Emission Legislation for Off- Highway Application in Germany

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					  Emission Legislation for Off-
Highway Application in Germany


                           Axel Friedrich
                             Germany
                          International CTI Forum
“Emission Reduction Systems for Off- highway Applications”, Stuttgart, July 2008
          Drivers for
Off Road Emissions Legislation

1. Air Pollution (CO,HC, NOx, Particles)
2. Climate Change
3. Noise
Remaining Problem Areas 2020
                      light blue = no risk




    Health - PM       Health+vegetation - ozone    Vegetation – N dep.




Forests – acid dep.   Semi-natural – acid dep.    Freshwater – acid dep.
Directive 2001/81/EC on National
Emission Ceilings (NEC) for
Certain Atmospheric Pollutants

e.g.the national emission limit for
Germany in 2010:
NOx max. 1.051 kt p.a. (all
sources) mobile sources: 500 kt p.a.
Projected NOx emissions in 2010
 compared to NEC      ceilings
 200%

 180%

 160%

 140%

 120%

 100%

 80%

 60%

 40%

 20%

  0%




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        No further climate measures   With climate measures   NEC Ceiling
                EU Air Quality Limits
                 Particles and NO2




DIRECTIVE 2008/50/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCI
of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe
Current ambient PM and NO2 Air Pollution
          Situation in Europe
1. PM limit values are violated in a large
   number of EU cities

2. NO2 limit values are expected to be
   exceeded in many EU cities in 2010

3. Cities have the general feeling of being left
   alone with the problem because “Brussels”
   sets the limits but does not provide the
   means to meet them
Environmental Zones in Germany
Environmental Zones in Germany
                                                                                                                                                                                                       NO2-Air Quality Standard violated at 100 Stations in Germany
                                                                                                            3
                                                                                                         µg/m




                                                                                                                                               100

                                                                                                                                                     110

                                                                                                                                                           120

                                                                                                                                                                                              130
                                       10

                                                        20

                                                                         30

                                                                              40

                                                                                   50

                                                                                                  60

                                                                                                            70

                                                                                                                 80

                                                                                                                                90
                                  0
           Stuttgart Am Neckartor
   Stutt gart Hohenheimer Straße
       München/ Landshuter Allee
     Stuttgart Siemensstra ße (S)
             Stuttgart-Mitte-Straße
 Ludwigsburg Friedrichstraße (S)
                 München/Stachus
     Schwäbisch Gmünd Lorcher
 Freibur g Schwarzwaldstr aße (S)
     München/Luise-Kiesselbach-
 HH Max-Brauer-Allee II (Straße)
   Pleidelsheim Beihinger Straße
                B Hardenbergplatz
   München/Prin zregentenstraße
      HH Habich tstraße (Straße)
                                            Strong reduction necessary


       Hagen Graf-v.-Gale n-Ring
           Darmstadt-Hügelstraße
  HH Streseman nstraße (Straße)
            Wiesbaden-Ringkirche
              Aug sburg/Karlstraße




                                                                                                                 more than 20 µg/m3
                                                                                                                 At about 30 stations exceedance
            Frankfurt-Friedb.Ldstr.
           Chemnitz-Leipziger Str.
                 Hannover Verkehr
            Kiel-Bahnhofstr. Verk.




                                                                                                                                                             Jahresmittelwert NO2 - Deutschland 2006
        HH Kiele r Straße (Straße)
         B Neukölln-Silberstei nstr.
                  Dresden-Bergstr.
          B Steglitz-Schildhornstr.
               Osnabrück-Verkehr
           Essen Hombrucher Str.
                 Itzehoe Lindenstr.
     B Neukölln-Karl-Marx-Str. 76
          Dortmund Brackeler Str.
              Mainz-Parcu sstraße
            Augsburg/Königsplatz
                  Karlsruhe-Straße
      Reutlingen Lederstraße (S)
         Mannheim Luisenring (S)
                 Bremen Verkehr 1
                 Mannheim-Straße
B Friedrichshain-Frankfurter Allee
                 Bremen Verkehr 2
                       Leipzig-Mitte
      Leonberg Grabenstraße (S)
     K oblenz-Hohenfelder Straße
          Marburg -Univers.Straße
           Kassel-Fünffenster-Str.
                    Mainz-Zitadelle
        Düsseldorf Mörsenbroich
            Essen Gladbecker Str.
            Köln Hohenstaufenring
                         Ratzeburg
              Rostock Am Strande
Heidelberg Karlsruher Straße (S)
  Frankfurt (Oder), Leipziger Str.
            Wuppertal Fr.-E.-Allee
               Gießen-Westanlage
               Aachen Kaiserplatz
      Ludwigshafen-Heinigstraße
       Bayreuth/Hohenzollernring
             Potsdam Zeppelinstr.
                                                                                        Grenzwert 2010




