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MARC Machine Readable Cataloging

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					MARC
Machine Readable Cataloging
& MARC family
Reference: Rebecca Guenther (2004) New and traditional
descriptive formats in the library environment
1. MARC21 Bibliographic Format
   MARC - 1960s --> USMARC, CANMARC, UKMARC, etc.

   UNIMARC - 1977

   MARC21 – 1997, Harmonization of USMARC and CAN/MARC
     Translations in several languages

   MARC21 Concise Format for Bibliographic Data is available at:
     http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/ecbdhome.html

   MARC21 Formats are available at:
     http://www.loc.gov/marc/

   Good introduction to the use of MARC: Understanding MARC
     Bibliographic, http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/

                                                              2
  MARC 21
  Parts of a MARC record
Leader: identifies the beginning of a new record, type of
   record
Directory: think of it as the index to the record. Identifies the
   position and length of each field
Control Fields: coded information about the resource
   described, standard/control numbers, dates, language, etc.
   Some are called fixed fields due to their fixed length
Variable fields: more detailed description of the recourse,
   fields have variable length




                                                                3
  MARC 21
  Content designators
Types of codes used to indicate content of a
  record:
  tags: 3-digit numbers (001-999) to encode fields
    e.g. 100 = personal name main entry

  indicators: 2 possible positions for each field,
    special information about that field
    e.g. 100 1_ = surname as the entry element
  subfield codes: combination of a delimiter and a
    lower case letter or number, to encode subfields
    e.g. 100 1_ |a = name
                                                 4
MARC21
groups of fields (by hundreds)
 Bibliographic format

 0XX   Control information, numbers, codes
 1XX   Main entry
 2XX   Titles, edition, imprint/publication
 3XX   Physical description, etc.
 4XX   Series statements (as shown in the book)
 5XX   Notes
 6XX   Subject added entries
 7XX   Added entries other than subject or series
 8XX   Series added entries (other authoritative forms)
                                                      5
Parallels in MARC formats

   X00   Personal names         1XX Main entry
   X10   Corporate names        4XX Series statement
   X11   Meeting names          6XX Subject heading
   X30   Uniform titles         7XX Added entry
                                8XX Series added entries
   X40   Bibliographic titles
   X50   Topical terms
   X51   Geographic names




                                                           6
2. MARC Family
2.1 MARC XML
2.2 MODS, Metadata Object Description
  Schema
2.3 MADS, Metadata Authority
  Description Schema
…



                                   7
               New needs
   Need to take advantage of XML
       Establish standard MARC 21 in an XML
        structure
   Need simpler (but compatible) alternatives
       Development of MODS
   Need interoperability with different
    schemas
       Assemble coordinated set of tools
   Need continuity with current data
       Provide flexible transition options


                                               8
9
     MARC 21 (2709) record
     (machine view)

00967cam 2200277 a 4500
001000800000005001700008008004100025020005300229040
001800282050002400312082002100336100003000357245007
400387260004400461300003500505440001200540500002000
552650004200572651002500614
347139419990429094819.1931129s1994 wauab                001 0
eng a 93047676 a0898863872 (acid-free, recycled paper)
:c$14.95 aDLCcDLCcDLC 00aGV1046.G3bG47
199400a796.6/4/09432201 aSlavinski, Nadine,d1968-
10aGermany by bike :b20 tours geared for discovery /cNadine
Slavinski. aSeattle, Wash. :bMountaineers,cc1994. a238 p.
:bill., maps ;c22 cm. 0aBy bike aIncludes index. 0aBicycle
touringzGermanyxGuidebooks.



