THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD DURING WORLD WAR II

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					           THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD
              DURING WORLD WAR II
                                                   Carl Landeck
                                                   Roger Thorne

    By December 29, 1940, when President Franklin Roosevelt delivered his
    "Arsenal of Democracy" speech to the nation, the mighty PRR was recovering
    nicely from the austerity of the Depression. True, passenger business had con-
    tinually fallen off since 1929 because of the automobile. But freight business
    was increasing. Electrification of the northeast corridor between New York and
    Washington D.C., and between Paoli and Harrisburg was completed by 1938.
    Maintenance of locomotives, rolling stock, and rights-of-way was excellent so
    that when the war began they were in an excellent position to do the job they
    had to do. The World War II years of 1941 to 1945 are considered by many
    historians to be the high point in the railroads' contribution to this country.
    The battles in Africa, Europe, and the Pacific would have to be won, but this
    could not happen unless there was victory on "the Home Front." This was a
    war the USA HAD to win!

MOVING THE TROOPS

                                                 "From January 1, 1941 through
                                                  December 1, 1945, 17,507,647
                                                  soldiers, sailors, Marines and
                                                  Coast Guardsmen were moved
                                                  over the PRR system. This does
                                                  not include any military personnel
                                                  traveling on furloughs, which ran
                                                  into many millions. To handle
                                                  strictly military passenger traffic
                                                  required 29,670 extra trains com-
                                                  posed of 400,000 cars." — Penn-
                                                  sylvania Railroad 1945 Annual
                                                  Report.
Above: Pearl Harbor changed everything!
This 1944 photograph inside Pennsylvania               Above right: An example of a passenger schedule issued in Sep-
Station in New York City shows the PRR's               tember 1943 during World War II shows the PRR's priority of
dilemma: how to manage the timely move-                moving military traffic. (Cupper)
ment of millions of armed forces personnel
AND civilians during WWII. (Internet)*
*lmage sources are keyed to the box at the end              35
of the article.
                                                        Left: At the beginning of the war the Pennsylvania Railroad had hun-
                                                        dreds of steel P70 'Heavyweight' passenger coaches, shown in this
                                                        1944 photograph. This was the standard main carrier for troops and
                                                        passengers during WWII. The PRR committed a large percentage of
                                                        its passenger fleet to troop transports because of its strategic geog-
                                                        raphy. A military "consist" could be made up entirely of troop cars,
                                                        or it might be mixed with civilian passenger cars, or with military or
                                                        civilian freight cars. Troop movements were always classified, identi-
                                                        fied only by a Military Authorization Identification Number, or "MAIN,"
                                                        for secrecy. That secrecy extended to the train crew as well, who
                                                        were told only their segment of the soldier's final destination.
                                                        (USASC)




                   Right; "Shades are drawn down. Lights dim
                   low.. . there's just the hum of the speeding
                   train. These boys know what it means—
                   the troop train is approaching the troop ships.
                   .. . It takes a lot of equipment for these troop
                   movements—but with what remains we are
                   doing our best to serve all essential travelers
                   ... efficiently, courteously." "On Their
                   Way," Pennsylvania Railroad magazine adver-                        IN THEIR W\Y
                   tisement. (Cupper)


The job of filling a huge troop ship like the Queen Mary with 13,000 soldiers in
New York harbor involved as many as 21 trains, comprising over 200 coaches,
40+ baggage cars, and over 30 kitchen cars.




                                              Left: Exterior view of a PRR box car
                                              converted into a troop coach and
                                              "sleeper." (Hagley). Right: Interior view of
                                              a converted box car dated November
                                              29, 1942. (Hagley). When the war began,
                                              neither the PRR nor any other U.S. rail-
                                              road had enough coaches for troop
                                              hauling requirements. Beginning in
                                              June 1942, the PRR Altoona Car Shop
                                              began converting some of its X32 round
                                              roof steel box cars into troop coaches
                                              and "sleepers." They cut porthole win-
                                              dows in the sides and added hard riding
                                              bunks. The PRR also converted these
                                              box cars into dining car configurations
                                              with wooden benches. All interior ar-
                                              rangements were very Spartan. Then
                                              the government asked the Pullman
                                              Company to study the PRR's X32 adap-
                                              tations, and capture all the PRR fea-
                                              tures for mass production.

