The Future of Postgraduate Education by rraul

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									The Future of
Postgraduate
Education
Deian Hopkin
Vice Chancellor and Chief Executive,
London South Bank University
Types of postgraduate study

 Conversion courses assuming no
  prior knowledge:
 Top-up courses to broaden 3rd year
  UG course
 Specific professional courses

 Research-preparation and orientation

 Research engaged including PhD
               Total number of postgraduates
               1979-2004
  3000000

  2500000

  2000000
                                               Postgrad
  1500000
                                               Undergrad
  1000000
                                   22%
                         21%
   500000      13%

        0
               1979/80    1994/5    2004/5


Source: HESA
               POSTGRADUATES 2002/3 BY AIM

                  Other

             Taught PhD

                   PhD

      Research Masters

        Taught Masters                           #




                  PGCE

                Dip/Cert

                   Prof

                           0   2000 4000 6000 8000 1E+0 1E+0 1E+0
HEPI, 2004                       0    0    0    0    5    5    5
    Growth 1996-2005
     70%
                                 60%
     60%
     50%
     40%       34%                               All
                                                 Research
     30%
                                         19%     Taught
     20%                                         Other
     10%
                       -1%
      0%
     -10%      All   Research   Taught   Other


Source: HESA
    Growth by gender 2002-5
8

     6.8
7

6

5

4

3            2.7

2

1

0
    Female   Male
Ethnicity

 Undergraduates          15%
 Postgraduates           12%

   But increase in proportion in 2004/5
    for first year entrants.
Change in subject demand
2002-5
Growth               Decline

   Tourism 49%          Agriculture    - 11%
   Sport     49%        Music          - 9%
   Forensic 46%         Architecture    -9%
   Politics   33%       Chemistry       - 5%
   Nursing    25%       Biology          -2%
   Pharmacy 25%
   Planning   24%
   Psychology 15%
   Teacher Tr 15%
          NO OF FIRST YEAR POSTGRADUATES FROM OUTSIDE THE UK




HESA quoted in Sastry (HEPI, 2004)
     Postgraduates by country, 2005
 Cyprus

 Greece

Malaysia

Pakistan

 Nigeria
                                              Total No
 Ireland

    USA

 Greece

   India

  China

           0   5000   10000   15000   20000
      Overseas postgraduates: growth by
      country, 2002-5

  Malaysia
      Greece
Hong Kong
       India
        USA
       China
                                     % change
      Ghana
      Ireland
      Cyprus
      Nigeria
  Pakistan
          All

-50             0   50   100   150
Why are they offered?

 Link to the research agenda
 Financial value to institutions because
  fees are unregulated.
 Use of resources at marginal cost

 Linked to the international strategy
  and overseas students
 Staff satisfaction and development
             WHAT’S NEW IN 2005/06
          Applied Hydrogeology MSc and Diploma (Flexible Learning)
                           Archaeological Practice MA
                                Architecture MSc
                Biodiversity, Conservation and Ecotourism MSc
                      Byzantine Archaeology and Text MA
                    Chemical Methodology and Design MSc
                   E-Business and Information Systems MSc
               Engineering Geology with Consultancy Skills MSc
          Environmental Biogeochemistry with Consultancy Skills MSc
                 Environmental Law and Policy (Research) LLM
                  Flood Risk Management MSc and Diploma
             Geotechnical Engineering with Consultancy Skills MSc
                       Hydroinformatics MSc and Diploma
          Hydroinformatics and Water Management (Euro Aquae) MSc
                      Landscape Archaeology and GIS MA
                   Linguistics and Language Acquisition MA
Master of Public Administration (Educational Leadership and Management) MPA
                    Materials Design and Engineering MSc
            Mathematical Modelling in Engineering and Industry MSc
Medical and Molecular Biosciences (with subject specialisms in Cancer Research;
      Gerontology; Immunobiology; Nanomedicine; Neuroscience) MRes
                     Mobile and Pervasive Computing MSc
          Power Distribution Engineering MSc, Diploma and Certificate
             Professional Translating for European Languages MA
                        Research Methods in Law LLM
The class of 1999 and
higher degrees