                                                                10
2.1 MARC 21 evolution to XML




                               11
MARC 21 in XML – MARCXML
   MARCXML record
      XML exact equivalent of MARC (2709) record
      Lossless/roundtrip conversion to/from MARC 21
       record
      Simple flexible XML schema, no need to change
       when MARC 21 changes
      Presentations using XML stylesheets
      LC provides converters (open source)
      Adopted by OAI to replace oai_marc
   http://www.loc.gov/standards/marcxml


                                                 12
MARC21 (2709) to MARCXML
  <record xmlns="http://www.loc.gov/MARC21/slim">
     <leader>00967cam 2200277 a 4500</leader>
     <controlfield tag="001">3471394</controlfield>
     <controlfield tag="005">19990429094819.1</controlfield>
     <controlfield tag="008">931129s1994 wauab            001 0 eng </controlfield>
     <datafield tag="020" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
            <subfield code="a">0898863872 (acid-free, recycled paper) :</subfield>
            <subfield code="c">$14.95</subfield>
     </datafield>
     <datafield tag="040" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
            <subfield code="a">DLC</subfield>
            <subfield code="c">DLC</subfield>
            <subfield code="d">DLC</subfield>
     </datafield>
     <datafield tag="050" ind1="0" ind2="0">
            <subfield code="a">GV1046.G3</subfield>
            <subfield code="b">G47 1994</subfield>
     </datafield>
     <datafield tag="082" ind1="0" ind2="0">
            <subfield code="a">796.6/4/0943</subfield>
            <subfield code="2">20</subfield>
     </datafield>
     <datafield tag="100" ind1="1" ind2=" ">
            <subfield code="a">Slavinski, Nadine,</subfield>
            <subfield code="d">1968-</subfield>
     </datafield>
                                                                                      13
  MARCXML record (continued)
    <datafield tag="245" ind1="1" ind2="0">
          <subfield code="a">Germany by bike :</subfield>
          <subfield code="b">20 tours geared for discovery /</subfield>
          <subfield code="c">Nadine Slavinski.</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="260" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
          <subfield code="a">Seattle, Wash. :</subfield>
          <subfield code="b">Mountaineers,</subfield>
          <subfield code="c">c1994.</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="300" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
          <subfield code="a">238 p. :</subfield>
          <subfield code="b">ill., maps ;</subfield>
          <subfield code="c">22 cm.</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="440" ind1=" " ind2="0">
          <subfield code="a">By bike</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="500" ind1=" " ind2=" ">
          <subfield code="a">Includes index.</subfield>
    </datafield>
    <datafield tag="650" ind1=" " ind2="0">
          <subfield code="a">Bicycle touring</subfield>
          <subfield code="z">Germany</subfield>
          <subfield code="x">Guidebooks.</subfield>
    </datafield>
                                                                          14
</record>
       MARCXML to DC
<rdf:Description xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-
   syntax-ns#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/">
   <dc:title>Germany by bike : 20 tours geared for
        discovery </dc:title>
   <dc:creator>Slavinski, Nadine, 1968-</dc:creator>
   <dc:type>text</dc:type>
   <dc:publisher>Seattle, Wash. : Mountaineers,
       </dc:publisher>
   <dc:date>c1994.</dc:date>
   <dc:language>eng</dc:language>
   <dc:subject>Bicycle touring</dc:subject>
</rdf:Description>



                                                                15
    Uses of MARCXML and related tools

   Standardize MARC 21 across community for
    XML communication and manipulation
   Open MARC 21 to XML programming tools and
    presentation style sheets
   Standardize MARC 21 for OAI harvesting
   Standardize transformations to and from other
    standard formats (DC, ONIX, …)
   Basis for evolution while maintaining
    standardization




                                                    16
2.2 MODS
Metadata Object Description Schema
   Bibliographic element set
   Initiative of the Network Development and MARC
    Standards Office, Library of Congress
   Uses XML Schema
   Specifically for library applications, although could
    be used more widely
   A derivative (and subset) of MARC elements




                                                      17
Why MODS?
   XML based, web friendly, transportable,
    processible, configurable, sufficiently descriptive
    without being too complex, extensible
   Benefits over MARC: MARC isn’t XML based and
    can’t easily be output from web forms. Requires
    special “cataloging” knowledge and systems to
    implement
   Investigating XML as a new more flexible syntax
    for MARC element set




