Folk and Popular Culture - PowerPoint by gabyion

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									Folk and Popular
Definition of Culture
    A group of belief systems, norms and
     values practiced by a people
    Recognized in 1 of 2 ways
    1.   People call themselves a culture
    2.   Others can label a certain group of people as a
Folk Culture
   Small
   Incorporates homogeneous population
   Typically rural
   Cohesive in cultural traits
   Work to preserve those traits in order to
    claim uniqueness
Folk Culture cont.
   Material culture: what a group of people
   Nonmaterial culture: beliefs, practices,
    aesthetics and values of a group of people
Popular Culture
   Large
   Incorporates heterogeneous populations
   Typically urban
   Experiences quickly changing cultural traits
   Practiced by people across identities and
    across the world
   Also encompasses material and
    nonmaterial culture
How is popular culture diffused?
   Hierarchical diffusion
       Uses an urban hierarchy (distance decay)
       David Harvey: time-space compression
            Refers to social and psychological effects of living
             in a time-space convergence (Donald Janelle)
       Since technology links some places more closely
        than others, culture diffuses more quickly rather
        than at a constant rate
Hearths of Popular Culture
   How do things become a part of popular
       Often begins with contagious diffusion
       Ex. Dave Matthews Band
Manufacturing a Hearth
   Clayton Rosati
       Studied infrastructure of MTV & its role in the
        production of popular culture and geographies of
        popular culture
       MTV produces popular culture by opening
        globalized spaces to local culture thereby
        globalizing local culture
   Popular culture does not take over the
    existing popular culture, rather a process
    called reterritorialization of popular
    culture occurs
       When people w/in a place start to produce an
        aspect of popular culture themselves in the
        context of their own culture ands making it their
How are local cultures sustained?
   Assimilation of certain groups destroyed local
   Local culture sustained through customs
   Simon Harrison
       2 goals of local cultures: keep other cultures out; keep
        their culture in
       Local cultures work to avoid cultural appropriation
       Recognized that through cultural appropriation, places
        become increasingly important
       neolocalism
Influence of the Physical Environment
   Customs are influenced by climate, soil and
   Particularly responsive to environment b/c low
    level of technology and agricultural economy
   2 necessities of life: food and shelter
       Shows the influence of cultural values and the
        environment on the development of unique folk culture
Distinctive Food Preferences
   Derived from the environment
   Adapt food preferences to environmental
   Role of terrior (effects of the environment on a
    particular food item)
Food attractions and Taboos
   Everything in nature has a signature or distinct
   Therefore people eat and don’t eat certain things
    based on a response as to whether it is socially
    acceptable or not
   The nutritional value is one of the determining
    factors in whether someone eats something or not
   Some things are eaten b/c they enhance some
    characteristic the culture deems important
Food attractions and Taboo
   Taboo to eat things that are thought to embody
   May establish food taboos to protect the
   Religion and social values also play a role in food
Folk Housing
   House among the essential facts of human
    A. Distinctive Building Materials
       -influenced by location, resources
        available and social factors
    B. Distinctive House Form and Orientation
       -forms result from customary beliefs or
        environmental factors
Folk Housing cont.
 C. Housing and Environment
    -homes are constructed based on the
U.S. Folk House Forms
    Fred Kniffen-3 major hearths of folk house forms
     in the US:
    1.   NE-saltbox, two-chimney, cape cod, front gable and
    2.   Mid-Atlantic: “I” house
    3.   Lower Cheasapeake-one story w/steep roof and two
    Style of housing not as distinctive anymore due to
     rapid communication and transportation systems
    Majority of people don’t build the houses they live
Diffusion of folk housing forms
Local & Popular Culture Seen in the
Cultural Landscape
    Reflects norms, values and aesthetics of a culture
    Placelessness (Edward Relph)
    Cultural landscapes are so similar because:
    1. Architecture forms + planning ideas have diffused
       around the world.
    2. Individual businesses + products are so widespread
       they impact all places
    3. The borrowing of idealized landsca[e images promotes a
       blurring of place distinctiveness
Why is popular culture widely
    Popular Housing Styles
    A. Modern house styles (1945-1960): minimal traditional,
       ranch, split level, contemporary + shed style houses
    B. Neo-eclectic (1960-): mansard, neo-Tudor, Neo-French,
       *have great rooms rather than separate living + family
Diffusion of Popular Culture cont.
   Rapid Diffusion of Clothes
      Characterized by income and job characteristics
      Improved communication
      Exposure to folk dress due to increased travel +
    A. Jeans-know why + how jeans became a part of
       popular culture
Diffusion of Popular Culture cont.
    B. Snack foods and beverages
      *preference based on what is made, grown or
         imported locally
      *also affected by background
      *dependent on income and advertising
Role of TV in diffusing Popular
   Significant custom because:
    1. Most popular leisure activity
    2. Most important means by which culture is
Why Does Globalization of Popular
Culture Cause Problems?
   Threat to Folk Culture:
       Rising income increases demand for items
        valued in popular culture
       Can lead to domination of folk culture
            Loss of traditional values (clothing)
            Change in traditional role of women-How?
            Can also cause problems in less developed
             nations-increase in prostitution
Globalization of Popular Culture cont.
   Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism
       Threatens LDC’s independence
       Seen as a new type of economic + cultural
       Allow governments of LDC to censor shows
        and/or only program shows appropriate to
        traditional values
Environmental Impact of Popular
   Modifies nature
   Uniform landscapes-seen to generate
    product recognition + greater consumption
Negative Environmental Impacts
   Increased demand for natural resources
       Depletion of resources and/or extinction of
       Inefficient use of resources
   Pollution
       Popular culture produces a lot of waste
       Folk culture can also negatively impact the
        environment by ignoring natural processes

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