                    Freiburg-S traße
           Magde burg/Reuterallee
         Mainz-Große Langgasse
                  Mainz-Rheinallee
           Fulda-Petersberger Str.
              Cottbus, Bahnhofstr.
                     Dresde n-Nord
                   Frankfurt-Höchst
           Paderborn Friedrichstr.
                Dortmund Steinstr.
            Münster Steinfurt. Str.
              Regensburg/Rathaus
                 Göttingen-Verkehr
                Nürnberg/Bahnhof
             Saar brücken-Verkehr
           Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen
               Lübeck Gr. Burgstr.
               Leipzig Lützner Str.
              München/Lot hstraße
          Würzbu rg/Stadtring Süd
               München/Moosach
               Hagen Emilienplatz
     Duisburg Kardinal-Galen-Str.
    Koblenz-Friedrich-Ebert-Ring
                  Erfurt Heinrichstr
                     Erfurt Bergstr.
            Essen-Ost Steeler Str.
               Ludwigshafen-Mitte
     Magdeburg/ Damaschkeplatz
                          Flensburg
      Nürnberg/Ziegelsteinstraße
  Neuwied-Heddesdorfer Straße
         Ansbach/Residen zstraße
                 Bayreuth/Rathaus
            Jena Westbahnhofstr.
            Fürth/Theresienstraße
               Mainz-Goetheplatz
                Comparison Off-Road vs Road
                                    Diesel particle
          80                                                                                        60%


          70
                                                                                                    50%

          60                                               Inland Waterway
                                                           Road
                                                           Rail
                                                           Military
                                                                                                    40%
          50                                               Agriculture
                                                           Household and Gardening
kt/year




                                                           Forestry
                                                           Personal Watercraft/Passenger Ship
          40                                                                                        30%
                                                           Industry/Construction
                                                           Share Industry/Forestry/Agriculture

          30
                                                                                                    20%

          20

                                                                                                    10%
          10


          0                                                                                         0%
               1980   1985   1990    1995   2000   2005   2010             2015              2020
           Comparison Off-Road vs. Road
                                      Nitrogen Oxide
          1800                                                                                        18%


          1600                                                                                        16%


          1400                                                                                        14%
                                                              Inland Waterway
                                                              Road
                                                              Rail
          1200                                                Military
                                                                                                      12%
                                                              Agriculture
                                                              Household and Gardening
          1000                                                                                        10%
kt/year




                                                              Forestry
                                                              Personal Watercraft/Passenger Ship
                                                              Industry/Construction
          800                                                 Share Industry/Forestry/Agriculture     8%


          600                                                                                         6%


          400                                                                                         4%


          200                                                                                         2%


            0                                                                                         0%
                 1980   1985   1990     1995   2000   2005   2010            2015              2020
    Sc      Li
      h w e fe
                  rw




                                     0.0%
                                            10.0%
                                                    20.0%
                                                            30.0%
                                                                    40.0%
                                                                            50.0%
                                                                                    60.0%
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                                                                                            PM- Emissions onroad/offroad CH
  Comparison Off-Road vs. Road
                 Conclusion
• Diesel particles emissions from road transport
  will be reduced in the future due to the
  adopted measures.
• Smaller reductions in the next years in the
  sectors agriculture and construction machines
• The shares of this sectors on the diesel
  emissions will increase to over 50%.
• Additional reductions are necessary in off-road
  sector. This sector isn‘t in the focus of the
  public until now!
Particle Reduction
The classic CORNING wall flow ceramic Substrate
               Source CORNING 1982
                Conflicts of Targets

