puro abstracts by adelaide17madette

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                                           MSA ABSTRACTS 2007

Acevedo, Carmen T. University of Puerto Rico, Rio              Cytosporin A, B & C, Cytosporone D & E, and
Piedras Campus, Department of Biological Sciences,             Grahamimycin A, A1 & B. Most of the strains are
P.O. Box 23323, San Juan, PR 00931-3323.                       not identified. We examine the lineage of the
ctacevedo@uprrp.edu. Fungi diversity in Puerto                 patented strains in relation to clades containing well-
Rican mangroves and algae and their potential as               characterized species using multigene phylogenetic
bioremediation agents. Mangroves and algae are                 analysis. The analysis is based on partial sequences
suitable substrates for marine fungi. Red and brown            from DNA of the following five nuclear genes: the
algae and red mangrove Rhizophora mangle were                  complete ITS, the 3'-end of the LSU, EF-1 alpha,
examined for the presence of endophytic marine                 beta-tubulin, and histone H3. Poster
fungi and various cultures were screened for the               Aime, M. Catherine1, Henkel, Terry W.2* and
ability to degrade phenanthrene. Ten species of                Ryvarden, Leif.3 1USDA-ARS, Systematic Botany
marine fungi were collected from mangroves, ten                and Mycology Lab, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA,
species in four genera of brown algae, and eighteen            2
                                                                 Department of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State
species in twelve genera of red algae from beaches in
                                                               University, Arcata, CA 95521,USA, 3Department of
Puerto Rico. Thirty marine manglicolous and
                                                               Botany, University of Oslo, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo,
endophytic fungi were used for biotransformation of
                                                               Norway. twh5@humboldt.edu. Polyporoid fungi of
phenanthrene assays. Thirteen isolates transformed
                                                               Guyana: diversity, new species, and ecological
significant amounts of phenanthrene in culture,
                                                               roles. Seven years of field work in a remote region of
eleven of which were endophytes. Two of the
                                                               Guyana have uncovered a diverse assemblage of
metabolites of phenanthrene produced were identified           polypores associated with mixed and/or ectotrophic
by HPLC/MS as dihydrodiol phenanthrene and
                                                               Dicymbe corymbosa (Caesalpiniaceae)-dominated
phenanthrol. Surfactants were tested for their ability
                                                               rainforests in the Pakaraima Mountains. As a result,
to solubilize phenanthrene, and therefore increase the
                                                               the total known species of polypores in Guyana has
biotransformation of phenanthrene. Four different
                                                               nearly doubled, from 55 to 91, including nine new
fungi were used with surfactants in two
                                                               species in seven genera of the Polyporales,
concentrations. Results indicate that the surfactants
                                                               Hymenochaetales and Russulales (Amauroderma,
examined can either enhance or inhibit
                                                               Ceriporia, Dichomitus, Fomitopsis; Coltricia,
biotransformation depending on the fungus and
                                                               Coltriciella; Wrightoporia) and new distribution
concentration. Xylaria biotransformed significant              records for rarely collected species (e.g. Antrodiella
amounts of phenanthrene with and without
                                                               dentipora, Antrodiella luteocontexta, Junghuhnia
surfactants. Results suggest that marine fungi and
                                                               minuta). We report new species that expand current
particularly endophytes are potentially useful for
                                                               generic and family concepts, such as Amauroderma
bioremediation in marine environments. Symposium
                                                               coltricioides, which is the first known species in the
                                                               Ganodermataceae with smooth basidiospores. In
Adams, Gerard C. Department of Plant Pathology,                addition to describing a variety of wood-decay
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824,             strategies among these polypores, we provide habitat,
USA. gadams@msu.edu. A multigene phylogenetic                  morphological and molecular evidence supporting an
analysis of species of Valsa revealing lineages of             ectomycorrhizal nutritional mode for Coltricia spp.
medically important strains. Valsa is a                        and examine the ecological consequences of
cosmopolitan genus of fungi in the Diaporthales.               Phellinus heart rot in D. corymbosa forests.
Species in the genus cause cankers on woody                    Contributed Presentation
angiosperms and gymnosperms and occasionally
                                                               Alexander, Mark* and Baird, Richard. Plant
parasitize herbaceous plants. Identification of Valsa
                                                               Pathology, P.O. Box 9655, 206 Dorman Hall,
species based on morphology has long been
                                                               Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA.
problematical. Species discovery has been ongoing
                                                               MAlexander@plantpath.msstate.edu. Baseline data
yet description of new species has foundered on the
                                                               on pathogenic and ectomycorrhizal fungi
lack of distinguishing features. Members of the                associated with old growth eastern hemlock in the
Diaporthales are recognized as a profitable resource           GSMNP and effects of imidacloprid on
for drug discovery. Valsa contains several strains that
                                                               rhizospheric fungi and future restoration efforts.
have received U.S. Patents because they produce
                                                               At its current rate of spread the exotic Hemlock
unique compounds with important medical
                                                               Wooly Adelgid (HWA) will infest and devastate the
properties. The compounds include Cytosporacins,


entire native range of eastern hemlock within the next        Arnold, A. Elizabeth. Department of Plant Sciences,
2 decades. Baseline data on all associated fungal             University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
organisms must be obtained before forest habitat              arnold@ag.arizona.edu. Barcoding endophytic
succession occurs. The effects of the loss of hemlock         fungi: lessons, limitations, and linkages with
on associated soilborne fungal communities and on             multilocus data sets. Drawing from surveys of
subsequent hemlock seedling establishment and                 endophytic fungi from (1) all major lineages of land
regeneration are unknown. Select stands are being             plants and (2) biogeographic provinces ranging from
preserved using the systemic insecticide                      the arctic to the tropics, I will explore the degree to
imidacloprid. The current application method, soil            which a large-scale, single-locus (bar-code) data set
drenching, has an unknown impact on belowground               based on the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed
fungal communities. Two study sites were selected in          spacer (ITS) can further our understanding of fungal
the Great Smoky Mountains National Park at two                diversity and ecology. Specifically, I will (1) address
elevations within pure stands of mature hemlock.              patterns of geographical distributions, taxonomic
Twenty mature trees randomly selected at each site            makeup, host specificity, and diversity of endophytic
were subjected to one of 5 imidacloprid treatments            fungi using a data set of over 6000 ITS sequences
varying rate and frequency and replicated 4 times at 2        from cultures and environmental samples; (2) explore
elevations. Effects of treatments were analyzed by            empirical approaches for delimiting meaningful
collecting a 120cm root sample from each replicate            taxonomic units from ITS data alone; (3) highlight a
tree for identification of fungi using cultural               variety of limitations imposed by the single-locus and
techniques and molecular sequence data. Baseline              ITS-specific approach, and demonstrate that such
data on fungal population diversity and abundance             issues vary in intensity among clades of Ascomycota
were compared among treatments and controls. In               and among different geographic sites; (4) discuss the
addition, all terrestrial macrofungi within the plots         degree to which ITS data are congruent and
were collected monthly. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were            incongruent with inferences based on multi-locus
isolated from fresh sporocarps and cryogenically              datasets; and (5) describe several new methods for
stored in a fungal repository. Poster                         visualizing ITS data in spatial and phylogenetic
                                                              contexts, with the goal of critically evaluating the
Alspaugh, Andrew. Dept. of Medicine, Duke
                                                              biological realism and inferential strength of the bar-
University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.
