Micro Teaching Skills

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					   Micro Teaching Skills




Dr Nurulhuda A R   TFP 3013/3023
Objectives
    At the end of this session, you should be able
    to:
   Describe several micro teaching skills such
    as introduction, eliciting ideas, questioning,
    explaining, illustrating with examples,
    reinforcement, closure and reflecting skills.
   Apply the knowledge of the micro teaching
    skills whilst performing a micro teaching.

                       TFP 3013/3023
Objectives of doing micro teaching
   Gives a chance for you to:
    undergo training in a situation that is
     easy to monitor
    master teaching skills one by one
    observe teaching achievement in
     different teaching environment
    self criticise, by identifying strength
     and weaknesses
    increase mastering of skills and
     confidence

                    TFP 3013/3023
Microteaching Skills
   Introduction
   Eliciting ideas
   Questioning
   Explaining
   Illustrating with examples
   Reinforcement
   Closure
   Reflecting
                       TFP 3013/3023
Introduction Skill
Purpose of introduction phase:
 Students’ attention

 Students’ readiness: cognitive and affective
  aspects
 Introduce lesson’s objectives

 Built flow of thoughts

 Know students’ prior knowledge and
  misconceptions
                     TFP 3013/3023
4 Components of Introduction Skill
Attract attention
 Voice, movement, signals & eye contact

 Using audio visual aid

 Variety of interaction



Create Motivation
 Rapport and full of spirits

 Stimulate curiosity

 Story telling

                          TFP 3013/3023
Components of Introduction Skill -
continue
Structuring
 Lesson objectives

 Brief activities

 Eliciting ideas



Making Connection
 Compare and contrast

 Prior knowledge

 Current events associated with students

                       TFP 3013/3023
Questioning Skill
Purpose of questioning students:
   Involve student actively in the learning process
   Arouse students’ attention and curiosity
   Focus students’ attention to ideas or concept
   Encourage students to ask questions
   Develop thinking skills
   Seek clarification and elaboration of students’ ideas –
    identify and address misconceptions
   Assess students’ understanding

                           TFP 3013/3023
5 Components of questioning skill
Asking the question
 State questions with precision and in as few
  words as possible
 Avoid the use of rhetorical questions
 Direct questions to the whole class
 Direct questions to volunteers and non-
  volunteers
 Use a wide variety of questions
 Questions suitable to students’ ability
 Clear presentation - not threatening

                      TFP 3013/3023
Components of questioning skill
- continue
Use appropriate Wait-Time (Pause)
 Give time for students to think, both after
  posing the question and before the teacher
  responds to it
 Average wait-time 3 to 5 sec
 Longer for questions requiring higher level of
  thinking skill
 Can significantly enhance the analytic and
  problem-solving skills of students
                     TFP 3013/3023
Components of questioning skill
- continue
Selecting students to answer
   Pick volunteers and non-volunteers
   Call on one student by name even when the whole
    class answer in unison
   Randomised approach keeps all students engaged
   Assert rules when appropriate (e.g. insist on hands-
    up before allowing students to answer) when picking
    volunteers



                          TFP 3013/3023
Components of questioning skill -
continue
Responding/reacting to students answers
   Ensure everyone’s attention to answers
   Respond/react without judgement by rephrasing students’ answers
    in teacher’s own words, if the teacher wishes to keep the discussion
    going. Otherwise, acknowledge correct answer with positive
    reinforcement and identify and ask for alternative answers from
    other students if the answer is incorrect.
   Prompt if students cannot answer – e.g. by giving clue/hint or by
    rephrasing the question and perhaps simplifying it
   Probe further to clarify students’ ideas and/or challenge students
    and thus encourage higher order thinking
   Redirect and ask around before accepting an answer
   Interrelate all ideas/answers so that students will be able to arrive at
    a conclusion


