Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

The Future of the GUI by rraul

VIEWS: 256 PAGES: 25

									The Future of the GUI

John Ousterhout
ouster@interwoven.com
                                                           Overview
   Web being used not just for document publishing:
    also for interactive GUI applications
   Traditional GUI applications being displaced
   New GUI development models arising for Web:
       Document-centric
       Based around images and text, not drawing
       Branding instead of look-and-feel standards
   Poor state-of-the-art in Web GUI toolkits:
       Opportunity for breakthroughs
   The Web is the future for GUIs


moving business to the web

                                  April 4, 2001, slide 2    The Future of the GUI
                                                          Outline
   History; review traditional GUIs
   Evolution of the Web
   Web-based GUI applications today
   The likely extinction of (most) traditional GUIs
   How to simplify Web-based GUI development
   The death of look and feel




moving business to the web

                               April 4, 2001, slide 3   The Future of the GUI
                                                                History of the GUI
                                                                       Web browsers

                                Bitmap displays

                      Alphanumeric terminals

       Point/vector displays


1960                 1970              1980                     1990          2000

Sketchpad              Xerox Alto                                Mosaic
  (1962)                 (1973)                                  (1993)
   moving business to the web

                                       April 4, 2001, slide 4                The Future of the GUI
                                                              Bitmap Displays
   GUI capabilities based on assumptions about hardware:
       Every pixel addressable
       Every keystroke and mouse motion accessible
   Evolution of GUI toolkits:
                                    Xlib: device- Look-and-feel Simplified
                      Macintosh     independent                  toolkits:
                                                    libraries:
     BitBLT: copy      toolkit:       graphics,   Motif, NEWS, Visual Basic,
     rectangular       buttons,        remote                     Tcl/Tk
                                                       MFC
         areas        menus, etc.      access

   Evolution of look and feel:
                                      Pulldown     3-D            Drag and
      Selection,       WYSIWYG      menus, many appearance          drop
     double-click                   other controls
moving business to the web

                                     April 4, 2001, slide 5             The Future of the GUI
                                                                       GUI Applications
                               Editors,            Visualization,
                             design tools             analysis

                                                                      Online
                       Games
                                                                    publishing

                              Control,
                                                    Transactions
                             management


   Assumptions                                           Weaknesses
       Highly interactive                                         Focus on interaction more than
       Tight coupling between                                      presentation (e.g., text and image
        processing and presentation                                 facilities weak)
        (workstation model)                                        Client-server applications difficult
       Cockpit approach: screen space
        precious
moving business to the web

                                       April 4, 2001, slide 6                             The Future of the GUI
                                                                      Web GUIs
   Arrived in 1993 with Mosaic browser
   Document-centric approach:
       Initially just text with links
       No GUIs
       No user input
       No images
       All pages static
   Distributed model:
       Presentation in browser                                   Internet
       Computation in server
   Why did the Web take off?
       Access: made Internet publishing possible
       Links: network effect for information
moving business to the web

                                         April 4, 2001, slide 7          The Future of the GUI
                                             Improvements to HTML
   Presentation control:
       Images
       2-D layout: tables
       Cascading Style Sheets
       Arbitrary layout: DHTML
   User input: forms
   Dynamic pages:
       Dynamic page generation on server: CGI, ASP, JSP, etc.
       Browser-side processing: JavaScript
       Dynamic page modifications from JavaScript: DHTML
       NOT: Java applets
          Downloads too slow

          Portability issues


moving business to the web

                                  April 4, 2001, slide 8         The Future of the GUI
                                                          The Web Today
   Used for Web applications (GUIs) as well as publishing
   Presentation facilities pretty impressive (but not yet total pixel
    control)
   Trends:
        More and more dynamic pages
        More and more Web applications




moving business to the web

                                 April 4, 2001, slide 9         The Future of the GUI
                                                       Web GUI Example




moving business to the web

                             April 4, 2001, slide 10           The Future of the GUI
                                                       Web GUI Example




moving business to the web

                             April 4, 2001, slide 11           The Future of the GUI
                                                       Web GUI Example




moving business to the web

                             April 4, 2001, slide 12           The Future of the GUI
                                                       More Examples




moving business to the web

                             April 4, 2001, slide 13         The Future of the GUI
                 Creating Web GUIs: Servlets and JSP
   Some events                                                                 Logic: Java
                                                                            classes process
handled in browser             Button press                  Web                input data
  with JavaScript            sends form data to
                                  server
                                                            Server

                                                            Application Server
                                Internet
                                                                             Servlet
                              Presentation: HTML                 Java Server
                             with interlaced Java to             Page
                               generate dynamic
                                      parts