                                                              code approach for studies of highly diverse fungi.
andrew.alspaugh@duke.edu. Transcriptional
                                                              Symposium Presentation
profiling in the human fungal pathogen
Cryptococcus neoformans. Similar to other                     Atkinson, Toni J.1*, Orlovich, David, A.2 and Miller,
microbial pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans must             Andrew N.1 1Section for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural
coordinate the expression of many genes to adapt to           History Survey, 1816 S. Oak St., Champaign, IL
the environment of the infected host. We have                 61820, USA, 2Department of Botany, University of
previously demonstrated that the cAMP signal                  Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.
transduction pathway coordinately regulates the               toni@botany.otago.ac.nz. From the Land of the
expression of genes required for capsule and melanin          Long White Cloud to the Great Smoky
production. Using whole genome microarrays, we                Mountains: New Zealand and Appalachian
have begun to explore the transcriptional network             diversity among woody decay pyrenomycetes. The
controlled by the cAMP pathway. Several                       New Zealand archipelago, a temperate, oceanic
transcription factors act downstream of this                  island group 1600 km south-east of Australia, forms
conserved pathway, including the Nrg1 protein. In             the largest landmass in the south Pacific. Island
addition to capsule and melanin production, C.                biotas are usually considered ‘depauperate’ when
neoformans must also control subtle morphogenic               compared with those of continents. New Zealand
events to retain full virulence. The cytoskeletal             does have fewer plant and animal taxa than a
changes required for altered morphogenesis are                continent, but its biota has long been noted for its
regulated by Ras signaling pathways. Gene                     uniqueness. Recent research among woody decay
microarray studies have also demonstrated the role of         pyrenomycetes in New Zealand, while finding a high
Ras-dependent gene expression in morphogenesis.               level of endemism, nonetheless shows that families,
Transcriptional profiling of targeted C. neoformans           genera, and frequently morphological species are
mutant strains with altered virulence has begun to            shared with the continental northern hemisphere.
demonstrate the complex ways in which a microbial             From knowledge to date, we will discuss the striking
pathogen develops an adaptive cellular response to            morphological and molecular similarities and
the host environment. Symposium Presentation                  differences between New Zealand and Appalachian
                                                              members of the Lasiosphaeriaceae,


Chaetosphaeriaceae, and Helminthosphaeriaceae.                  locoweed fungal endophyte, we found novel
Contributed Presentation                                        morphological characteristics that were not seen in
                                                                the previously limited examination of locoweed
Avis, Peter G.*, Leacock, Patrick and Mueller, Greg
                                                                species. Genetic differences were also observed in
M. Department of Botany, The Field Museum of
                                                                nucleic acid sequences of the ITS (internal
Natural History, 1400 South Lake Shore Drive,
Chicago IL 60605, USA. pavis@fieldmuseum.org.                   transcribed spacer) and gpd (glyceraldehyde
                                                                phosphate dehydrogenase) regions of the different
Scale dependent responses of ectomycorrhizal
                                                                isolates. The morphological and genetic differences
fungal communities to simulated nitrogen
                                                                we found illustrate the diversity of the fungal
deposition in oak forests of the Chicago region.
                                                                endophyte and allow us to distinguish between
Nitrogen deposition can dramatically impact the
                                                                isolates collected from a number of different
diversity and species composition of ectomycorrhizal
                                                                locoweed species. Poster
communities, but it is uncertain at what level of
added nitrogen or at what spatial scale these                   Beard, Charles E. Department of Entomology, Soils,
responses occur in temperate deciduous ecosystems.              and Plant Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson,
We tested the impact of projected realistic increases           SC 29634, USA. cbrd@clemson.edu. Trichospore
in nitrogen deposition levels in the Chicago region by          shapes of the trichomycete fungus Harpella
measuring the response of ectomycorrhizal fungi to              melusinae. The trichomycete fungus Harpella
nitrogen fertilization at two oak dominated forests.            melusinae is a common symbiote in the midgut of
We systematically surveyed ectomycorrhizal                      larval black flies. The variation and wide distribution
sporocarps in treatment and control plots from 2003-            of Harpella melusinae probably represents the
2006, but did not detect any significant differences in         existence of a species complex, but limited
either abundance or species richness of                         morphological characters are available for
ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. Belowground, we                      discriminating possible cryptic species. The asexual
measured ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots by              spores (trichospores) of the fungus vary from coiled
morphological and molecular methods including                   to straight. Straight and coiled or curved trichospores
terminal restriction length fragment length                     have not been found on the same thallus. Straight-
polymorphisms and sequencing. We detected                       spored thalli might represent a species or genotype
significant differences between treatment and                   distinct from coiled- or curved-spore thalli. We are
controls in species richness and composition at the             testing the heritability of spore shape by allowing
scale of the treatment plots but not at the scale of the        horizontal transmission of the fungus from field-
soil core or individual roots. Such responses indicate          collected larvae to lab-reared trichomycete-free
that realistic future increases of nitrogen deposition          larvae. The straight spore shape (from Simulium
could impact ectomycorrhizal communities,                       innoxium) carries over to the new host (Simulium
especially at larger spatial scales. Contributed                vittatum). Coiled spores are more difficult to collect
Presentation                                                    and horizontal transmission is less successful,
                                                                suggesting that the lab-reared larvae are less
Baucom, Deana*, Romero, Marie and Creamer,
                                                                competent hosts for the coiled spores from field-
Rebecca. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces,
                                                                collected larvae (Simulium tuberosum grp.), or that
NM 88003, USA. dbaucom@nmsu.edu.
                                                                the coiled spores are less infective in this study.
Morphological and genetic characterization of
                                                                Spore shape might be related to other parameters
new fungal endophytes of locoweed found in six
                                                                such as host physiology. We also demonstrate that
western states. Toxic locoweeds (Astragalus and
Oxytropis spp.) found throughout the western USA                horizontal transmission between host species occurs.
                                                                Contributed Presentation
are accountable for significant losses to grazing
animals. Fungal endophytes of locoweed are                      Bechara, Mark A.1*, Heinemann, Paul1, Walker, Paul
responsible for production of the toxic alkaloid                N.1 and Romaine, C. Peter.2 1Department of
swainsonine and have been shown to cause                        Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 249
symptoms of locoweed toxicity outside of the plant              Agriculture Engineering Building, The Pennsylvania
environment. Fungal endophytes of locoweed have                 State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA,
been characterized previously from only a few of the              Department of Plant Pathology, 211 Buckhout
many species of Astragalus and Oxytropis. To further            Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University,
expand our understanding of this endophytic fungus,             University Park, PA 16802, USA. mab568@psu.edu.
we examined culture morphology and genetics of                  The development of non-composted grain-based
fungi isolated from nine locoweed species collected             substrates for mushroom production. Two
from six states. Although all isolates were typically           different systems for Agaricus bisporus (button
slow growing in culture, as indicative of the                   mushroom) production are proposed as alternatives to


the traditional environmentally problematic                    between Douglas-fir trees and R. vesiculosus/ R.