                                  TFP 3013/3023
Components of questioning skill
- continue
Emphasise/summarise correct answer
   Verbally
   Using visual aid, if appropriate
   Restate the purpose after a lengthy questioning
    session




                        TFP 3013/3023
Summary of steps in questioning
               Ask question to the whole class

                      Allow wait-time

      Call on one student by name/pick volunteer
        React to answer without judgement/
       acknowledge correct answer/ask for
    alternatives/prompt/probe/redirecting/ask
                     around

         Emphasise correct answer



                        TFP 3013/3023
Explaining Skill
Purpose of explaining:
   Present information in an efficient manner
   Students understand concept
   Students can follow instructions
   Built flow of thoughts



                      TFP 3013/3023
Types of Explaining
  Interpretative
   Specify central meaning of a term or statement
   Clarify issue: idea, concept or principle


Descriptive
 Describe processes, structures and procedures
 Clear instruction on steps flow chart

        Reasoning
         Use logical processes to answer questions
         Restructure alternative concepts




                         TFP 3013/3023
4 Components of Explaining Skill
Use of Clarity
 Deals with specific aspect
 Refocus by summary or illustration
 Appropriate language level
 Avoid vagueness                    Use Emphasis
     Sequencing                  Different tones

      Inductive/deductive       Pointers/highlight

      Verbal hints/prompts

      Variation and links  Feedback
                             Involvement of students

                             Opportunity to display
                              understanding, attitudes or
                              interest
                            TFP 3013/3023
Illustrating with examples
Purpose of illustrating with examples:
 To lead students from simple to complex
  concepts
 To clarify rules, concepts or principles to
  students
 To make difficult or abstract ideas easy for
  students to understand


                      TFP 3013/3023
Guiding Principles of Illustrating
with Examples Skill
   Use simple examples (analogies, stories,
    concrete objects or diagrams) : which are
    based on student’s prior knowledge
   Use relevant examples: which are applicable to
    the particular rule or concept
   Use appropriate media: suit the age and ability
    of students and rule, principle or concept to be
    taught

                        TFP 3013/3023
Guiding Principles of Illustrating
with Examples Skill - continue
   Use interesting examples: arouse students’
    curiosity and interest
   Involve students: verbally or drawings
   Prepare in advance of lesson
   Observe student’s attentive behaviour and
    verbal responses to make sure examples are
    appropriate
   Provide sufficient number of examples and use
    a variety of instances

                       TFP 3013/3023
Reinforcement Skill
Purpose of Reinforcement:
 Enhance classroom interaction

 Improve classroom discipline

 Motivate students

 Increase students’ confidence

 Modify or change student behaviour or
  learning in a positive way.
 Increase students’ understanding

                    TFP 3013/3023
Guiding Principles of
Reinforcement Skill
   Display warmth and enthusiasm
   Open mind towards students’ behaviour
   Variation
   Sincere
   Positive reinforcement




                     TFP 3013/3023
 Components of Positive
 Reinforcement Skills
  Verbal
  Positive words to encourage students

  ‘good, ‘yes’, ‘good answer’    Use of reward
Non verbal action                  Let students do project

 Nod the head                     Library search

 Clap of hands                    Field trip

 Smile                            Education-oriented games

 Thumbs-up                        Cancel homework if students

 Listening attentively             have attained mastery
 Get closer to student
                           Use students’ answer
                            Change structure/rephrase
 Pat on the back
                            Repeat answer to proceed

                            Additional questions

                            TFP 3013/3023
Reinforcement Activities
   Use of multimedia
   Hands-on and minds-on
   Active participation




                    TFP 3013/3023
Closure Skill
   Cognitive
    Review/reinforce and summarise learning outcomes
    or objectives
    Assess students’ understanding & students make
    conclusion
    Relate lesson with the next topic/lesson
    Give appropriate reading and/or written homework
   Social
    Affective values: feeling of achievement and
    enjoyment of the lesson

                        TFP 3013/3023

				
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