            New page returned
               to browser

moving business to the web

                                  April 4, 2001, slide 14                 The Future of the GUI
                                                         Web GUIs are Hard
   No toolkits, no reuse
   Must program in 3 languages: Java, HTML, JavaScript
   Need different JavaScript for Internet Explorer and Netscape
   Functional split between client and server: limited capabilities
    on client
   Hard to manage state of interaction: browser model is
    stateless (but servlets help)
   Security issues
   Deployment is complex: need to install a Web server
   Can’t listen for input (e.g. calendar receiving invitations);
    browser must poll.
moving business to the web

                               April 4, 2001, slide 15            The Future of the GUI
                               Web GUIs are Hard, cont’d
Must integrate content from many different contributors:

Graphic artists: images                             GUI designers: look and feel




                               HTML




Programmers: code for implementation                Domain experts, writers:
                                                    raw text and data
 moving business to the web

                              April 4, 2001, slide 16                     The Future of the GUI
                  Web GUIs vs. Traditional GUIs Today
         Traditional GUIs                                        Web GUIs
   Pixel-centric: draw on screen                      Document-centric: text and
                                                        images
   Focus on interaction                               Focus on presentation
   Coupling between logic and                         Logic and presentation
    presentation                                        decoupled: great shared access
   Look and feel standards                            Site branding
                                                       Linking between documents




moving business to the web

                                    April 4, 2001, slide 17                     The Future of the GUI
                                    The Battle Is Almost Over
                                                                Editors,         Vis.,
   …and Web GUIs are winning                                 design tools     analysis
   All GUIs providing shared/                            Games
                                                                                         Online
                                                                                       publishing
    distributed access will be
                                                                  Control,
    Web-based:                                                     mgmt
                                                                             Transactions




   Last bastion of traditional GUIs:                           Editors,         Vis.,
       High level of interactivity                           design tools     analysis
       Shared access not needed                                                         Online
                                                          Games
       Spreadsheets, word processing?                                                 publishing
                                                                  Control,
   Will editors & design tools also                               mgmt
                                                                             Transactions
    convert to Web?
moving business to the web

                                April 4, 2001, slide 18                         The Future of the GUI
                             About Disruptive Technologies
   “But Web GUIs are weak, difficult to create, etc….”
   See The Innovator’s Dilemma, by Clayton Christensen
   The evolution of a disruptive technology:
       Do some new task uniquely well
       Do many things substantially worse
       Gradually catch up to older technologies in areas of weakness
       Consolidate market, drive out older technologies
   Examples:
       PC operating systems
       New-generation disk drives
   Web GUIs will get beyond their current problems
moving business to the web

                                  April 4, 2001, slide 19          The Future of the GUI
                              The Web Needs A GUI Toolkit
   Easy-to-use Web GUI components:
       Tree
       Tab Notebook
       Multi-column listbox
       Must support variety of looks and feels: skins?
   Mask browser differences
   Mask server-browser functional split: single-language
    approach?
   Simplify interactions between artists, programmers, etc.
   Powerful image library:
       Minimize need for graphic artists
       E.g., change text in buttons
   WYSIWYG designer tools
moving business to the web

                                  April 4, 2001, slide 20   The Future of the GUI
                                   Possible Toolkit Channels
Biggest challenge: browser limitations
   GUI “player” for browsers
       Analogous to RealPlayer, PDF
       Requires a special download before use
       Player would have to be free
       Didn’t work for Tcl/Tk
   Java applets
       Browsers already support Java
       Downloads too large
       Microsoft moving away from Java




 moving business to the web

                                 April 4, 2001, slide 21   The Future of the GUI
                             Possible Toolkit Channels, cont’d
   Layer new facilities on top of existing browser facilities
        Most features will have to be implemented twice (or more) for different
         browsers
        Hard to unify programming languages (only JavaScript in browser)
        Restrict application coverage to simplify?


   Netscape browser dies
        Only one browser to worry about                     Most likely
        IE gradually adds functionality                      scenario
        Or, use ActiveX controls



moving business to the web

                                   April 4, 2001, slide 22                 The Future of the GUI
                   Are Look-And-Feel Standards Dead?
   Pre-Web:
       Standard look-and-feel emerged for each major platform
       Toolkits enforced/facilitated standards
       User’s experience consistent from application to application
   Post-Web:
       Each Web site defines its own look and feel (branding)
       No consistency in user experience from site to site
   Why did look-and-feel standards emerge pre-Web?
   Do the same arguments apply in the Web world?
       Brand beats consistency?



moving business to the web

                                   April 4, 2001, slide 23             The Future of the GUI
                                                              Conclusions
   Future GUIs will be Web-based; learn to live with it
   Many benefits:
        Rich presentation (text & images)
        Universal access
        Powerful navigationhim was started in those he a and I a
   Interactive GUIs are difficult, but possible
   Interesting new domain for GUI design:
        Document orientation (e.g., easier learning)
        Compose with images instead of drawing
   Field is ripe for breakthrough in toolkits


moving business to the web

                                    April 4, 2001, slide 24         The Future of the GUI
Discussion

								
To top