                                                      18
Why MODS? (cont.)
   Need for rich hierarchical descriptive metadata in
    XML but simpler than full MARC, especially for
    complex digital library objects
   Benefits over Dublin Core: DC doesn’t have
    sufficient specificity. DC doesn’t specify a syntax
    and is inconsistently applied. DC isn’t extensible
   Need compatibility with existing library
    descriptions




                                                          19
           Features of MODS
   Uses language-based tags
   Elements generally inherit semantics of MARC
   MODS does not assume the use of any specific
    cataloging code
   Reuse element descriptions throughout schema
   Not intended to be round-trippable
   Not intended to be a MARC replacement




                                                   20
    MODS high-level elements
   Title Info                Note
   Name                      Subject
   Type of resource          Classification
   Genre                     Related item
   Origin Info               Identifier
   Language                  Location
   Physical description      Access conditions
   Abstract                  Part
   Table of contents         Extension
   Target audience           Record Info


                                                   21
MARCXML to MODS
 <mods xmlns="http://www.loc.gov/mods/">
   <titleInfo>
      <title>Germany by bike : 20 tours geared for discovery /</title>
   </titleInfo>
   <name type="personal">
           <namePart>Slavinski, Nadine,</namePart>
           <namePart type="date">1968-</namePart>
           <role><roleTerm type=“text”>creator</roleTerm></role>
   </name>
   <typeOfResource>text</typeOfResource>
   <originInfo>
       <place><placeTerm type=“code” authority="marc">wau</placeTerm>
                 <placeTerm type=“text”> Seattle, Wash. :</placeTerm>
        </place>
           <publisher>Mountaineers,</publisher>
           <dateIssued>c1994</dateIssued>
           <issuance>monographic</issuance>
   </originInfo>
   <language>
         <languageTerm type=“code” authority="iso639-2b">eng</languageTerm>
   </language>
   <physicalDescription>
         <extent>238 p. : ill., maps ; 22 cm.</extent>
    </physicalDescription>
   <note type="statement of responsibility">Nadine Slavinski.</note>
   <note>Includes index.</note>                                               22
  MODS       (continued)
  <subject authority="lcsh">
        <topic>Bicycle touring</topic>
        <geographic>Germany</geographic>
        <topic>Guidebooks.</topic>
  </subject>
  <classification authority="lcc">GV1046.G3 G47 1994</classification>
  <classification authority="ddc" edition="20">796.6/4/0943</classification>
  <relatedItem type="series">
        <titleInfo><title>By bike</title></titleInfo>
  </relatedItem>
  <identifier type="isbn">0898863872 (acid-free, recycled paper) :</identifier>
  <identifier type="lccn">93047676</identifier>
  <recordInfo>
        <recordContentSource>DLC</recordContentSource>
        <recordCreationDate encoding="marc">931129</recordCreationDate>
        <recordChangeDate encoding="iso8601">19990429094819.1
        </recordChangeDate>
        <recordIdentifier>3471394</recordIdentifier>
  </recordInfo>
                                                                                23
</mods>
                                           http://lcweb4.loc.gov/




•MODS descriptions for each web site (but not each capture)
•Transformation from XML to HTML display                            24
•Links to web archive
25
Differences between MODS and
Dublin Core
   MODS has structure
       Names
       Related item
       Subject
   MODS is more MARC-like so more
    compatibility with existing descriptions
       Semantics
       Conversions
       Relationships between elements
   MODS includes record management
    information
                                               26
Choosing MODS for descriptive
metadata
MODS is particularly useful for
   compatibility with existing bibliographic
    data
   embedded descriptions in related item
   Rich, hierarchical descriptions that work
    well with METS structural map
   “out of the box” schema; can use
    <extension> for local elements and to
    bring in external elements from other
    schemas
                                           27
3 Transformation tools
   MARC toolkit
     Converter from MARC 21 to MARCXML
     Transformations between metadata
      formats
         MODS
         Dublin   Core
         ONIX

       http://www.loc.gov/marcxml


                                          28

				
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