                                                              36
/ was coming back from Harrisburg, and they had several of this type of car on the train. We were
packed into this car like sardines in a can. These were all fixed seats facing one another, and there
were hard, wooden seats with just a bit of upholstery on top. This trip was in the wintertime, and we
had a lot of sailors with their pea coats on with us on that trip heading east. It was too crowded to
move around and we were playing "kneesy" with the people across from us. These sailors were
enjoying eating peanuts and there were peanut shells all over our laps. There also happened to be
a mouse in the car, and so these guys were having a ball feeding the mouse that was running around
peanuts. If mice scared you, there was nothing you could do about it because it was too crowded to
move. You just hoped the mouse would not jump in your lap. — Carl Landeck.



Right: In 1943 the government began accepting delivery on a
fleet of troop sleepers and troop kitchens to augment the lack of
sufficient alternatives. Pullman built 1,200 sleepers and 440
kitchen cars were built by ACF. Both designs were based upon
the common 50' long PS-1 box car. Such cars were generally
used in service on a ratio of one kitchen car to three sleeper
cars. The Pullman troop sleeper was built with center doors, end
doors, and windows cut in the sides. Soldiers squeezed into
three tiers of berths. Because the cars continued to use freight
car trucks (a frame of wheels under a car), they rode hard, and,
lacking air conditioning or ventilation, were dark and stuffy. Each
Pullman sleeper car carried 29 servicemen and a Pullman porter.
There was little to do aboard except talk, play cards, or sleep.
(Internet)


                                                                 Left: Camp Kilmer, located near Edison NJ, was the largest
                                                                 embarkation post in the United States, and processed more
                                                                 than 2.5 million troops for the European Theatre during World
                                                                 War II. Its rail terminal had a capacity of fifteen 20-car troop
                                                                 trains, with track leading to the rights-of-way of the PRR, the
                                                                 Lehigh Valley Railroad, and the Philadelphia & Reading Rail-
                                                                 road. (Cupper)




Right: More than any other type of passenger locomo-
tive, steam or electric, the PRR owned 425 of the K4
class (4-6-2 wheel arrangement) locomotives. In this
1946 photograph, a K4 locomotive leads a troop train. A
Pullman troop sleeper is shown flanked by baggage
cars, with standard heavyweight coaches riding behind.
A troop "consist" would vary greatly depending on what
equipment was available and how many men had to be
moved. The K4s headed the vast majority of the PRR's
steam "troop extras" during WWII, with K2, K3, and E6-
class locomotives comprising the remainder of passen-
ger steam power. (Heart)
                                                        Left: In the late 1930s these two K4 steam locomotives stand side-by-
                                                        side with and without their streamline shell, the latter an example of
                                                        the pre-war Fleet of Modernism reflecting the popular Art Deco look
                                                        of that time. At the time of WWII, the PRR owned 5 of the streamlined
                                                        K4 steam engines. The streamlined locomotives were designed to
                                                        haul the PRR's premier passenger trains, like the "Broadway Limited"
                                                        from New York City to Chicago. The "Broadway" became the ultimate
                                                        in passenger travel, offering every imaginable luxury and personal
                                                        service. (Hagley)




  ELECTRIFICATION




 A PRR electrification map, focused from the Harrisburg area east over the Main Line through Thorndale and Paoli into Philadel-
 phia, or over the Trenton Cutoff freight line northeast to the New York City area. (Cupper)


"The PRR was electrified from New York to Washington, and also from Philadelphia out to Harrisburg. The
first part of the railroad's electrification was between Paoli and Philadelphia back around WWI; around 1914.
Right before the beginning of WWII, the electrification was extended west from Paoli to Harrisburg over the
passenger line, and then it was also completed over the freight lines through to Enola and the rest of the
eastern region. As you can see, the Pennsy was a multiple-track railroad from Philadelphia all the way west
to Pittsburgh. Now, you will see a split here. The passenger line going from Lancaster to Harrisburg, and the
freight going by the way of Columbia and Wago Junction, and also by way of the Trenton Branch, to Morris-
ville, NJ over to Glen Loch, PA, where it picked up the Philadelphia & Thorndale Line and followed through
to the Aclin and Susquehanna Branch up into Enola. — Carl Landeck.

