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Author's surname follllowed by the forename iin fullll,, not just iiniitiialls
Author's surname fo owed by the forename n fu not just n t a s
Book tiitlle,, underlliined.. Allll words to begiin wiith a capiitall lletter except for words such
Book t t e under ned A words to beg n w th a cap ta etter except for words such
as a,, of,, iin,, the,, from,, etc
as a of n the from etc
Pllace of publliicatiion
P ace of pub cat on
Pub sher
Year of Publliicatiion
Year of Pub cat on

Bernheiimer,, Charlles.. Fllaubert and Kafka:: Studiies iin Psychopoetiic Structure.. New
Bernhe mer Char es F aubert and Kafka Stud es n Psychopoet c Structure New
Haven:: Yalle Uniiversiity Press,, 1982..
Haven Ya e Un vers ty Press 1982

Journall artiiclles
Journa art c es

Author's surname follllowed by forename iin fullll
Author's surname fo owed by forename n fu
Tiitlle of artiiclle,, encllosed iin quotatiion marks.. Allll words iin tiitlle iin capiitalls except for
T t e of art c e enc osed n quotat on marks A words n t t e n cap ta s except for
smallll connectiing words
sma connect ng words
Tiitlle of journall,, underlliined
T t e of journa under ned
Vollume number.. Part number,, iif avaiillablle
Vo ume number Part number f ava ab e
Year of publliicatiion,, iin parentheses
Year of pub cat on n parentheses
Page number(s)
Page number(s)


Siimpson,, Roger.. "Buiilldiing Arthuriian Castlles iin Spaiin.." Arthuriiana,, 11..4 (2001):: 77-
S mpson Roger "Bu d ng Arthur an Cast es n Spa n " Arthur ana 11 4 (2001) 77-

Webs tes

Tiitlle of the project or database,, underlliined
T t e of the project or database under ned
Name of ediitor of project/database (iif giiven)
Name of ed tor of project/database ( f g ven)
Ellectroniic publliicatiion iinformatiion,, iinclludiing versiion number,, date of ellectroniic
E ectron c pub cat on nformat on nc ud ng vers on number date of e ectron c
publliicatiion or llatest update,, and name of sponsoriing iinstiitutiion or organiizatiion
pub cat on or atest update and name of sponsor ng nst tut on or organ zat on

Date of access and ellectroniic address
Date of access and e ectron c address


Briitanniica Onlliine.. Vers.. 97..1..1 Mar.. 1997.. Encycllopaediia Briitanniica.. 29 Mar.. 1997
Br tann ca On ne Vers 97 1 1 Mar 1997 Encyc opaed a Br tann ca 29 Mar 1997
<http //www eb co uk/>

However,, iif the ciitatiion iis from a part wiithiin the database,, enter the author and
However f the c tat on s from a part w th n the database enter the author and
tiitlle as iin a journall artiiclle,, before the websiite iinformatiion
t t e as n a journa art c e before the webs te nformat on


Daniiell,, Robert T.. "The Hiistory of Western Musiic.." Briitanniica Onlliine:: Macropaediia..
Dan e Robert T "The H story of Western Mus c " Br tann ca On ne Macropaed a
Encycllopaediia Briitanniica..
Encyc opaed a Br tann ca
14 June,, 1997 <http:://www..eb..co..uk>
14 June 1997 <http //www eb co uk>

E-journa s

Author’’s surname,, folllowed by forename
Author s surname fo owed by forename
Tiitlle of artiiclle iin quotatiion marks
T t e of art c e n quotat on marks
Tiitlle of the journall,, underlliined
T t e of the journa under ned
Vollume no.. Part no..
Vo ume no Part no
Year of publliicatiion
Year of pub cat on
Page number(s),, iif numbered
Page number(s) f numbered
Date of access and ellectroniic address
Date of access and e ectron c address


Honiing,, Henkjan.. “From Tiime to Tiime:: The Representatiion of Tiimiing and Tempo..”
Hon ng Henkjan “From T me to T me The Representat on of T m ng and Tempo ”
Computer Musiic Journall 25..3 (2001).. 12 Jully 2002 <http:://muse..jhu..edu/journalls/>
Computer Mus c Journa 25 3 (2001) 12 Ju y 2002 <http //muse jhu edu/journa s/>

Conference Papers
Conference Papers

Contriibutiing Author(s) surname,, follllowed by forename
Contr but ng Author(s) surname fo owed by forename
Tiitlle of paper,, iin quotatiion marks
T t e of paper n quotat on marks
Tiitlle of conference,, underlliined,, iinclludiing the date and pllace iif avaiillablle
T t e of conference under ned nc ud ng the date and p ace f ava ab e
Ediitor(s) of Conference Proceediings – forename follllowed by surname
Ed tor(s) of Conference Proceed ngs – forename fo owed by surname
Pllace of publliicatiion
P ace of pub cat on
Pub sher
Year of publliicatiion
Year of pub cat on

Page numbers
Page numbers


Yuan,, Bopiing.. “Is Thematiic-Verb Raiisiing iineviitablle iin the Acquiisiitiion of a Nonnatiive
Yuan Bop ng “Is Themat c-Verb Ra s ng nev tab e n the Acqu s t on of a Nonnat ve
Language?” Proceediings of the 24tth Annuall Boston Uniiversiity Conference on
Language?” Proceed ngs of the 24 h Annua Boston Un vers ty Conference on
Language Devellopment,, I-II.. Ed.. Catheriine S.. Howellll,, Sarah A.. Fiish,, Thea Keiith-
Language Deve opment I-II Ed Cather ne S Howe Sarah A F sh Thea Ke th-
Lucas.. Somerviilllle,, MA:: Cascadiilllla,, 2000.. 797-807..
Lucas Somerv e MA Cascad a 2000 797-807