mushroom production system that relies on                      vinicolor genets in this site, with an uneven and
composting of plant and animal organic matter. Each            clustered degree distribution. Continuing work will
system involves processing grains into suitable                resolve the MN structure by integrating spatial data
mushroom substrates. The first system proposes the             with genetic and network analyses. Poster
use of commercial grain spawn, the vehicle typically           Berbee, Mary L. Department of Botany, University
used to inoculate traditional substrates, supplemented
                                                               of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z4,
with high protein delayed-release supplements. In
                                                               Canada. berbee@interchange.ubc.ca. What makes a
this system, grain spawn producers supply mushroom
                                                               fungus? Fungal-specific genes and the origin of
producers the entire substrate for mushroom
                                                               chitinous cell walls. The Chytridiomycota and
production. The second system consists of producing
                                                               Zygomycota include ancient fungal lineages that may
mushrooms on sterilized grains supplemented with
                                                               have originated hundreds of millions of years before
oilseeds. In this system, an aseptic processing system
                                                               plants invaded land. Complete genomic sequences
would be located on-site at the mushroom production            are now available for species in both groups. We
facility to sterilize grain substrates. For the second         have been studying genes that distinguish the fungi
system, mushroom producers would need to get their
                                                               from other kingdoms. Among the fungal specific
inoculum from grain spawn producers to inoculate
                                                               genes, genes involved in cell wall construction,
the sterilized substrates. The highest yield of
                                                               notably chitin synthases and chitin deacetylases were
mushrooms for the commercial grain spawn substrate
                                                               diverse among fungi and divergent compared with
supplemented with delayed-release supplements was
                                                               their closest paralogues in other organisms. Both
13.7 kg/m2, whereas yield from substrates composed
                                                               chitin synthases and chitin deacetylases were more
of cereal grains and oilseeds was 16.9 kg/m2. A
                                                               numerous in the basal fungi than in the Ascomycota,
discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of           where the genes have been best characterized. While
each alternative mushroom production system will be
                                                               most filamentous ascomycete species have ~7-8
addressed. Poster
                                                               paralogues of the chitin synthases, the zygomycete
Beiler, Kevin J.1*, Durall, Daniel M.2 and Simard,             Rhizopus oryzae has 25; the chytrid
Suzanne W.1 1Department of Forest Sciences,                    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has 16 and an EST
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada, 2Department of                  library of Blastocladiella emersonii has at least 8
Biology, University of British Columbia-Okanagan,              different chitin synthases. Suggesting that diverse
Kelowna, BC V1Y 1V7, Canada.                                   chitin synthases were common to the ancestor of
KJBeiler@interchange.ubc.ca. Structure of                      almost all fungi, the earliest duplications of the cell
mycorrhizal networks between Rhizopogon                        wall genes, and establishment of fungal specific
vesiculosus/ R. vinicolor and Pseudotsuga menziesii            biosynthetic domains, preceded the divergence of the
trees. We investigated the structure of mycorrhizal            chytrids from other fungi. Contributed Presentation
networks (MNs) formed between genets of
                                                               Berube, Jean A.1* and Stefani, Franck O.P.2
Rhizopogon vinicolor/ R. vesiculosus and multiple              1
                                                                 Canadian Forest Service, 1055 du PEPS, P.O. Box
cohorts of Interior Douglas-fir (P. menziesii) trees in
                                                               10380, Quebec City, QC, G1V 4C7, Canada, 2 CRBF,
British Columbia. Structure was determined based on
                                                               Faculte de foresterie et de geomatique, Universite
DNA obtained from tuberculate mycorrhizas sampled
                                                               Laval, Quebec City, QC, G1K 7P4, Canada.
within a 30m x 30m plot, and tree needles obtained
                                                               jberube@cfl.forestry.ca. Foliar endophyte
from trees inside and within 10m of the plot.
                                                               biodiversity of cloned needles versus plated
Microsatellite regions of DNA were used to                     needles. We compared the foliar endophyte
distinguish both tree and fungal individuals, and to
                                                               biodiversity of black spruce (P. mariana) cloned
match the identities of tree roots in mycorrhizas with
                                                               needles versus the endophytes recorded in Petri
trees above ground. This data was used to model MN
                                                               plated needles. Three-years old asymptomatic healthy
structure from the phytological perspective with trees
                                                               needles were collected in Valcartier near Quebec
as nodes and R. vinicolor/ R. vesiculosus genets
                                                               City, surface sterilized and then plated on nutrient
colonizing >1 tree as links. Based on 210
                                                               agar or DNA extracted, ITS PCR amplified and
mycorrhizas collected among 55 trees, we recovered
                                                               cloned. Twenty-three plated needles yielded only
21 R. vesiculosus genets, 22 R. vinicolor genets, and          three foliar endophyte species and never more than
77 tree genotypes, 69 of which were linked to other            one endophyte per needle, whereas six cloned
trees through shared fungal genets. The degree of
                                                               needles yielded 11 OTU’s, with an average of 6
tree-node connectivity ranged from 0 to 30, with an
                                                               OTU’s per cloned needle. The most common foliar
average of 1.4 fungal genets and 5.7 linkages per
                                                               endophyte from plated needles was also found in
tree. Thus, there is a high degree of connectivity
                                                               cloned needles but the two other rare foliar


endophytes from plated needles were not found in               isolation of yeasts from specialized gut pouches of
cloned needles. Cloned needles yielded 9 new foliar            beetles and recovery of certain yeasts from different
endophytes, of which eight seem to be new fungal               life stages of the same beetle species, have been
species. In this sampling protocol, one single cloned          taken as evidence of close association between yeast
needle yielded more foliar endophyte OTU’s than the            and insect, rather than yeast and fungal host. Many
normal sampling effort of plated needles from a                potential basidiomycete hosts (e.g., Tinctoporellus
spruce stand. Cloning needles also lead to the                 epimiltinus, Pycnoporus sanguineus, other polypores,
discovery of 9 new foliar endophytes never recorded            species of Hymenochaetaceae) occur throughout the
before as foliar endophytes using traditional plating          Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico coastal plain spanning
methods. Poster                                                both collecting regions, but the beetle hosts have
                                                               more restricted distributions. Now, phylogenetic
Binder, Manfred1*, Matheny, P. Brandon1, Larsson,
                                                               evidence lends additional support for a hypothesis
Karl-Henrik2, Larsson, Ellen2 and Hibbett, David S.1
1                                                              that isolation occurs in association with the insect
  Clark University, Biology Department, Lasry Center
for Bioscience, 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA                 host. Certain beetle genera are associated with yeast
01610, USA, 2Goteborg University, Department of                clades that have diverged independently with related
                                                               beetles either in Panama or in the southeastern USA.
Plant and Environmental Sciences, Carl Skottsbergs
                                                               Symposium Presentation
Gata 22 B, P. O. Box 461, 40530 Goteborg, Sweden.
mbinder@clarku.edu. New perspectives on the                    Blinkova, Olga*, Feldman, Tracy and Walker,
early evolution of Agaricomycetidae. The                       Nathan. 246 NRC, Department of Biochemistry and
Agaricomycetidae is a terminal clade of                        Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University,
Basidiomycota that includes the well-known                     Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.
Agaricales and Boletales, which are dominated by               blinkova@biochem.okstate.edu. Mycoviruses in
pileate-stipitate forms, and the more obscure                  symbiotic plant-fungal interactions. Mycoviruses
Atheliales, which is a relatively small group of               or fungal viruses have frequently been reported from
resupinate taxa. We have developed a six-locus                 fungi and often associated with symptomless
nuclear dataset (nuc-ssu, nuc-lsu, ITS, RPB1, RPB2,            infections. Several examples of virus regulation of
tef1), with taxon sampling focused on resupinate               hypovirulence in the pathogenic fungi are known
forms that may be related to the Agaricomycetidae.             from the many investigations. However, the effect of
Our analyses of these data corroborate the view that           mycoviruses on mutualistic interactions, especially in
Boletales evolved from athelioid forms. We have also           the natural ecosystems, is practically unknown. We
resolved an additional early-branching clade within            are investigating the biodiversity and ecology of
the Agaricomycetidae that is composed primarily of             endophytic fungi and their mycoviruses from a
resupinate forms, as well as the pagoda fungus,                dominant grass, big bluestem (Andropogin gerardii)
Podoserpula pusio. This clade, which we tentatively            collected from 2004 - 2006 from plots periodically
call the Anomoporiales, is the sister group of the             burned at the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve, Pawhuska,
Agaricales. Thus, our results suggest that the greatest        OK. This study showed that the root fungal
radiation of pileate-stipitate mushrooms resulted from         endophyte community is very diverse: most fungi are
the elaboration of resupinate ancestors. Contributed           from the classes Dothideomycetes and
Presentation                                                   Sordariomycetes, the predominant fungal genera
                                                               were Perconia, Gaeumannomyces, Fusarium,
Blackwell, Meredith1*, Suh, Sung-Oui1 and Nguyen,
                                                               Anguillospora, and many unknown species. We
Nhu H.2 1Department of Biological Sciences,
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803,             found that many of the fungi are infected by viruses.