                                                              38
 Right: With the electrification from Philadelphia in
 1915, Paoli became the western commuter terminus
 on the Main Line. This rare photo postcard by Skilton
 shows the covered platform of the eastbound Paoli
 station just prior to WWII. Most of the PRR's "Blue
 Ribbon Fleet" stopped in Paoli throughout the war.
 From 1939 to 1944, the volume of passenger traffic
 quadrupled on the PRR system. (Postcard)




                                                            "The GG1 was arguably the best electric locomotive
                                                            ever constructed anywhere. The Pennsy, Baldwin,
                                                            Westinghouse, and General Electric all had a hand
                                                            in the design of that locomotive. It was certainly a
                                                            workhorse of the PRR during the electrification era.
                                                            Those locomotives could be used either in passenger
                                                            or freight service. They could change the gearing on
                                                            them. It was a universal-type locomotive and served
                                                            the PRR well prior to, during, and after the war until
                                                            the demise of the PRR. I think everyone that has
                                                            ever seen it or known anything about it, knew it
                                                            couldn't be beat. Some people do not realize that the
                                                            design of this locomotive came about to put the
/Above: To provide power on its electrified passenger
routes of New York to Washington and Philadelphia to        engineer from being up front into the center of the
Harrisburg, the PRR had 139 of these sleek and stylish      cab. In all the accidents they ever had that involved
GG1 electric locomotives in its fleet. Shown above, west-   the GG1 locomotive, there was never a fatality. The
bound GG1 #4919 stops briefly in Paoli with a passenger     engineer was well protected, being amidships, and
"consist" in the immediate post-WWII period. The North
Valley Road bridge is in the background, while in the
                                                            of course the locomotive could be operated from
foreground the "spur" track would be used to access the     either end without turning it." — Carl Landeck.
Paoli commuter yard. (Internet)



Right: Framed by a platform canopy and passengers,
MP54s occupy both outside tracks at Wayne in this Paoli
Local scene common throughout the War. The Pennsy
had more than 400 of the owl-faced multiple unit cars,
many of them rebuilt from steam-hauled coaches. (Heart)


 They had all sorts of names, they were loved,
 they were hated, I have even heard them
 called the great roaches... This is what the
 typical Paoli Local looked like during the war.
 You didn't have to worry about having a time-
 table back in those days because you knew
 that you had a train either way every half
 hour. As I recall, leaving Center City, they left
 at :15 and :45 going west."— Carl Landeck.
                                                            39
                                                                   Left: PRR's Broad Street Station in Philadelphia, built in
                                                                   1882, was the terminal for the Philadelphia to New York
                                                                   "Clockers" and all Philadelphia to Harrisburg Main Line
                                                                   trains. The large horizontal building seen in the middle
                                                                   housed the PRR general offices. There were 16 tracks. A
                                                                   1923 fire destroyed the original covered train shed. It was
                                                                   replaced with a series of smaller "umbrella" sheds which
                                                                   can be seen in this 1939 photo. A B1 switcher, seen here,
                                                                   shuttles cars between Broad Street Station and the coach
                                                                   yard in west Philadelphia. Looking east in the far back-
                                                                   ground is City Hall. (Triumph III)