Filtration                       Pressure Loss

Small Pores                      Large Pores
Labyrinth Character              Streight Channals
Cake Formation                   Loose Deposition
High Filter Depth                Thin Walls
Low Regeneration Frequency       High Regeneration Frequency on
Gas Velocity     high > 500 nm   Gas Velocity low
                 low < 300 nm
Gas should be hot                Gas should be cold
                                           1.0E+7
                                                              Liebherr D914 T, 2000 min-1/ full load


Particle                                   1.0E+6        Octimax (20 ppm Fe + 5 ppm Sr)

Elimination                                                                                 without
with                                       1.0E+5                                         particle trap

CORNING-Filter                                               stand. fuel

and Fe-FBC


                 concentration dW [cm-3]
                                           1.0E+4




                                           1.0E+3
                                                                  stand. fuel



                                           1.0E+2                                             with
                                                                                          particle trap
                                                           Octimax
                                                                      ambient air
                                           1.0E+1




                                           1.0E+0
                                                    10     diameter [nm]        100                    1000
Do we have Alternatives
to Particle Filters?
Bio Diesel ?
                           Oxidation Catalyst?




Source: VTT-Studie, 2004
Legislation
Regulations
            Vert Program



The certification procedure of the VERT-
Program was developed by the Swiss
Authorities in close cooperation with the
Umweltbundesamt (UBA)
         VERT specifications
     for particle trap systems (1)
                                     New       2000
                                               op.h.
Filtration efficiency
count - particle size range 20-300 nm > 97%
EC mass concentration                          > 97%
                                      > 93%    > 93%
during regeneration
                                      > 90 %
Secondary emissions: no relevant increase:
NO2, Dioxins+ Furans, PAH, Nitro- PAH …

No increase of limited emissions CO, HC, NOx and PM
VERT Filter Certification Procedure (2)

• VFT1: PFS new – degreening acc.to manufacturer
• VSET: Secondary Emissions Test
          (PAH,PCDD/F,Nitro-PAH,VOC Metals,)
• VFT2: 2000 Operation Hours Field Test
• VFT3: Repetition of VFT1 after Field Test

VERT-Approval → BUWAL Filterlist
VERT-Approval is lost at a Failure Level > 5 % pa
         VERT Filter Test (3)
VERT Filtration Test

Test Filtration of Solid Particles
Test lim. and nonlim. Gas Emissions
Test Regeneration Emission and Function
Test Backpressure and OBD-Function
before and after 2000 operation hrs endurance
as supplied, loaded and regenerated, transient
            VSET
 VERT Secondary Emission Test


Test PAH and Nitro-PAH
Test Dioxins and Furans
Test NO, NO2 and N2O
Test Benzene and Aldehydes
Test nanoscale metals from FBC,
lube oil and engine wear
                Formation of Dioxins and Furans
               in a catalytic active particulate trap
                              Chlorine:        11 ppm                               100 ppm
1000000


                          with DPF                                                        77600
 100000
                          w/o DPF
                                                                                  11100
  10000


                                                                      1160
    1000


                                                                110
     100
                40                       34
                              25               29         29
                     19

      10



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                     HM




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                                    Fe               Ce                      Cu
          Applications

Installations of VERT-approved
particle filter systems on trucks,
buses, construction machines,
ships, locomotives and stationary
engines
    Swiss Particle Filter Regulations
• 1990 (EJPD): (following US Clean Air Act 2002)
    Retrofit permitted under conditions:
  - no additional Noise Emission
  - no Formation of secondary toxic Air
  Contaminants
• 1994: Diesel-Emissions classified carcinogenic--
• 1998: Limit for stationary engines < 5 mg/m3
  EC BACT
• 1998: VERT PFS specification and verification
  protocol
• 2000: PFS mandatory for stationary engines
• 2000: VERT-PFS mandatory in tunneling
• 2002: VERT-PFS mandatory for construction
• 2003: only VERT approved PFS for onroad vehicles
Experience with Retrofit of
Particle Filter for Off road
Machines in Switzerland:

10 years – 15’000 Units

In Germany only Bremen has
the requirement included in
PM action plan
               Conclusions
• Retrofit of DPF is highly efficient, technically
  feasible for all Diesels and cost-effective
   DPF retrofit must be enforced with high
  priority
   DPF with active regeneration without NO2-
  emission
• Retrofit of DPF+SCR often limited by
  installation space and cost.
• EGR to be preferred for retrofit ?
Climate
Quelle: James Hansen, Makiko Sato, Reto Ruedy, Ken Lo 2005
         Increasing Melt Area on Greenland




• 2002 all-time record melt area
• Melting up to elevation of 2000 m
• 16% increase from 1979 to 2002             70 meters thinning in 5 years


             Satellite-era record melt of 2002 was exceeded in 2005.
                       Source: Waleed Abdalati, Goddard Space Flight Center
   Glacial Earthquakes on Greenland
Earthquake Locations                                      Annual Number of Quakes*




                                                      * 2005 bars capture only first 10 months of 2005


Location and frequency of glacial earthquakes on Greenland.
Seismic magnitudes are in range 4.6 to 5.1.
Source: Ekstrom, Nettles and Tsai, Science, 311, 1756, 2006.
             Fuel Consumption in the
              Agriculture Sector (kt)
2.500

 kt      Dieselverbrauch

2.000
                                                      Mähdrescher 130-300kW
                             Gasölabrechnung
1.500 Mähdrescher
                                                      Zugmaschinen 75-130kW
      75-130kW


1.000

                                                      Zugmaschinen 37-75kW

 500


                   Zugmaschinen bis 18kW              Zugmaschinen 18-37kW
      0
      1980     1985        1990    1995        2000        2005     2010      2015   2020
                Fuel Consumption in the
                Construction Industry (kt)
2.000
  kt    Kraftstoffverbrauch


                                                     Sonstige Baumaschinen
1.500


                                                             Lader

1.000                                                   Universalbagger


                                                         Betonmischer
 500
                                                         Stapler (Diesel)


                                                        Stapler (Treibgas)
   0
   1980        1985      1990   1995   2000   2005    2010       2015        2020
      Fuel Consumption in the Forestry
250

kt    Kraftstoffverbrauch

200



150
                                       Motorsägen            Benzin

                                       Vollernter
100
                                       Tragschlepper

                                                                  Dieselkraftstoff
50                                     Forstschlepper



  0
  1980       1985       1990   1995   2000          2005   2010       2015           2020
      Fuel Consumption Green Cuts
180
 kt   Benzinverbrauch
160

140

120                       Übrige Geräte
                          (privat und profi)
100
                         Motorsägen (privat)
 80                      Aufsitzmäher (profi)
                         Aufsitzmäher (privat)
 60

 40                      Rasenmäher (privat)


 20

  0
  1980      1985        1990       1995          2000   2005   2010   2015   2020
Fuel Consumption of Passenger Ships
40
            and Boots
kt   Kraftstoffverbrauch
35


30


25                                                 Sportboote (Benzin)


20


15                                                  Sportboote (Diesel)

10
                                                      Fahrgastschiffe (Diesel)
 5


 0
 1980       1985       1990   1995   2000   2005         2010       2015         2020
Diesel Fuel Consumption Off Road (kt)
4.500
 kt       Dieselkraftstoff
4.000

3.500
        Militär
3.000

2.500                                  Landwirtschaft

2.000                                                                 Forstwirtschaft

1.500

                                    Bauwirtschaft/ Industrie          Sport- und Passagierboote
1.000

 500

   0
   1980           1985       1990     1995       2000          2005        2010         2015      2020
Petrol Fuel Consumption Off Road (kt)
900
kt    Benzin und LPG
800

700

600

500                                         Militär

400                                                                   Benzin

                                Haushalt und Garten (Grünpflege)
300

200
    Forstwirtschaft                      Bauwirtschaft
100 Sport- und Passagierboote
                                          Industrie                  LPG
  0
  1980      1985       1990       1995        2000       2005      2010    2015   2020
        CO2 Emissions from
        Off Road Machinery

• It is a need to develop a procedure for the
  measurement of climate gas emissions
  from off road machinery.
• The first step could be a label system
• But the experience from other sectors
  shows the need to set legal requirements
axel.friedrich.berlin@gmail.de