                                                               The majority of these viruses may be newly
USA, 2Department of Plant and Microbial Biology,
                                                               discovered and previously unknown. Future studies
University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
                                                               will aim to understanding the role of the discovered
mblackwell@lsu.edu. Yeasts across the gulf divide.
                                                               mycoviruses on the character and intensity of plant-
More than 1000 yeasts were isolated from
                                                               fungus interactions and possibly how disturbances,
mycophagous insects in Panama and the southeastern
                                                               such as fire, can influence virus-fungal-plant
USA over a seven-year period; the isolations resulted
                                                               interactions. Poster
in the discovery of about 500 taxa of which almost
250 had not been described previously. Our data                Boerstler, Boris*, Raab, Philipp and Redecker, Dirk.
indicate that few yeast species span the geographical          Institute of Botany, University of Basel, Hebelstr.1,
region between Panama and the southeastern USA. In             CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.
a few cases when species do occur in both regions,             boris.boerstler@unibas.ch. Mitochondrial large
populations display genetic variation consistent with          ribosomal subunit sequences as potential marker
the region. Collection data, including repeated                for population studies of Glomus intraradices.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses             speciales did not separate according to host, with any
with the majority of land plants. Glomus intraradices         of the three DNA-based techniques used. This
is a widespread member of this group which was                confirmed that pathogenicity of isolates does not
found in an extremely broad range of habitats,                necessarily correlate with phylogenetic grouping.
indicating a high tolerance for a multitude of                Contributed presentation
environmental factors. Despite this ecological                Bogale, Mesfin*, Wingfield, Michael J., Steenkamp,
versatility, almost nothing is known about the local
                                                              Emma T. and Wingfield, Brenda D. Forestry and
and geographic structure of this fungal species which
                                                              Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI),
might reveal specialized ecotypes. As the well-
                                                              University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
established marker genes of the nuclear-encoded
                                                              mesfin.bogale@fabi.up.ac.za. Species-specific
rDNA subunits and internal transcribed spacers (ITS)
                                                              primers for Fusarium redolens and a PCR-RFLP
display sequence heterogeneity even within single
                                                              technique to distinguish among three clades of
fungal spores we have developed a nested PCR
                                                              Fusarium oxysporum. The presence of strains with
approach for the mitochondrial rDNA large subunit             intermediate macroconidial sizes between F. redolens
(mtLSU). These sequences display no intra-isolate             and F. oxysporum makes morphological
heterogeneity but different haplotypes can be
                                                              differentiation of these species problematic. The
distinguished among isolates of G. intraradices. The
                                                              PCR-RFLP technique developed to differentiate these
development of highly specific primer sets makes it
                                                              species does not distinguish F. redolens from F.
possible to obtain mtLSU sequences of G.
                                                              hostae. Grouping of isolates into the three
intraradices from colonized roots. The varying
                                                              phylogenetic clades of F. oxysporum requires DNA
content of introns in the analyzed gene region
                                                              sequencing and inclusion of strains/sequences
represents a further feature to distinguish genotypes.
                                                              representing each clade. DNA sequencing is,
Therefore mtLSU has the potential to be a highly              however, not available to most plant pathologists,
sensitive marker for population studies of G.
                                                              especially to those in the developing world. To solve
intraradices. Contributed Presentation
                                                              these problems, we used nucleotide sequences from
Bogale, Mesfin*, Wingfield, Michael J., Steenkamp,            the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF-1
Emma T. and Wingfield, Brenda D. Forestry and                 alpha) genes of these species and their close relatives.
Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI),                  We aligned these sequences to design F. redolens-
University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.               specific primers, and to identify restriction sites that
mesfin.bogale@fabi.up.ac.za. Characterization of              discriminate among the three clades of F. oxysporum.
Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Ethiopia using               The F. redolens-specific primers distinguished this
SSR, AFLP and DNA sequence analyses. Fusarium                 species from all others included in the study based on
oxysporum is known for the wilt and rot diseases that         the presence of an amplification product only in F.
it causes in many plant species. However, little is           redolens. Restriction of F. oxysporum TEF-1 alpha
known regarding the genetic diversity of this fungal          products with endonucleases MseI and AluI resulted
species in Ethiopian agriculture. We used SSR,                in three TEF-1 alpha-RFLP patterns. These PCR-
AFLPs and DNA sequence analyses to study 32                   RFLP patterns corresponded with the three clades of
Ethiopian isolates. For comparative purposes, we also         F. oxysporum. These techniques provide simple and
included strains representing 18 formae speciales,            inexpensive diagnostic methods for the identification
and GenBank sequences representing the three                  of F. redolens and members of the three clades of F.
phylogenetic clades in this species. The three                oxysporum. Contributed Presentation
methods separated the strains into three lineages,            Bonito, Gregory* and Vilgalys, Rytas. Duke
which corresponded with the three clades known to
                                                              University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
reflect groups in F. oxysporum. Five translation
                                                              gmb2@duke.edu. Molecular ecology of truffles
elongation factor-1 alpha nucleotide sites were found
                                                              (Tuber) and their mycorrhiza. Truffles belonging to
to be fixed differently among the lineages, further
                                                              the genus Tuber are mycorrhizal fungi characterized
supporting the separation of the lineages. Thirty of
                                                              by belowground fruitbody production and a northern
the Ethiopian isolates grouped in Lineage 2, whereas
                                                              hemisphere distribution. Of the 100 or so described
the remaining two isolates grouped in Lineages 1 and
                                                              species of Tuber worldwide, a dozen or so species
3. The genetic diversity observed among the                   have economic value and are harvested
Ethiopian isolates was also low. This most probably           commercially. This has stimulated interest to better
reflects the nature of the Ethiopian agricultural
                                                              understand truffle ecology. DNA sequencing is a
system that heavily relies on local crop varieties,
                                                              common component in systematics and ecological
thereby restricting the introduction of new genotypes
                                                              studies of mycorrhizal communities. The public
of the fungus via infected seeds. The 18 formae
                                                              database Genbank includes approximately 30


unidentified ectomycorrhiza submissions that                 mpowell@biology.as.ua.edu. Detection of chytrid
BLAST closest to Tuber, and another 30 accessions            fungi involved in the degradation of chitin in Lake
from unidentified Tuber sp. sporocarps. Our research         Lurleen (Tuscaloosa County, Alabama). Chitin is
on the phylogenetic relationships within the genus           one of the most abundant biopolymers in aquatic
Tuber has resulted in a Tuber phylogeny and has              habitats and is a bait commonly used to retrieve
resolved 7 well-supported clades. In this study, we          chytrid fungi from environmental samples. Current
analyzed unidentified Tuber collections and                  ecological models for the role of microorganisms in
mycorrhiza from our field studies and from Genbank           the degradation of chitin in aquatic habitats, however,
accessions in a phylogenetic framework to determine          largely ignore chytrids. The purpose of this study is
the identification of unidentified samples and to            to use culture and culture-independent nucleic acid
ascertain the prevalence of 'novel' or undocumented          techniques to detect through multiple seasons the
lineages. Our results show that the majority of              diversity of chytrids on chitin from Lake Lurleen, a
unidentified Tuber sequences belong to non-                  reservoir in the Black Warrior River Basin. In the
economically important (and less studied) species            first phase of this study, ribosomal genes are
within the Puberulum and Maculatum clades. Further           sequenced for all chytrids cultured, generating a
ecological insights into host, habitat, and                  reference database of molecular diversity detected
geographical ranges of these species are discussed.          with direct culture techniques. This study will be the
Poster                                                       foundation for continued studies where total DNA
                                                             from chitin incubated in traps in the same lake site
Branco, Sara. University of Chicago, Chicago, IL
                                                             and from floating particulate matter along the lake
60637, USA; The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60601,
                                                             shore will be isolated and ribosomal genes
USA. sbranco@uchicago.edu. Is there a serpentine
                                                             sequenced. This approach provides baseline data for
ectomycorrhizal community? Serpentine soils are
extreme environments rich in heavy metals and poor           (1) determining if direct culture methods and
                                                             identifications based on morphology adequately
in nutrients that host depauperate plant communities
                                                             monitor the diversity of chytrids in the lake; (2)
with high rates of endemism. I am investigating
                                                             recognizing culture-independent organisms and
whether the symbiotic fungal communities from
                                                             potential novel chytrid clades; and (3) elucidating
serpentine forests follow the same pattern seen for
                                                             chytrid diversity in chitin biodegradation in a
plants. I surveyed the ectomycorrhizal (ECM)
                                                             freshwater habitat. Poster
communities from serpentine and non-serpentine oak
forests in northeastern Portugal using the rDNA              Brown, Matthew, W.* and Spiegel, Frederick, W.
Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region and found           Department of Biological Sciences, SCEN 632,
enormous diversity. All three forests showed very            University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701,
different and rich communities with very low ITS             USA. mwbrown@uark.edu. Assessment of
type overlap. Additionally, sampling of fungi in the         protostelid diversity in Ozark Plateau oak-hickory
same forest in consecutive years revealed a                  forests in south central USA. Protostelids are
tremendous ITS type annual turnover. The pattern of          unicellular amoeboid slime molds commonly found
species-poor communities found for plants does not           on dead plant substrates. To assess protostelid species
seem to hold for ECM fungi and the existence of              distribution and assemblages, 164 samples were
endemic ECM serpentine species is still unclear.             collected in uplands and riparian habitats in oak-
However, the detection of many ITS types restricted          hickory forests in the Arkansas Ozarks. Ninety-two
to the serpentine forest is an indication of putative        percent of samples yielded at least one protostelid. A
endemics. A few ITS types were detected in                   total of 22 described species of protostelids and one
serpentine and non-serpentine forests, suggesting the        myxomycete, Echinostelium bisporum, were found
existence of plastic species tolerant to both soils.         during this study. If the variants of Protostelium
These results document high ECM diversity                    mycophaga are considered, then there were 27
associated with Mediterranean oak forests. Further           species, the highest species richness recorded for a
investigation is needed to clarify the existence of          temperate habitat. Microhabitat distributions of
particular ECM communities specifically associated           protostelids indicate that Protostelium mycophaga
with serpentine soils and determine the role of this         and Soliformovum irregularis are the most abundant
extreme habitat in the evolution of symbiotic fungi.         species in ground and aerial litter microhabitats.
Contributed Presentation                                     Three other species were commonly encountered on
                                                             the ground litter. Four species were frequently
Brooks, Micheal C., Powell, Martha J.*, Blackwell,
                                                             encountered in bark microhabitats. Species
Will H., Letcher, Peter M. and Wakefield, William S.
                                                             composition between upland and riparian forest types
Department of Biological Sciences, The University of
                                                             is different. Though Protostelium mycophaga and
Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0344, USA.


Soliformovum irregularis were well represented in              Paoay Lake, in the Philippines and MRC Lake, in
the two habitats, some species, e.g. Echiosteliopsis           Thailand. Wood or bamboo samples that have been
oligospora and Protostelium arachisporum, are                  submerged for several months have been collected
markedly different, especially for ground litter               from both lakes and examined for fungi following
microhabitats. Six species were found on all                   incubation in a moist chamber. The fungal
microhabitat types and also found in all habitat types.        communities are compared. This project is important
Overall, species’ microhabitat distribution is                 to understanding the biodiversity of freshwater fungi.
consistent with other studies. Poster                          This is the first study of fungi at Paoay Lake and one
                                                               of the few studies of fungi in the Philippines, which
CANCELED Bushley, Kathryn E.* and Turgeon, B.
                                                               has been poorly studied for fungi. Fungi identified so
Gillian. Cornell University, Department of Plant
                                                               far from MRC Lake are Annulatascus biatriisporus,
Pathology, Plant Science Building, Room 343,
                                                               Dactylaria plovercovensis, Digitodesmium
Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. keb45@cornell.edu.
                                                               heptasporum, Sporoschisma saccardoi, and
Evolution of chemical arsenals in filamentous
fungi: rapidly evolving NRPSs among closely                    Sporoschisma uniseptatum and Savoryella lignicola,
related taxa. Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases                S. aquatica, Kirschsteiniothelia elaterascus,
                                                               Annulastascus triseptatus, Aniptodera triseptata have
(NRPSs) are multimodular enzymes, found in
                                                               been identified from Paoay Lake. A new genus of
ascomycete fungi and bacteria that make non-
                                                               freshwater ascomycetes, Paoayensis lignicola
ribosomal peptides (NRPs) through a thiotemplate
                                                               collected from Paoay Lake in Ilocos Norte, in the
mechanism independent of ribosomes. NRPs are
                                                               Philippines is described and illustrated and compared
structurally diverse and often bioactive small
                                                               with analogous taxa. Paoayensis lignicola is
molecules with biological functions ranging from
                                                               characterized by immersed, slightly erumpent
antibiotics to immunosuppressant drugs. Previous
studies suggest that genes encoding NRPSs are                  ascomata which fuse into a single ostiole. Asci are
                                                               unitunicate, clavate and short pedicellate with a
rapidly evolving and have highly discontinuous
                                                               discoid refractive apical ring and ascospores are
distributions even among closely related taxa.
                                                               lemoniform, brown to dark brown and with a unique
Various evolutionary processes could explain this
                                                               germ slit. Characters suggest that the genus should be
pattern: 1) gene duplication and differential loss, 2)
                                                               placed in the Sordariales, possibly Sordariaceae.
recombination, 3) gene conversion, 4) diversifying
                                                               Molecular based phylogenies support morphological
selection, and 5) horizontal gene transfer. We are
                                                               based assumptions. 18S rDNA sequence data
investigating diversity and evolution of NRPSs
                                                               indicates a close relationship to Xylomelasma sordida
among closely related species utilizing data from
genome sequencing projects as well as data generated           and Ceratostomella pyrena whose taxonomic
                                                               placement is still obscure. 28S rDNA based
from a suite of closely related Cochliobolus species
                                                               phylogenies, on the other hand, depict a close
and in order to address which of these mechanism(s)
                                                               affiliation with members of the Annulatascaceae
are involved in generating novel NRPS genes. We are
                                                               which are freshwater ascomycetes. An appropriate
also exploring the relationship between NRPSs and
                                                               familial placement for Paoayensis lignicola is still
their chemical products by addressing the roles of
                                                               unknown (Sordariomycetes incertae sedis).