Right: On Sunday morning, September 12, 1943, fire broke out at
Broad Street Station. Fanned by a stiff north wind, the blaze lev-
eled all of the canopies and platforms, twisted the tracks, and de-
stroyed the timber shorings. Also badly damaged in the blaze were
several passenger cars of the PRR Clocker for New York. Even as
the embers begin to cool by the next day, the PRR had rapidly mo-
bilized 1,200 men to rebuild the station. By mid-week several tracks
had been returned into operation, and the small army successfully
restored the station to full service by week's end. In 1952 Broad
Street Station, including the infamous "Chinese Wall," was demol-
ished to make way for Suburban Station where the tracks were
now underground. (Hagley)


                                                                           Left: Philadelphia's 30th Street Station—originally
                                                                           called Pennsylvania Station—was completed in
                                                                           1933. It was the PRR station for its Northeast
                                                                           Corridor trains between New York City and Wash-
                                                                           ington. In this war-era photograph, the trolley
                                                                           tracks for the subway surface cars can be seen
                                                                           along the side of the station and the "el" tracks for
                                                                           the Market-Frankford elevated line can be seen in
                                                                           the lower right corner. Later both of these sets of
                                                                           tracks were relocated underground. (PIM)




Right: This wartime USO-PRR postcard shows the USO
lounges at Broad Street Station and 30th Street Station in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Station in New York City, and
Pennsylvania Station in Newark, N.J. The USO did much
to entertain the troops. (Internet)



"When I worked at the PRR office, one of the
fellows was very active in the American
Legion and he recruited a lot of the office girls
to be hostesses on the weekends at the
Stage Door Canteen, a club for servicemen at
the Academy of Music." — Carl Landeck.                                                                                  USO Lounge,
                                                                                                            Pennsylvania Station, Newark, N.J.


                                                              40
MOVING THE SUPPLIES

                                   THIS FIGHTER WEIGHS IN AT                              Rushing the Rations




                                              98 OUR SCALES




                                      As you would see him on a scale, he
                                      WOULD WEIGH 180 POUNDS OF BONE, MUSCLE AND
                                      fighting energy--a fine specimen of
                                      American manhood. But on the scales of
                                      the Army--and the Railrods--his
                                      "fighting weight" is...3 tons.




                                     So, you see, the railroad's job isn't only
                                     moving troops--but all they require, too.
                                     Therefore, if you should find travel not all
                                     that it used to be, the Pennsylvania Railroad
                                     asks you kindly to remember the above                It is early morning. Stars still hang as the sky.
                                     facts. We are doing our best to serve you.           Folks are deep in slumber. But at the many more food is moving than in any year within
                                                                                          great freight terminals of the Pennsylvania memory...particularly to great industrial sea- Of course, to keep this tremendous tide of
                                                                                                                                          tens and Atlantic porbs, for shipment overseas.
                                                                                          Railroad all is bustle and activity... the na-                                                  fond flowing in front every part of the coun-
                                                                                                                                          But that is only half the story. To the face of
                                                                                          tions are 'rolling in!'                         rising combi, the railroads today are hauling try often means delays for passenger trains
                                                                                                                                           food at virtually the same low freight rules    and less vital freight shipments. But these are
                                                                                                                                           prevailing in 1939. That helps materially
                                                                                          Fresh meats from great packing centers... to keep living costs down.                             days when "first things must come first." And
                                                                                          crisp vegetables and juicy fruits from lands                                                     food certainly is a first. No if your train should
                                                                                          where the warm sun shines...butter from                                                          be a little late, please remember that vitamins
                                                                                          creameries...cases of canned goods from can-                                  PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD had
                                                                                                                                                                                 for the overseas or home front may have
                                                                                          neries...the foods so essential to wartime                                                       the right-of-way.
                                                                                          energy and health.

                                                                                          Over the lines of the Pennsylvania Railroad




PRR advertisements emphasized patriotism and the need to win the war. Above left: This 1943 PRR magazine advertisement
reminds the nation that "the equipment, supplies, ammunition, food and other items required for every man going overseas
averages close to 8 tons . . . the railroad's job isn't only moving troops - but all they require, too." (Cupper). Another advertise-
ment emphasized the enormous task of supporting America's armed forces: "Coordination between the railroads and the
ships is essential, and any delay could hold up the sailing of a convoy." Above right: This PRR advertisement reminds Ameri-
cans that "first things must come first. And food certainly is a first." (Cupper). Another advertisement entitled Diary of a War-
time Freight Car-Pennsylvania 59944 shows how this car, and the other 1,800,000 freight cars of the American railroad fleet,
serve the war effort by . . . hauling "more tons per trip - over longer distances - at greater speeds - than ever before in the
history of railroading."