 57% of the sample went on to further
  education or training
 Masters programmes most likely to be
  taken by:
     Graduates under 30
     Degree in humanities, social science,
      natural science or engineering
     Left university with no debt
     Attended a pre-1992 university
           REASONS FOR FURTHER STUDY – BY SUBJECT




Source: Class of 99
Reasons for undertaking
postgraduate education

   Specific occupational requirements
   To gain progression
   To change career
   To widen options
   Buying time, putting off the evil day
   No real difference between men and
    women
   But age, current occupation and subject
    were motivating factors.
       REASONS FOR FURTHER STUDY: BY GENDER




Source: Class of 99
Some pointers

   Growth in overall postgraduate numbers
    since 1996
    But this masks a decline in first year
    entrants in 2004/5 especially among UK
    domiciled part-time postgraduates
   Overseas market also appears relatively
    volatile
   Predicting subject demand equally difficult
    but possible link to undergraduate growth
Influencing factors

 Demographics
 Student debt and deterrence

 The link with the skills agenda

 Perceptions of value

 Resourcing and standards

 The link with the widening
  participation agenda
Regional issues
and the skills agenda

   London highest for full-time pg; lowest
    for part-time pg.
   Employers in Scotland and NI highly
    dependent upon local qualifiers.
   Twice as many pgs leave Wales than
    enter – so Wales needs to create more
    pg level jobs.
   High mobility in both directions in E, SE,
    Midlands – so poor value for money for
    regional investment in pg provision.
          DEBT AND PARTICIPATION IN FURTHER STUDY




Source: Class of 99
              PROPORTION OF STUDENTS
              GRADUATING WITH DEBT

              100                                              92
                                              81
               80          75


               60

               40

               20

                0
                      1996                1999                2003

Source: C. Callender and D. Wilkinson (2003)
2002/03 Student Income and Expenditure Survey, RR 487, DfES
              Debt on graduation 1995-2010
               £16,000

               £14,000                                                       £15,000
               £12,000

               £10,000

                £8,000                                           £8,666

                £6,000

                £4,000
                                                £3,462
                £2,000          £2,404
                    £0
                             1996           1999              2003        2010 (DfES
                                                                          projection)
Source: C. Callender and D. Wilkinson (2003)
2002/03 Student Income and Expenditure Survey, RR 487, DfES
              The Banks’ Views – Barclays and NatWest
                 £
               25000



               20000



               15000
                                                              Nat West
                                                              Barclays
               10000



                5000



                     0
                         2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2010


Source: Nat West Bank – Student Money Matters 2005
        Barclays Annual Graduate Survey/ NOP 2005
           18-20 YEAR OLDS - 2005-6 TO 2020-21




HEPI, Demand for Higher Education (2006)
Conclusions ……

   Proper pricing and costing may suggest
    that the real resource implications are
    not adequately met?
   It may not be possible for all institutions
    to continue offering certain forms of
    postgraduate provision without a
    properly resourced research base.
   Some forms of “vocational” masters
    need significant practitioner input which
    has HR implications.
Conclusions……..

   Will there be enough takers in view of
    demographics?
   Some doubt over the HEPI prediction of
    an additional 50,000 FTE postgraduates
   postgraduate study may not be
    sustainable at current levels of growth or
    in its current form.
   An issue for university strategic plans?
References
   (2006) Demand for Higher Education to 2020 (HEPI Report)
   (2006) Students in Higher Education Institutions, 2004/5
    (HESA)
   (2004) T.Sastry, Postgraduate Education in the UK
   (2003) C. Callender and D. Wilkinson : 2002/03 Student
    Income and Expenditure Survey, RR 487, DfES
   (1999-2005) Barclays Annual Graduate Survey
   (1996) Review of Postgraduate Education (HEFCE)




      Copies of the presentation available on
                 www.lsbu.ac.uk/

								
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