Theses and Diissertatiions, unpublliished
Theses and D ssertat ons, unpub shed

Author's name and forename,, iif avaiillablle.. Iniitiialls iif not..
Author's name and forename f ava ab e In t a s f not
Tiitlle of thesiis,, iin quotatiion marks
T t e of thes s n quotat on marks
Descriiptiive llabell - Diiss..
Descr pt ve abe - D ss
Name of iinstiitutiion to whiich submiitted,, and year
Name of nst tut on to wh ch subm tted and year


Neiillll,, M.. "Women at work iin Ullster,, 1845-1911.." Diiss.. Queen's Uniiversiity,, Bellfast,,
Ne M "Women at work n U ster 1845-1911 " D ss Queen's Un vers ty Be fast

Note Publliished diissertatiions shoulld be treated iin the same way as books
Note Pub shed d ssertat ons shou d be treated n the same way as books

Viideos, Fiillms or Broadcasts
V deos, F ms or Broadcasts

Tiitlle,, underlliined
T t e under ned
Diirector,, and other pertiinent names
D rector and other pert nent names
Diistriibutor,, year of rellease
D str butor year of re ease


Liike Water for Chocollate [Como Agua para Chocollate].. Screenpllay by Laura
L ke Water for Choco ate [Como Agua para Choco ate] Screenp ay by Laura
Esquiivell.. Diir.. Allfonso Arau.. Perf.. Lumii Cavazos,, Marco Lombardii,, and Regiina Torne..
Esqu ve D r A fonso Arau Perf Lum Cavazos Marco Lombard and Reg na Torne
Miiramax,, 1993..
M ramax 1993

Note TV/Radiio programmes shoulld iincllude tiitlle of epiisode or segment ((iin quotatiion
Note TV/Rad o programmes shou d nc ude t t e of ep sode or segment n quotat on
marks),, tiitlle of programme (underlliined),, tiitlle of seriies,, iif any (neiither underlliined
marks) t t e of programme (under ned) t t e of ser es f any (ne ther under ned
nor iin quotatiion marks),, name of network and broadcast date..
nor n quotat on marks) name of network and broadcast date

Variiatiions on the generall rulle
Var at ons on the genera ru e

 Up to three authors - ciite them allll,, iin the order they appear on the tiitlle page of
 Up to three authors - c te them a n the order they appear on the t t e page of
  the oriigiinall document
   the or g na document
 Four or more authors - ciite onlly the fiirst author name follllowed by 'et all..'
 Four or more authors - c te on y the f rst author name fo owed by 'et a '
 Corporate body (as Harvard variiatiion)
 Corporate body (as Harvard var at on)
 Seriies - iincllude seriies name,, neiither underlliined nor encllosed iin quotatiion marks,,
 Ser es - nc ude ser es name ne ther under ned nor enc osed n quotat on marks
  and the seriies number,, follllowed by a fullll stop,, before the publliicatiion
   and the ser es number fo owed by a fu stop before the pub cat on
    nformat on

Referenciing iin your text
Referenc ng n your text

- How to wriite text references
- How to wr te text references

When usiing MLA,, the iin-text ciitatiion takes the form of the author's name and the
When us ng MLA the n-text c tat on takes the form of the author's name and the
page number beiing ciited..
page number be ng c ted


Wiilllliiams (137-141) compared Italliian and Englliish sonnets
W ams (137-141) compared Ita an and Eng sh sonnets


In a recent study of mediievall sonnets (Wiilllliiams 137-141)
In a recent study of med eva sonnets (W ams 137-141)

If you are quotiing iin the text,, you must iincllude the abbreviiatiion 'qtd..iin' (quoted iin)
If you are quot ng n the text you must nc ude the abbrev at on 'qtd n' (quoted n)
before the iindiirect source you ciite iin your parenthetiicall reference..
before the nd rect source you c te n your parenthet ca reference


Samuell Johnson admiitted that Edmund Burke was an "extraordiinary man" (qtd.. iin
Samue Johnson adm tted that Edmund Burke was an "extraord nary man" (qtd n
Boswellll 2::450)..
Boswe 2 450)

If you are quotiing from a lliiterary work whiich coulld be avaiillablle iin severall ediitiions,, iit
 If you are quot ng from a terary work wh ch cou d be ava ab e n severa ed t ons t
iis hellpfull to proviide more detaiills such as chapter number..
  s he pfu to prov de more deta s such as chapter number


Chaucer's purpose iis "the doublle sorwe of Troiillus to tellllen,,/That was the kyng
Chaucer's purpose s "the doub e sorwe of Tro us to te en /That was the kyng
Priiamus sone of Troye" (1..1-2)
Pr amus sone of Troye" (1 1-2)

If an author has publliished more than one ciited document,, add the tiitlle of the work
If an author has pub shed more than one c ted document add the t t e of the work
(iif briief) or a shortened versiion of the tiitlle after the author and before the page
( f br ef) or a shortened vers on of the t t e after the author and before the page


(Frye,, Doublle Viisiion 85)
(Frye Doub e V s on 85)

If you have allready stated the author iin the text,, giive onlly tiitlle and page iin
 If you have a ready stated the author n the text g ve on y t t e and page n
parentheses.. If you have allready mentiioned author and tiitlle,, just giive page number
 parentheses If you have a ready ment oned author and t t e just g ve page number
iin parentheses..
  n parentheses


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