              1912 PARTNERS   IN    NATIONAL        DEFENSE        G«i*     Teller



  Above left: In this Pennsylvania Railroad 1942 calendar cover, PRR artist Grif Teller, depicts the crucial job of hauling coal for
  the war effort. More than a third of all the hundreds of thousands of PRR freight cars were dedicated to hauling coal. (Hagley).
  Above right: In this extraordinary aerial 1944 photograph, thousands of Norfolk & Western coal hoppers await their turn to
  unload at the Lamberts Point Transship Dock, Norfolk VA . (Hagley)
                                                                                     41
                             Left: In this 1944 photograph, half-track personnel carriers, here shown as far as the eye
                             can see, are loaded two to a flatcar and secured with wood chocking around their wheels
                             and tracks. Such photographs are scarce because national security forbade civilian pho-
                             tography of military shipments. (USASC)

                              "There was so much materiel for overseas that they had to find places
                              to put it. So any place where there was a side track, or any "Ys" or
                              anything like that, they were stored with cars. I remember seeing
                              cartons and crates marked USSR, so you knew that whatever was in
                              there was headed to the Soviet Union under Lend Lease. So much of
                              this materiel piled up because there were not enough ships so get it
                              out of the country. The only way you could ship it overseas was with
                              the use of convoys with a naval escort, because of the menace of the
                              German U-boats off our east coast."— Carl Landeck.


"By July, 1942, the Pennsylvania Railroad listed 61 separate steam and electric locomotive classification
types within its fleet-wide inventory. Yet, for long-distance freight hauling, only six locomotive classes
dominated, 3 steam and 3 electric. In the steam category those classifications were of the 11, L1, and M1
types. In the electric category, those classifications were of the GG1, P5a "modified," and P5a "boxcab"
types. — Dan Cupper.


                                                                Left: The PRR (2-8-2 wheel arrangement) L1 class Mikado
                                                                locomotive was, because of their identical boilers, the freight
                                                                counterpart to the famous K4. The PRR had 574 of the L1
                                                                class in its fleet during the war. (Internet)




                                                                Left: The PRR (2-10-0 wheel arrangement) 11 class Deca-
                                                                pod locomotive 4245 at Columbus, Ohio in 1937. The 11
                                                                was a slow freight lugger, called the "mortgage lifter" by
                                                                enginemen because they were generally not permitted
                                                                speeds over 50 mph. They often hauled long strings of coal
                                                                and ore hoppers in hilly and mountainous areas and was
                                                                mostly seen west of Harrisburg in heavy grades for heavy
                                                                freight. The PRR had 600 of the 11 class in its fleet during
                                                                the war. (Internet)




                                                               Left: The PRR (4-8-2 wheel arrangement) M1 Mountain class
                                                               locomotive #6924, photographed in Chicago just before WWII.
                                                               Called "mountains" because they were big and powerful, they
                                                               were considered the best steam freight locomotive the railroad
                                                               ever owned. The M1 became known as "the hallmark of the
                                                               Pennsy fast freight service." In the 1940s the M1 class loco-
                                                               motive was often seen with a "coast-to-coast" tender, com-
                                                               plete with the "dog house" for the head-end brakeman. Be-
                                                               cause of the significant weight of this locomotive and tender,
                                                               the M1 class was not allowed to haul freight across the Dela-
                                                               ware River bridge at Delair into Camden, NJ. The PRR had
                                                               300 of the M1 class in its fleet during the war. (Heart)
Right: GG1 4820 leads an eastbound
freight around the curve at Bradford Hills in
the 1940s. The GG1, generally used to
haul passenger "consists," nonetheless did
its share of freight hauling. The PRR had
139 of the GG1 class in its fleet during the
war. (Triumph II)




