"Improving Traffic Flow and Reducing CO2 Emissions"
Intelligent Transport Improving Traffic Flow and Reducing System (ITS) CO2 Emissions From Research and Transport s Development of “Crayon” Development to Local Traffic System Shared-Use EV Commuter Implementation Experiments to Reduce CO2 System Emissions The EV commuter system is a short- The road congestion, accidents, and s Intelligent Multimode range personal transit system using small environmental impact that result from Transit System (IMTS*2) electric vehicles to reduce the impact on heavy vehicle traffic and transport are the environment. The EV commuters are issues of great concern for automobile IMTS is a medium-range, medium- based near train stations and other points manufacturers. It is estimated*, for capacity transport system that combines for use as in-town rental cars. Toyota example, that road congestion doubles the efficiency of trains and the flexibility developed the “Crayon” EV commuter fuel consumption and magnifies the envi- of buses. Use of CNG engines or hybrid system in FY1998 using “e-com” cars ronmental impact of exhaust emissions power trains significantly reduces noise, equipped with MONET*3 and VICS*4. by a multiple of two to four. To help vibration, and exhaust emissions com- Toyota began experimental operation resolve this problem, Toyota is actively pared with conventional diesel powered of Crayon in May 1999. Charging sta- developing and popularizing its Intelligent buses. A combination of driving on dedi- tions have been set up at 10 locations Transport System (ITS)*1. cated roads in automated “platoons” and within Toyota’s facilities in Toyota City, One objective of ITS research is to manual driving on ordinary roads allows and 50 e-coms are being shared by integrate roads, vehicles and people efficient and flexible operation respond- about 300 employees. through information and communications ing to fluctuating demand — an arrange- technology, in order to help achieve ment that will also contribute to reducing smooth traffic flow and thus hold down traffic congestion. fuel consumption and reduce the impact In March 1999, Toyota completed con- on the environment. Aiming at early struction of a 1.5km experimental line at realization of this goal, Toyota is tackling the Higashifuji Technical Center and this issue from the perspectives of both established an experimental framework car design and the development of designed to put the ITS idea into practice. advanced traffic management systems. Toyota will begin full-scale experiments In FY1998, progress was made in the using low-emission buses from FY1999. areas noted below. Crayon IMTS Experimental Line at the Facilities Higashifuji Technical Center Experiments to Ease Traffic q Estimated CO2 reductions through ITS Congestion through (unit: 1,000 tons of carbon/year) * Estimates qFuel consumption (Ministry of System implemented CO2 reduction Infrastructure Improvement Construction) (1) Advanced navigation system (1) Preventing wandering or misdirected traffic 214 • Gasoline vehicles, operating speed (2) Dynamic Route Guidance System (2) Dispersing traffic demand 276 s Electronic Toll Collection (Normal) 40 km/h --> 69 cc/km (Congested road conditions) (3) Dynamic Parking Lot Guidance System 8 (ETC*5) System 10 km/h --> 170 cc/km (4) Advanced Traffic Management System 329 qEnvironmental impact (Japan Currently, congestion at tollgates Automobile Manufacturers (5) ACCS (Adaptive Cruise Control System) 89 accounts for 35% of highway traffic con- Association) (6) ETC (Electronic Toll Collection) 19 • Comparison of emissions vol- gestion. With the ETC system, tolls are umes for heavy diesel vehicles (7) Advanced Logistics System 522 collected through electronic identification running at different speeds (5 km/h vs. 40 km/h) Total 1457 as vehicles pass through tollgates with- NOx: approx. 3:1 out stopping. Since ETC processing is * From a research study conducted in June 1999 by VERTIS (the Vehicle, Road CO2: approx. 2:1 CO: approx. 4:1 and Traffic Intelligence Society) at the request of the Japan Automobile Federation about four times faster than the conven- 66 Intelligent Transport System (ITS) tional form of manual payment, conges- and is able to direct the most convenient- Car Multimedia tion and exhaust emissions are dramati- ly located taxi to pick up a customer. Easing Congestion through cally reduced. Toyota has also developed a “Time-d*8” Vehicle Guidance with Toyota participated in a field evalua- system for management of delivery Detailed and Timely tion test (70 units between Kowloon and trucks, automatic vending machines, Hong Kong island) conducted under con- and retail shops via a portable phone Information tract with the Transport Department of network, allowing efficient product VICS provides real-time information the Hong Kong Special Administrative replenishment and collection of sales on congestion and traffic restrictions to Region. Toyota implemented the toll col- receipts. This system was supplied to drivers, and has demonstrated its effec- lection system in October 1998, demon- soft-drink manufacturers in June 1998. tiveness in easing congestion and cutting strating its high performance and the extra distance covered by vehicles reliability. that have strayed from their destination, Government projects are also under- thus helping reduce the environmental way to introduce ETC in Japan — on the impact of traffic. Higashi-Kanto, Shuto, and Tohoku Toyota has played a major role in expressways in 2000, and in 730 toll- establishing VICS service centers, and gates on major expressways and toll has promoted development and drivers’ roads nationwide by FY2002. Toyota is “Time-t” (monitor) acceptance of this system. As of actively involved in these projects. FY1998, over 1 million Toyota and other vehicles have been equipped with VICS- compatible navigation systems. FY1998 also saw 4,300 subscribers enjoying the advantages of MONET, which provides real-time traffic and weather information, as well as informa- tion regarding facilities, from the Toyota Media Station to moving cars upon request from the drivers. Plans call for a new and improved service package to be introduced in June 1999 that will feature “Time-t” (dispatch center) Internet access and real-time images fed from roadside cameras along major q Time-d System (merchandise delivery system for vending machines) routes that enable drivers to ascertain Field Evaluation in Hong Kong PHS, traffic flow. transceiver PHS functions Information *3 MONET (MOBILE NETWORK) Logistics on products Information to be refilled Saving Fuel with an on sales and products sold out *4 VICS (Vehicle Information and Advanced Fleet Management Information on products sold out, etc. Communication System) System PHS This system uses GPS* car naviga- 6 Sales office Vending machine network *5 ETC (Electronic Toll Collection System) tion and communications technology to ensure the efficient movement of vehicles *1 ITS: Intelligent Transport System *6 GPS (Global Positioning System) and to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 These systems manage road transportation by using sophisticated information and communications tech- emissions by commercial vehicles. nology. Use of such systems brings about smoother *7 TIME-t (Toyota Intelligent Mobility Toyota has developed a version of traffic flow and eased traffic congestion, which in Enhancement for taxi) this system for taxis, called “Time-t* .” In 7 turn cuts CO2 emissions and also reduces accidents by promoting safe driving. May 1998, the first such system was put *8 TIME-d (Toyota Intelligent Mobility into operation at a taxi company in *2 IMTS: Intelligent Multimode Transit System Enhancement for delivery) Toyota City. The dispatch center com- An advanced medium-range, medium-capacity transport system puter currently controls about 100 taxis 67