both modular domain architecture and amino acid
                                                               Contributed Presentation
residues involved in substrate recognition in shaping
the chemical structure of the NRP peptide product.             Cai, Guohong1*, Myers, Kevin1, Hillman, Bradley I.2
Poster                                                         and Fry, William E.1 1Department of Plant Pathology,
CANCELED Cabanela, Marivic V.1,2*, Smitana,                    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA,
                                                                 Department of Plant Biology and Pathology, Rutgers
Prasartporn1, To-Anun, Chaiwat1, Jeewon, Rajesh3
                                                               University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
and Hyde, Kevin D.3 1 Chiang Mai University,
                                                               gc228@cornell.edu. Identification of viruses in
Department of Plant Biotechnology, Laboratory of
                                                               Phytophthora infestans. Phytophthora infestans
Plant Pathology, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2 Mushroom
                                                               continues to be a threat to potato and tomato
Research Centre, 128 Moo3 Ban Phadeng, Pa Pae,
                                                               production worldwide – more than one and a half
Mae Taeng, Chiang Mai 50150, Thailand,
3                                                              centuries after the Irish famine. Recent migrations of
  University of Hong Kong, Department of Ecology
and Biodiversity, The University of Hong Kong,                 diverse, virulent populations into many parts of the
Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. mvc0206@yahoo.com.                   world has rendered the disease more difficult to
                                                               control. These populations contain individuals of A2
Biodiversity of freshwater fungi in Paoay Lake,
                                                               as well as A1 mating type. Additionally, molecular
the Philippines and the Mushroom Research
                                                               genetic studies remain very difficult in P. infestans.
Centre, Thailand. This study is focusing on the
                                                               In order to explore additional potential control
fungi on submerged wood samples collected from


measures and to enable development of an efficient             been overlooked as participants in coastal ecological
system for gene expression/silencing in P. infestans,          processes. However as interest has grown in the
we are searching for viruses in this oomycete.                 existence of a marine mycota, so has the quest for
Viruses might have a role in biocontrol, and they              knowledge of what are they doing there and how are
might also have potential to be engineered into                they doing it. Marine fungi play a role in some of the
vectors for gene expression/silencing. We have                 major coastal ecosystem processes. They are
therefore screened P. infestans isolates for virus-like        important in driving or controlling the mineral and
double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), and to date (spring             energy cycling within the ecosystem as well as
2007) have found five dsRNAs in four patterns.                 influencing the community composition of other
Sequencing of a doublet showed that it has the                 organisms within the ecosystem.
characteristics of the replicative form of a single-           Symposium Presentation
strand RNA virus. The first RNA (RNA1) encodes an
                                                               Cantrell, Sharon A.* and Perez-Jimenez, Jose R.
RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, pfam
                                                               School of Science and Technology, Universidad del
00680) and the second (RNA2) encodes a putative                Turabo, Gurabo, PR 00778, USA.
trypsin-like serine protease. Preliminary sequence             scantrel@suagm.edu. Fungi thrive in hypersaline
data indicate that the other three dsRNAs also have
                                                               microbial mats. Microbial mats are a laminated
characteristics of viruses. Contributed Presentation
                                                               consortial system, functionally integrated and self-
Campbell, Jinx. Department of Coastal Sciences,                sustained that harbor specific microbial communities.
University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast                 Three layers are formed during the formation of the
Research Laboratory, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean               microbial mat (surface oxic - green, a redox transition
Springs, Mississippi 39564, USA.                               - pink and lower anoxic – black). The objective is to
jinx.campbell@usm.edu. Diversity and role of fungi             document the fungal community within microbial
in coastal ecosystems. Growing interest in marine              mats using molecular tools. Sampling was conducted
and estuarine habitats in recent years has led to an           in April (dry season) and October (wet season) of
increase in studies on marine fungi. Although the first        2006. We extracted DNA with MoBio Soil DNA kit.
marine fungi were described in 1846, the existence of          For TRFLP, the ITS region was amplified using
fungi entirely confined to a marine environment was            FAM-ITS1/ITS4. Amplicons were digested with Hae
not recognized until about 40 years ago. Marine and            III, cloned with TopoTA, sequenced with Big Dye
estuarine environments occupy 75% of the globe.                Terminator and analyzed in an ABI 3130. TRFLP
However, marine fungi occur mainly in intertidal               showed higher diversity in the wet season (49
habitats such as sandy beaches, jetties, saltmarshes           phylotypes vs 25) particularly in the transition layer
and mangroves. Compared with terrestrial fungi, the            probably due to decrease in salinity and increase in
number of higher marine fungi is small. To date only           oxygen. Unique phylotypes were observed in the
444 species have been described from marine                    green layers due to entrapment of exogenous spores.
habitats. Marine fungi can be saprophytes, symbionts           Diversity decreased from the green to black layers. In
or parasites on plants or animals. All are microscopic;        the dry season the growth of indigenous fungi is
the largest being only 4-5mm in diameter.                      promoted by the increase in salinity. Many isolates
Saprophytic fungi are important decomposers of                 were dematiaceous fungi, C. sphaerospermum and H.
cellulose, in the form of driftwood, pilings, mangrove         werneckii, as well as A. pullulans, Emeriocellopsis,
roots, marsh plants, algae and seagrass leaves. They           Preussia, Rhodosporidium, Rhizoctonia and fungal
are also found on the exoskeletons, shells and                 endophytes. Fungal molecular signature was detected
protective tubes of animals and fish where they                in microbial mats across layers and seasons
degrade chitin, keratin, tunicin and calcium                   suggesting that fungi thrive in this hypersaline
carbonate. Marine fungi are able to form several               consortial. Contributed Presentation
types of symbiotic associations: lichenoids which
                                                               Carmaran, Cecilia C. and Romero, Andrea I.*
have phototrophic partners, usually microscopic
                                                               Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA,
cyanobacteria or green algae, that can also occur in a
                                                               Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología
free-living state; true marine lichens that form
                                                               Experimental, Pabellon 2, piso 4, Ciudad
obligate associations between a mycobiont and a
                                                               Universitaria, Av. Int. Guiraldes 2620, CP1428EHA,
photobiont; and mycophycobioses that are obligate              Buenos Aires, Argentina. romero@bg.fcen.uba.ar.
symbioses between systemic fungi and a dominant                Microfungal conservation. Fungal conservation
marine macroalgae. Of the known parasitic species of
                                                               raises some difficult issues, and is a topic novel for
marine fungi, all but two parasitize algae: one has
                                                               many people. Because most fungi are inconspicuous
been found on the carapace of crabs and the other on
                                                               most of the time, there is little understanding of their
proproots of mangroves. Marine fungi have often
                                                               diversity and even less of their importance. The


public is simply unaware that fungi are indispensable         various authors may not accurately reflect
components of the world’s ecosystems and that                 phylogenetic or morphological species and that the
microfungi are a key source of many important                 species status of T. contraversa needs further
pharmaceuticals and other commercial products. This           investigation. Contributed Presentation
lack of understanding and awareness results in a
                                                              Castellano, Michael A. USDA, Forest Service,
political lack of concern about conservation of fungi.        Pacific Northwest Research Station, Forestry
For most countries participating in the Rio
                                                              Sciences laboratory, 3200 Jefferson Way, Corvallis,
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) this is
                                                              OR 97331, USA. mcastellano@fs.fed.us. Fungal
evidenced by a total absence of effort to implement
                                                              conservation efforts on Federal lands in the USA.
the convention for this important group of organisms.
