles. These                processing system. Apart from a few major cit-
                      recorders run constantly while the police vehi-          ies, these conditions do not exist in most Asian
                      cle is in motion, recording the traffic scene in         and Pacific countries. Consequently, countries
                      front of the police vehicle. In speed detection          should think carefully before investing in such
                      situations the vehicle is not only filmed but a          equipment.
                      real-time speed value is displayed. The record-
                      ing of other serious driving offenses can also be        c)     Blood alcohol screening
                      recorded and the video used to support police                   devices
                      evidence. It is also a useful road safety tool in
                      that motorists can be stopped for poor driving              Where a drinking and driving problem and
                      and the video of the incident shown to high-             consequent accident problem exists, it is ap-

                                                                                    ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES              4.11 - 7
                                      TRAFFIC POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT


                           propriate to consider publicity as the primary         Suitable handheld breath alcohol screen-
                           means of deterrence. However, without en-           ing devices are accurate, highly portable, and
                           forcement, such measures have limited effects.      easy to use at random roadside enforcement
                           In developed countries drinking and driving         checks (see Plate 5).
                           has been a problem for many years. Deaths
                           and injuries caused by drinking and driving
                           can be significantly reduced and therefore are      4     STAGES OF
                           suitable targets for focused traffic police               DEVELOPMENT
                           enforcement. Measurable results can be
                           obtained, either by quantifying the number of           Traffic policing evolves with motorization
                           police breath tests administered or other           and the increase in road accidents. Four basic
                           means, such as an analysis of alcohol-related       stages are summarized below, describing the
                           accidents as a proportion of overall accident       gradual awareness of the specialized require-
                           figures.                                            ments of traffic policing and the need for opti-
                                Considerable inroads have been made into       mal use of limited resources.
                           the problem in developed countries through a            S t a g e 1 : Traffic police staffing strength is
                           combination of vivid publicity and high-pro-        often used to compensate for lack of training,
                           file enforcement.                                   equipment, and mobility. Traffic control is all
                                Public attitudes have changed over the last    that is expected from the majority of traffic
                           20 years to such an extent that drinking and        police and they are often stationed at traffic
                           driving is no longer seen as acceptable social      signals to provide backup support.
                           behavior by the majority of the population.         Overwhelmed and underresourced, traffic
                           There, however, remains a residual group            police earn little respect from the public.
                           within the motoring public that has tradition-          S t a g e 2 : Training begins to be improved
                           ally been unmoved by publicity. While many          (especially in the capital city where population
                           agencies may have a part to play in reducing        pressures exacerbate traffic and safety con-
                           drink-related accidents, traffic police must play   cerns) and the number of mobile traffic police
                           a leading role through enforcement.                 enforcement patrol teams is increased. A stra-
                                With regard to the Asian and Pacific region,   tegic plan may be developed and begin to help
                           the problem of drinking and driving varies,         focus resources.
                           some countries having no particular problem             S t a g e 3 : Increased awareness of the mis-
                           while in others it is a matter for considerable     match between needs and capabilities leads
                           concern.                                            to an overhaul of the national traffic police
                                Where a suitable legal framework is            training program. Overseas technical
                           provided, and an alcohol-related driver prob-       assistance is often required for guidance.
                           lem is identified, conspicuous enforcement          With specialized training introduced, career
                           campaigns are recommended.                          tenure is allowed and junior police officers
                                This has two effects. Most obvious is when     are empowered under trial programs of
                           the drinking driver receives personal attention     training and auditing. The strategic plan
                           of police with the associated legal                 starts to be monitored and progress is
                           consequences. Less obvious, but nevertheless        regularly assessed. Enforcement campaigns
Plate 5:                   valuable, is the police being s e e n b y t h e     are based on accident factors and the
Roadside alcohol testing   motoring public to be enforcing the drink-drive     effectiveness of such campaigns is evaluated
site in Fiji.              laws. This discourages similar behavior by re-      rather than assumed.
                                                     inforcing           the       S t a g e 4 : Traffic policing tasks are divided
                                                     publicity and enforce-    between human resources and automation.
                                                     ment message.             There is minimal duplication of effort with
                                                         Ideally, enforce-     police rarely supplementing signals.
                                                     ment of alcohol re-
                                                     strictions should be
                                                     simple and advice is
                                                                               5     BENEFITS AND
                                                     provided on pre-                EFFECTS
                                                     scribed alcohol limits       Effective traffic policing should reduce the
                                                     and offenses in Sector    number and severity of road accidents as haz-
                                                     Guidelines 4.10.          ardous locations and high-risk actions will be