Right: A pair of P5-A "Modifieds" move oil
tankers and mixed freight out of the fog
east of the COLA Interlocking (MP 38.4)
in the 1940s. These electric units resem-
bled, but lacked the power—or the
class—of their GG1 cousins. The PRR
had 28 of the P5A Modified class in its
fleet during the war. (Triumph II)




Right: P5-A "Boxcab" 34704 hauls a
mixed freight under the wires on the New
York-Washington Main just before WWII.
The PRR had 61 of the P5A class in its
fleet during the war. (Triumph III)




                                                43
ALONG THE WAY
                                                  Left: The PRR's Enola Yard held the distinction of being
                                                  the largest freight classification yard in the United States
                                                  throughout the second World War. Located on the west
                                                  side of the Susquehanna River opposite Harrisburg, Enola
                                                  expanded to 145 miles of track during the war. In 1939
                                                  movement through the yard averaged 11,200 cars per
                                                  day. By 1942 the volume had increased to over 15,750.
                                                  Enola had its busiest day during 1943 when it processed
                                                  20,661 cars within a 24 hour period. Also, as a result of
                                                  greatly increased freight and a shortage of electric units,
                                                  the number of steam locomotives serviced at the Enola
                                                  engine terminal increased from an average of 99 per day
                                                  in 1939 to 166 by 1942. (Heart)




Right: Heading east out of Enola
Yard, PRR freight trains generally
followed the A&S Branch (Low-Grade
Line) through Columbia and Parkes-
burg to Thomdale. The Thomdale
Yard served not only as a water and
coal point, but as a classification yard
for local freight service to industries in
western Chester County, including
Lukens Steel in Coatesville. Shown
here is the coal wharf at Thomdale
Yard, with strings of coal hoppers and
locomotives queued up on March 28,
 1937. (Keystone)




                                                      Left: An M1 hauling mixed freight on the Trenton
                                                      Cutoff before the line was electrified. During WWII
                                                      most freight tonnage was headed eastbound toward
                                                      the New York City area. Trains heading for this des-
                                                      tination had two options to bypass Philadelphia and
                                                      connect to the freight-only Trenton Branch, also
                                                      called the Trenton Cutoff. They could either leave
                                                      the Main Line at Glen Loch—two stops west of
                                                      Paoli—or traverse what was called the Philadelphia
                                                      and Thorndale—or the P&T—Line, west of Downing-
                                                      town. This bypass of Philadelphia ran some 45 miles
                                                      from Glen Loch northeastward to connect with the
                                                      Morrisville Yard near Trenton New Jersey and the
                                                      Main Line from there toward New York City. The
                                                      Trenton Branch thus freed the PRR Main Line east
                                                      of Glen Loch from all freight except what was des-
                                                      tined for Philadelphia and reserved it for the com-
                                                      muter and fast limited passenger service. (Triumph II)



                                             44
    Right: At Whitford, west of the pre-
    sent-day Route 30 bypass in Exton,
    where the double-track P&T connec-
    tion to the Trenton Cutoff crossed
    over the four-track Main Line, hop-
    per cars rumble overhead on the
    massive truss bridge while below the
    PRR Chicago-New York Admiral
    heads east toward Paoli behind a
    GG1. (Heart)