                                                              The conservation and management of forest
In 1994, Argentina approved the CBD; the
                                                              macrofungi came to the forefront in the USA in 1993
Secretariat for the Environment & Sustainable
                                                              with the creation of the Forest Ecosystem
Development is in charge of promoting the country’s
                                                              Management Assessment Team (FEMAT) to address
biodiversity conservation but the scientific policy is        the issues of forest management on Federal forests in
implemented through another Secretariat, which                the Pacific Northwest. One of the key objectives of
manages the financial support. Argentine scientists
                                                              the FEMAT was to develop forest management
are concerned that these two bodies have divergent
                                                              alternatives that allowed for the “maintenance and or
interests and that implementation of CBD goals in
                                                              restoration of habitat conditions to support viable
Argentina is delayed by their different opinions. This
                                                              populations, well-distributed across their current
symposium presentation will discuss the impact of
                                                              ranges, of species known (or reasonably expected) to
that problematic situation on fungal conservation, and
                                                              be associated with old-growth forest conditions.”
will review national responsibilities to the CBD as a
                                                              Thus began focused attention on creating lists of
legally binding convention in respect of the fungi.           fungal species on Federal lands in western
Symposium Presentation
                                                              Washington and Oregon and northern California
Carris, Lori M.1* and Castlebury, Lisa A.2 1Dept. of          (approx. 24 million acres) and identification of
Plant Pathology, Washington State University,                 specific fungal species at risk for reduction in
Pullman, WA 99164, USA, 2USDA ARS Systematic                  population viability due to forest management.
Botany and Mycology Lab, 10300 Baltimore Ave.,                Nearly concurrently the Federal government begin an
Beltsville, MD 20705, USA. carris@wsu.edu. Is                 assessment of the Interior Columbia River Basin
Tilletia contraversa the causal agent of dwarf bunt           (encompassing Idaho, eastern Washington and
of wheat? Tilletia contraversa is accepted as the             Oregon and small portions of Utah and Nevada,
valid name for the dwarf bunt pathogen of wheat.              totaling nearly 72 million acres) for species (fungi
This species is a quarantine status pathogen with a           included) in need of special consideration to ensure
host range including 45 grass hosts in 13 genera. In          continued viability. Later the All Taxa Biological
1952, G.W. Fischer erected T. brevifaciens for the            Inventory (ATBI) initiative was begun supported by
dwarf bunt pathogen, which had previously been                the National Science Foundation. At present, 19
considered a variant of T. caries, and designated a           reserves have begun or plan to begin an ATBI. This
type on Agropyron intermedium (now Thinopyrum                 includes 12 National Parks, five Tennessee State
intermedium). T. brevifaciens was then synonymized            Parks, Adirondack Park in New York, and Nantucket
with T. contraversa, described by Kühn (1874) for a           Island (a Nature Conservancy/Massachusetts
smut on Triticum repens (now Elymus repens). There            preserve). This presentation will review the
are no valid species described for the dwarf bunt             highlights and challenges of these efforts and identify
pathogen based on a type from wheat. We have noted            some of the future needs and opportunities in fungal
differences in spore germination, and morphology of           conservation in the USA in relation to the objectives
teliospores and sterile cells among specimens of T.           of the Rio Convention of 1992. Symposium
contraversa from different host genera. A                     Presentation
phylogenetic analysis was conducted using sequence
                                                              Catal, Mursel, Adams, Gerard C.*, Tumbalam,
data from rDNA ITS, RPB2 and translation
                                                              Pavani and Kirk, Willie. Department of Plant
elongation factor 1 alpha to test conspecificity of
                                                              Pathology, Michigan State University, East Lansing,
specimens from Triticum and other grass genera.               MI 48824, USA. gadams@msu.edu. Wildtype
Collections from Hordeum, Secalis, Thinopyrum and             isolates of Phytophthora infestans can be
other genera were found to represent species distinct
                                                              heterokaryons with aneuploid, diploid and
from a complex of wheat bunt pathogens consisting
                                                              heteroploid nuclei which may segregate among
of T. caries, T. contraversa, and T. laevis. This
                                                              zoospores. We are investigating “super-race” strains
indicates that the broad synonymies proposed by
                                                              of P. infestans that produce mitotic zoospores that


vary in race, virulence and fungicide sensitivity. The         Cystoderma in Central and Southern Mexico.
goal is to understand the mechanism(s) of asexual              While 30-40 spp. are known worlwide in the genus,
variation which we hypothesize may involve                     in Mexico only five taxa have been recorded:
rearrangements in chromosomes near the telomeres               Cystoderma amianthinum, C. cinnabarinum , C.
similar to mechanisms described for Magnaporthe                fallax, C. granulatum, C. terrei. Based on the study
grisea. The experimental approach has been to: 1)              of more than 150 collections from ENCB, FCME,
determine ploidy, 2) locate avirulence genes near              IBUG and MEXU seven taxa are so far recognized in
telomeres, 3) separate and isolate telomere fragments,         Mexico. The five previously cited species are
4) clone and sequence subtelomeric DNA, and 5)                 confirmed, and two putative new species are added,
correlate rearrangements in subtelomere regions with           one of them from temperate forest and one from
changes in phenotype. We have used laser flow                  tropical forest. The putative new species are
cytometry for the first time to study nuclear condition        described and illustrated, notes on related taxa are
in P. infestans. While the majority of our isolates are        commented. Poster
diploid and none are polyploid, surprisingly, several          Cline, Erica T.1* and Rossman, Amy Y.2 1University
are heterokaryons of: a) two different diploid nuclei,         of Washington, Tacoma, WA 98402, USA,
b) aneuploid and diploid nuclei, and c) aneuploid,             2
                                                                 Systematic Botany and Mycology Lab, USDA-ARS
diploid, and heteroploid nuclei. For several
                                                               Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville,
heterokaryotic isolates, single zoospore-derived
                                                               MD 20705, USA. ecline@u.washington.edu.
cultures frequently (e.g., 8/32) vary from the parent
                                                               Septoria malagutii sp. nov., cause of annular leaf
in nuclear type with some being aneuploid, some
                                                               spot of potato. The fungus causing annular leaf spot
diploid, and others heterokaryons of aneuploid and
                                                               of potato, reported only from South America, poses a
diploid nuclei. This partially explains mitotic
                                                               risk as a potentially invasive species due to its ability
variation. Several subtelomeric DNA fragments of               to flourish in the cooler temperatures typical of
about 600 bp are cloned using the Vectorette system
                                                               potato-producing regions in Europe and North
and sequences verify the presence of the telomere
                                                               America. Initially described as “Septoria lycopersici
repeat at one end of the sequence. Poster
                                                               var. malagutii”, the variety is not validly published as
Chalkley, David, Stamenova, Elena and Zhou, Jim.*              required by the International Code of Botanical
American Type Culture Collection (ATCC),                       Nomenclature because no type specimen was
Mycology Program, 10801 University Blvd,                       specifically designated. Specimens of S. lycopersici
Manassas, VA 20110, USA. jzhou@atcc.org.                       var. lycopersici and S. lycopersici “var. malagutii”
Enhanced authentication facilitates the                        were examined and their rRNA ITS regions and
determination of the identity of a marine fungus.              (TEF)-1-alpha genes were sequenced. The ‘var.