4.11 - 8     ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES
            TRAFFIC POLICE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT


targeted. Traffic conflicts should also be                 Northwestern Traffic Police Institute,
reduced, which would not only facilitate               United States (US), offers national and corre-
orderly traffic flows and optimize road space          spondence courses in Accident Investigation,
use but also reduce the uncertainty and                Traffic Law and Law Enforcement. Its Accident
perceived risk of traffic movements at                 Investigation Manual 4 was first published in
dangerous locations. The traffic police will           1940 and is now in its eighth edition. Monash
also begin to report road accidents accurately         University in Melbourne, A u s t r a l i a , h a s a
and comprehensively so as to allow analysis            Department of Police Studies and offers courses
and engineering investigations to occur in             of various types on traffic policing topics.
addition to legal prosecution.                             Each of these training establishments has
                                                       slightly different areas of emphasis, so a selec-
                                                       tion of the relevant parts of several of these
6     EXAMPLES OF GOOD                                 courses may be of best use to interested traffic
      PRACTICE                                         police forces. In order to provide access to some
                                                       of the training materials used in these courses,
     Hong Kong, China and Singapore stand
                                                       the following section includes information not
out as centers of excellence in the region. Both
                                                       only on references and key documents, but also
are well-equipped and have a defined manage-
                                                       contact addresses for some of the more important
ment structure that is sympathetic to the role
                                                       training establishments that specialize in traffic
undertaken. While there may be some subtle
                                                       policing. Note that items 4 and 5 are available
differences in style or structure, and this is to be
                                                       from Reference 2, and items 6, 7, and 8 are
expected, broadly the deployment and manage-
                                                       available from Reference 1.
ment are as outlined earlier. Elsewhere, A u s -
tralia and the UK , among others, have well-
developed red light camera systems. These
forces, which are using the most up-to-date            7      REFERENCES AND KEY
technology in red light and speed cameras, also               DOCUMENTS
have sophisticated training schemes appropriate
to the needs of operational traffic police officers.       1. N o . 6 ( S W ) R e g i o n P o l i c e D r i v i n g
     Training courses specifically for traffic po-            School, Wiltshire Police Headquarters,
lice officers from developing countries are                   London Road, Devizes, Wiltshire SN10
available in more motorized countries. The                    2DN, UK. Fax: (44 1380) 734 196.
National Police Agency in J a p a n has provided           2. Northwestern Traffic Institute, P.O. Box
training in traffic control technologies for traf-            1409, Evanston, Illinois 60204, US.
fic police from many Asian countries, includ-              3. Axup, D. 1993. Enforcement: Traffic
ing People’s Republic of China, Indonesia, Sin-               Safety Toolbox. Washington, DC, US:
gapore, and Thailand.                                         Institute of Traffic Engineers.
     The No. 6 (2) Region Police Driving                   4. Baker, J., and L. Frickle. 1986. Traffic
School in Wiltshire, UK , has trained officers                Accident Investigation Manual (9th edi-
from more than 35 countries and since 1987                    tion). Evanston, US: Northwestern
has offered an 11-week Overseas Traffic                       Traffic Institute.
Officers Course. Longer and specialized                    5. Frickle, L. Traffic Accident Reconstruc-
courses have also been offered as well as in-                 tion. 1986. US: Northwestern Institute,
country training. In 1989, a six-month train-                 Evanston (ISBN US 0 912642 07 06).
ing program was organized for five senior of-              6. Neades, J., and R. Ward. 1996. Princi-
ficers from the Indonesia National Traffic Po-                ples of Accident Reconstruction: Vols. 1
lice that focused on developing instructional                 (Theory) and 2 (Practice). UK: Wiltshire
skills in all aspects of traffic policing. An in-             6 Regional Driving School, Devizes
spector was seconded to the National Traffic                  (ISBN1 900 452 006).
Police Training Centre for further assistance.             7. Neades, J., and R. Ward. 1996. Survey-
Engineers from Indonesia’s Ministry of Trans-                 ing for Accident Investigation.. U K :
port have also been trained in plating, testing,              Wiltshire 6 Regional Driving School,
and weighing systems of heavy good vehicles                   Devizes (ISBN 0 912 642 07 06).
and senior inspectors of the former Royal Hong             8. Traffic Patrol Officers Manual. 1997.
Kong Police have attended an Instructors’                     UK: Wiltshire 6 Regional Driving
course in VASCAR/Autovision.                                  School, Devizes.

                                                             ROAD SAFETY GUIDELINES                      4.11 - 9
Road Safety Guidelines for
the Asian and Pacific Region
The guidelines cover 14 individual sectors affecting road safety, with four
introductory chapters and four appendices. Information is presented in a
series of freestanding documents that can be extracted for distribution and
discussion.

Executive Summary
1: Introduction and Background
2: Road Safety Trends in the Asian and Pacific Region
3: Road Safety Action Plans and Programs
4.1: Coordination and Management of Road Safety
4.2: Road Accident Data Systems
4.3: Road Safety Funding and the Role of the Insurance Industry
4.4: Safe Planning and Design of Roads
4.5: Improvement of Hazardous Locations
4.6: Road Safety Education of Children
4.7: Driver Training and Testing
4.8: Road Safety Publicity and Campaigns
4.9: Vehicle Safety Standards
4.10: Traffic Legislation
4.11: Traffic Police and Law Enforcement
4.12: Emergency Assistance to Road Accident Victims
4.13: Road Safety Research
4.14: Road Accident Costing
Appendix A: Useful Documents Worth Acquiring
Appendix B: International Contacts and Organizations
Appendix C: Comparative Study: Fiji Road Safety Action Plan
Appendix D: Comparative Statistics




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