Above: For freight traffic continuing east on the Main Line, elevation becomes
a problem. In the 14 miles from Thorndale to the Greentree—a location be-
tween Malvern and Paoli that no longer exists—and Paoli area, the elevation
increases 225 feet. Here, L1 #714, added as a "helper" in front of a P5-A at
Thorndale, charges east up the grade out of Downingtown toward Paoli.
Once a heavy eastbound freight attained Greentree, one mile west of Paoli at
mile post 21, (elevation 549 feet), its helper would uncouple and return to      Above: From the highest elevation at Green-
Thorndale to repeat the process. (Heart)                                         tree and Paoli it was about a 450 foot descent
                                                                                 on the Main Line east to Philadelphia. At this
                                                                                 point, the brakemen would engage enough of
                                                                                 its freight car retainers to retard the train's
                                                                                 speed and the crew would await the dis-
                                                                                 patcher's signal to proceed. For freight trains
                                                                                 climbing west out of Philadelphia toward
    "The job of the freight brakeman was one of the most                         Paoli, this was one of the toughest grades on
    dangerous jobs on the railroad, and you could often tell                     the Main Line east of the Alleghenies and
    a brakeman before safety became so paramount,                                "pusher" locomotives were attached to the
    because he may only have 2 or 3 fingers on a hand,                           rear of freight trains at the 46th Street engine
                                                                                 house in Philadelphia. Upon reaching Paoli,
    the others having been crushed while carrying out his                        a brakeman standing on the rear of a ca-
    duties. — Carl Landeck.                                                      boose—called a cabin car by the PRR—
                                                                                 would cut off the compressed air line using a
                                                                                 chain, shown above, to detach the pusher "on
                                                                                 the fly" and the train could continue west with-
                                                                                 out having to stop. (Hagley)
                                                               45
                                                                                      Left: The Paoli tower was lo-
                                                                                      cated just east of the division
                                                                                      post between the Philadelphia
                                                                                      and the Philadelphia Terminal
                                                                                      Divisions of the PRR. Con-
                                                                                      structed in 1896 to operate the
                                                                                      interlocking (control the Main
                                                                                      Line switches), it also acted as
                                                                                      the entrance to the mobile unit
                                                                                      yard, seen here with commuter
                                                                                      cars. Beyond is the Paoli sub-
                                                                                      station, one of two brick substa-
                                                                                      tions built in 1915—the other
                                                                                      one is in Bryn Mawr—supplying
                                                                                      power to the overhead catenary
                                                                                      along the Main Line. (Triumph III)


"On the right of this picture is a self-supporting pole. If you are driving down the Lancaster Pike east from
Paoli toward Daylesford you may see a few towers like this, and you may see a few round ones like that
shown in the middle of this picture. Ever wonder why the difference in the pole? The round pole needs to
be supported by guy wires, and the crisscross pole does not. When you see a self-supporting, crisscross
pole you will know that the railroad did not own the land to put the guy wires on. That is the reason they
developed the self-supporting pole."— Carl Landeck.



 Servicing the Delaware River docks in South
 Philadelphia, the Greenwich Yard was the
 primary freight destination for coal, ore, and
 cargo traffic in Philadelphia. The Yards Were
 Expanded in 1942, and again in 1944, to ac-
 commodate increasing wartime export vol-
 ume, and route traffic for the nearby Philadel-
 phia Navy Yard. Traffic in the yard increased
 from a prewar capacity of 2000 cars per day
 to 4500 cars in 1942, and nearly 5000 cars in
 1944. In the 1920s the PRR constructed an
 extensive South Philadelphia freight terminal
 and produce yard on Oregon Avenue, along
 with a 2 million cubic foot cold storage ware-
 house. This complex helped feed the city              Above: A Pennsylvania Railroad freight train, with an L1 steam
 during the war.                                       locomotive in charge, charges westbound "under the wires"
                                                       through Stratford, PA, February 11, 1940. (Keystone)


THE ROLE OF WOMEN
                                                   As more than 43,000 experienced male PRR workers were drafted into
                                                   the armed forces during World War II, women were employed to help
                                                   keep the trains rolling. Approximately 22,000 women served the PRR
                                                   "for the duration" in occupations as diverse as hostlers, ticket agents,
                                                   trainmen, train passenger representatives, telegraphers, brakemen,
                                                   and welders. Left: Beginning in 1943, Sada Tumbull served out of
                                                   Philadelphia's busy Reed Street yard as a freight brakeman. In this
                                                   PRR publicity photograph, she is shown adjusting the manual brake on
                                                   a hopper. She received her termination notice in 1946 when service-
                                                   men with higher seniority returned from active duty. (Triumph III)




