Which is a Slave

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					 What is

How do you define slavery?

 Historiography-           Pigmies placed on the shoulders of giants see
  more than the giants themselves. (Didacus Stella).

 Contextualization- Working with what you know.

 Role-shifting- What would it take to make you a slave?
       Which is a Slave?

Marriage Slave?                    Minor Slave?

                  African Slave?

Penal Slaves?                      Wage Slave?
How do you Define Slavery?

 A system for extracting ―free‖ labor?
 Loss of personal freedom?
 Arbitrary power held by one person over
 A system for enforcing the superiority of
  one race over another?
                     Defining Slavery
   “You know the worst thing about being a slave? They make you work but
    they don't pay you or let you go.” Futurama, A Pharaoh to Remember.

   An obligation to serve another for life, in consideration of diet, and other
    common necessaries. (Hugo Grotius, 1583-1645, para.).

   Perfect slavery is an obligation to be directed by another in all one's actions.
    (Dr. Thomas Rutherforth, 1712-1771, para.).

   The establishment of a right, which gives one man such a power over
    another, as renders him absolute master over his life and fortune.
    (Baron Charles de Montesquieu, 1689-1755, para.).

   “Slavery was instituted not merely to provide control of labor but also as a
    system of racial adjustment and social order.” (Ulrich Phillips, The Central
    Theme of Southern History).
  How do you Define Freedom?

Mobility?             Freedom of movement.

Association?                      Freedom to attend religious services
  of your choice, to meet with friends, to date/marry a person of your

Ownership? Freedom to inherit, possess, and dispose
  of property

General Choice?                             Freedom to choose your
  vocation, to labor (or not labor), to live where you choose.
      Perspective by Contrast

“…all men are created equal, that they are
  endowed by their Creator with certain
  unalienable Rights, that among these are
  Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
  –Declaration of Independence, July 1776.
    General Characteristics of Slavery
 Obligation of perpetual service at the will of the
  Master alone.
 Such obligation is reached in an arbitrary
 The slaves degraded condition descends from
  parent to child.
 Master has near limitless power to restrict and
  correct the slave.
 No acquisition of property without owner’s
  assent, and even then no recognized right.
 Furthermore, the slave is alienable — similar to
  other forms of property.
             Control of Movement
    Numerous entities and systems worked together to
              limit the mobility of slaves
 Search dogs
 Neighbors
 Private slave hunters
 Plantation informants

 Constables
 Patrols
 Night Watch
               Control of Movement
   “RUN away from the subscriber, a Virginia born Negro Fellow named
    WALTON, 23 Years of Age…As the said Fellow ran away without receiving
    any Abuse, the Taker up is desired to give him ten Lashes every ten Miles.
    (Virginia Gazette, Dec. 1, 1774).

   “Runaway, a negro named Hambleton, limps on his left foot where he was
    shot a few weeks ago, while runaway.” (Miss. Vicksburg Register, Sept. 5,

   “Runaway, a negro boy named Mose, he has a wound in the right shoulder
    near the backbone, which was occasioned by a rifle shot.” (Columbus [Ga.]
    Southern Sun, Aug. 7, 1838).

   “Run away from the subscriber in Charles City county, the 14th of April last,
    a VIRGINIA born Negro fellow named PETER, about 44 years of age…the
    said Negro is outlawed; and I will give £10 to any person or persons that will
    kill him and bring me his head, separate from his body, or 40s. if delivered
    to the subscriber near the Long Bridge.” (Virginia Gazette, May 11, 1769).
The Ability of one man to
Arbitrarily Punish Another.

    The end [of slavery] is the profit of the
    master, his security and the public safety...
    [therefore] the power of the master must be
    absolute, to render the submission of the
    slave perfect. – State v. Mann, 13 N.C. 263
           Slave as Property
A slave is alienable in a manner similar to other forms of
                        Slaves for Sale
   "TO BE SOLD, On Saturday the 27th Instant, at the London Coffee House, TWELVE
    or Fourteen valuable NEGROES, consisting of young Men, Women, Boys and Girls;
    they have all had the Small Pox, can talk English, and are seasoned to the Country.
    The sale to begin at Twelve o’Clock.” (The Pennsylvania Gazette, July 18, 1765).

   "TO be sold by public Venue, at the London Coffee House, on Saturday the 30th
    Instant, a likely negroe Wench, fit for Town or Country Business. She has had the
    Smallpox and Measles. N.B. She is not sold for any Fault, but on Account of the
    Decease of her Master." (The Pennsylvania Gazette, January 28, 1762).

   “The subscriber has just received and offers for sale at his old stand…[in New
    Orleans]…the largest lot of NEGROES in the city, consisting of house servants, field
    hands, and mechanics. They will be sold on reasonable terms for cash or good
    paper.” (New Orleans Daily Picayune, March 20, 1852).
    What Makes a Slave, a Slave?
 Black Skin?
 Physical weakness/strength?
 Mental inferiority?

             The Law !
 Constitution of the Carolinas

―Every freeman of Carolina shall have
 absolute power and authority over his
 negro slaves, of what opinion or religion
 [what]soever.‖ – John Locke, The
 Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, §
 110, 1669.
           Sommersett’s Case
“The state of slavery is of such a nature, that it is
 incapable of being introduced on any reasons,
 moral or political, but only by positive law,
 which preserves its force long after the reasons,
 occasion, and time itself from whence it was
 created, is erased from memory. It is so odious,
 that nothing can be suffered to support it, but
 positive law.”
                     No Slave Shall…
                          2 kinds of statutes

Those which forbid certain                   Those which excuse
  actions.                                   certain actions.
   Possess weapons (firearm, sword, etc.)      Capturing a slave
   Meet together                               Punishing a slave
   Travel without a pass                       Keeping a slave
   Learn to read and write                     Selling a slave
   Trade or barter                             Killing a slave
     Equivalents of the Slave Code

 Capturing   a slave   =   Kidnapping
 Punishing a slave     =   Assault
 Keeping a slave       =   False Imprisonment
 Selling a slave       =   Human Trafficking
 Killing a slave       =   Homicide
    The Testimony of Fountain
 Enslaved  in Charlottesville, Virginia.
 Interviewed June 11, 1949.
 Grandfather belonged to Thomas
           Slavery Defined?

 How   has your original definition changed?

 Surprise,I won’t give you a definition of
 slavery! (Hint: it may be on the final).
       Which is a Slave?

Marriage Slave?                    Minor Slave?

                  African Slave?

Penal Slaves?                      Wage Slave?