                                                     46
                                                           In both these views, new
                                                           PRR employee, Elizabeth
                                                           Johns, goes about her
                                                           duties in 1943 as a
                                                           "trainman." On the left she
                                                           collects tickets on a stan-
                                                           dard mobile unit commuter
                                                           car in what could be the
                                                           Paoli Local. On the right,
                                                           she calls out "All Aboard."
                                                           Notice her sooty hand.
                                                           Even though this is an
                                                           electric car, there were
                                                           many steam locomotives
                                                           and you could not rub your
                                                           hand along the side of a
                                                           coach and expect it to
                                                           come away clean. (Hagley)




THE END OF THE WAR . . . AND NEW BEGINNINGS?
Right: During World War II
almost one-third of the PRR's                                                             "During WWII, the PRR had almost
150,000 employees left to                                                                 used itself up helping to win the "Battle
serve in the armed forces.                                                                of the Home Front." Yet, with an eye
1,307 gave their lives for their                                                          on its post-war future, a PRR maga-
country. Renowned sculptor
Walter Hancock is shown with                                                              zine advertisement called Eyes on
the plastiline model of his                                                               Tomorrow promised America: 'new,
statue, The Angel of Resur-                                                               modern trains; daring designs; exciting
rection. This large bronze                                                                and novel innovations; new power;
statue now rises on the east
side of the waiting area of
                                                                                          new speed; new comforts and luxu-
Philadelphia's 30th Street                                                                ries ... in a word, transportation
Station as a memorial to their                                                            values beyond anything known or
sacrifice. General of the                                                                 experienced before.' It was ultimately
Army, Omar Bradley, deliv-                                                                not to be. — Dan Cupper.
ered the dedication speech
for the Memorial on August
10, 1952. (Keystone)




 ILLUSTRATION CREDITS                                                           This material was presented at the February 20, 2005 meeting
 Cupper - Courtesy of Dan Cupper, nationally recognized railroad historian.   of the Tredyffrin Easttown History Club. Carl Landeck grew up
 Hagley - Courtesy of the Hagley Museum and Library. Wilmington, DE
                                                                              in a PRR family, and at the start of WWII obtained employment
 Heart - Robert S. McGonigal. Heart of the Pennsylvania Railroad: The Main
                                                                              with the PRR in the Valuation Engineer's Department, the
           Line, Philadelphia to Pittsburgh. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Books,
           1996.
                                                                              group responsible for the precision of the railroad's maps. He
 Internet - Images provided by author.                                        served the PRR "for the duration," visiting on-site many of the
 Keystone - The Keystone, vol. 24, no. 4 (Winter 1991). Pennsylvania Rail-    locations covered in this presentation. Although Carl followed a
              road Technical and Historical Society.                          vocation in broadcasting, his love of railroading led to his be-
 PIM - J. W. Boorse, Jr. Philadelphia in Motion: A Nostalgic View of How      coming a charter member and officer of the Philadelphia chap-
        Philadelphians Traveled 1902-1940. Bryn Mawr, PA: Bryn Mawr           ter of the PRR Technical and Historical Society and a PRR
        Press, 1976.                                                          historian well respected for his attention to detail.
 Postcard - Postcards from Paoli album, Paoli Library.                          Roger Thome, who serves as president of the Tredyffrin East-
 Triumph II - David W. Messer. Triumph 11: Philadelphia to Harrisburg,        town Historical Society, remarks that "the opportunity to coordi-
                1828-1998. Baltimore, MD: Barnard, Roberts and Co., 1999.     nate a presentation combining the mighty PRR and the "home
 Triumph III - David W. Messer. Triumph 111: Philadelphia Terminal, 1838-     front" during World War II with a specific focus on the contribu-
                 2000. Baltimore, MD: Barnard, Roberts and Co., 2000.         tion of our local area, was too good to pass up. Many experts
 USASC - U.S. Army Signal Corps.                                              and actual participants of that time were there to lend a hand,
                                                                              for which I am sincerely grateful." He may be contacted at
                                                                        47    rdthorne@verizon.net.