A fungus isolated from the roots of Rhizophora                 malagutii’ conidia were significantly longer and
(black mangrove) in Australia was deposited as                 narrower with the conidiogenous cells significantly
Hypoxylon sp. (ATCC® MYA-3540). It grew slowly                 shorter and narrower than the “var. lycopersici” cells.
and produced only pigmented mycelia and a reddish              Although the sequences were similar — ITS at 99.6%
water-soluble pigment on various media. Hypoxylon              and TEF-1-alpha at 99.2% — the “var. lycopersici”
species generally produce perithecia within stromata           ITS was more similar to several other Septoria
when grown on aboveground parts of woody plants,               species than to its “var. malagutii” counterpart,
and not in culture. The failure of this fungus to              suggesting that the latter should be recognized as a
sporulate or produce other structures in several               new species: Septoria malagutii. Poster
efforts hindered its identification. The genomic ITS           Cripps, Cathy L.1* and Horak, Egon.2 1Plant Sciences
sequence of this organism did not show significant
                                                               and Plant Pathology Dept., Montana State University,
match to fungal ITS sequences in GenBank or
                                                               Bozeman, MT 59717, USA, 2 Mikrobiologisches
ATCC’s data sets, but it suggested the closeness of
                                                               Institut, Universitat Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25,
this organism to a Xylaria species. However, this
                                                               6. Stockwerk, AT-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
suggestion is not consistent with what is currently
                                                               ccripps@montana.edu. Alpine agarics with Dryas
known about this isolate. We are conducting further
                                                               octopetala (Rosaceae) in arctic-alpine habitats of
molecular characterizations to identify this
                                                               the Rocky Mountains (USA). Dryas octopetala is a
potentially novel organism. Results and discussion             low woody mat plant common in Ca-rich arctic-
will be presented. Poster
                                                               alpine habitats. It has a circumpolar distribution and
Cifuentes, J.B.* and Vazquez-Estup, R. Area de                 occurs with isolated populations in alpine areas
Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional           including the middle to southern Rocky Mountains
Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510.                         (RM) at latitude 38N. Dryas is anomalous as an
jcb@hp.fciencias.unam.mx. New additions to                     ectomycorrhizal genus in the Rosaceae, a family of


predominantly AM hosts. During a survey of alpine              circumscription, including 6 novel, morphologically
agarics in the RMs, a number of saprobic and                   cryptic species largely defined by novel ecological
mycorrhizal macromycetes were recorded with D.                 associations. Contributed Presentation
octopetala. A majority of ectomycorrhizal agarics are
                                                               Crouch, Jo Anne1*, Milgroom, Michael G.2 and
arctic-alpine species that also associate with alpine
                                                               Hillman, Bradley I.1 1Rutgers University, New
willows (Salix spp). During several RM expeditions             Brunswick, NJ, USA, 2Cornell Univeristy, Ithaca,
basidiomes were gathered belonging to seven species
                                                               NY, USA. jcrouch@eden.rutgers.edu. How have
of Inocybe, Cortinarius (Telemonia) tenebricus,
                                                               transposable genetic elements transformed the
Entoloma alpicola, E. sericeum, Hebeloma alpinum,
                                                               landscape of the Cryphonectria parasitica genome?
Laccaria laccata var. pallidifolia, and Russula aff.
                                                               The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica,
delica. Major portions of Dryas roots host
                                                               is well known for harboring a wide array of
Cenococcum geophilum as well. Most agarics are
                                                               extrachromosomal genetic elements. Most of these
considered early-colonizers which fits the pioneering
                                                               elements are virulence-suppressing cytoplasmic
status of Dryas and appear to enter opportunistic              viruses, but mitochondrial viruses, plasmids, and
associations with this host. However, some agarics             transposons have also been identified. Three
are recorded exclusively with Dryas over its large
                                                               transposable elements have been identified in the
range. Examples are the highly specialized, saprobic
                                                               genome of C. parasitica: the DNA transposons
species Marasmius epidryas and Clitocybe
                                                               Crypt1 and Crypt2, and the retrotransposon Cryret1.
dryadicola (a first record for the RM). Dryas is of
                                                               These transposons are predicted to be active, are
current interest as a model system for global climate
                                                               widely distributed in populations of C. parasitica and
change although its mycorrhizal status is generally
                                                               are also found in the genome of the sympatrically
not recognized in this regard. Contributed
                                                               distributed species C. nitschkei. In addition to intact
                                                               copies, degenerate transposon sequences have also
Crouch, Jo Anne1*, Johnston, Peter R.2 and Hillman,            been identified from C. parasitica; however, no
Bradley I.1 1Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ,            evidence for repeat-induced point (RIP) mutation has
USA, 2Landcare Research, Auckland, NZ.                         been detected, despite the close phylogenetic
jcrouch@eden.rutgers.edu. Species concepts in the              relationship of C. parasitica to several
genus Colletotrichum: are we finally moving                    Sordariomycetes in which RIP has been observed.
towards a consistent and accurate classification               Here we present an overview of our ongoing studies
after 50 years of von Arxian generalizations? In               of transposon distribution and divergence in the
1957, Josef von Arx ushered in the modern era of               genome of C. parasitica. Using a combination of
Colletotrichum systematics by decreasing the number            population genetic and phylogenetic tools, we are
of accepted species from >750 to just 11, signaling an         using these data to explore evolutionary changes over
end to the hopelessly outdated practice of describing          space in time for this important fungal species, and to
a new species taxon to correspond with every novel             test hypotheses derived from nuclear genes and a
host plant association. On the 50th anniversary of von         second class of extrachromosomal element, the
Arx‘s landmark treatise and at the genesis of the first        hypovirus CHV1. Contributed Presentation
Colletotrichum genome sequence (C. graminicola),
                                                               Crous, Pedro W. CBS Fungal Biodiversity Centre,
we present a synthesis of present-day Colletotrichum
                                                               P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, Netherlands.
systematics and the prospects for a long anticipated
                                                               crous@cbs.knaw.nl. The case for an International
taxonomic clarification of this economically
                                                               Code of Mycological Nomenclature. Botanists,
important genus of plant pathogens. Importantly, the           zoologists and bacteriologists have divergent
recent formation of the International Subcommission
                                                               nomenclatural codes. The International Botanical
on Colletotrichum and Glomerella Taxonomy,
                                                               Congress at Vienna in 1905 adopted the first draft of
modeled on the successful Penicillium, Aspergillus
                                                               the present Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, which
and Trichoderma groups, will guide the future of this
                                                               were revised in 1910, by which time mycologists
genus, providing a consistent framework for
                                                               joined in. In 1930 the International Society for
taxonomic assignments and a database of authentic
                                                               Microbiology, at its first International Congress,
isolates through the colletotrichum.org website. As a
                                                               recognized that insofar as applicable, the
first step towards unraveling the phylogenetic                 International Codes of Botany and Zoology should be
relationships within the major Colletotrichum group            followed for naming microorganisms. Fungi have
species, we present results of our multi-locus
                                                               traditionally been associated with plants; in the
phylogentic analysis of the grass-inhabiting C.
                                                               botanical code several clauses were inserted that
graminicola group. Using 4 genes from 3 loci, 11
                                                               satisfied needs of mycologists. Rules of the ICBN
species were identified from the C. graminicola
                                                               can only be modified at International Botanical


Congresses (IBC), which convene every six years.                 of strain JEL423, isolated from a sick Phylomedusa
The Committee for Fungi (CF), which is appointed at              lemur frog from Panama. We produced a 7.4X whole
the IBC, screens mycological proposals, published in             genome shotgun assembly, which contains 23.4 Mb
Taxon, and its report is then screened by the General            of sequence in 348 contigs, linked into 69 scaffolds.
Committee and ratified by the IBC. However, Fungi                The B. dendrobatidis genome encodes for a predicted
reside in their own kingdom, and require a more                  set of 8,794 proteins. We have compared the B.
flexible and forward looking code than the ICBN.                 dendrobatidis proteome to those of other animal and
Furthermore, the CF does under the present system                plant pathogens to identify candidate genes involved
not account for its actions to the mycological                   in B. dendrobatidis pathogenesis. These include
community in the IMA, nor the IUMS. I argue,                     several gene families that appear highly expanded in
therefore, that it is timely to establish a separate Code        B. dendrobatidis compared to other fungi. As no
of Mycological Nomenclature that resides in a                    sexual stage has been observed, we have evaluated
mycological association, rather than a botanical one.            conservation of genes important for mating and
Symposium Presentation                                           meiosis in other fungi. We have also characterized a
Crous, Pedro W.* and Groenewald, Johannes Z. CBS                 set of genes conserved only with nonfungal
                                                                 organisms, some of which play a role in cilia or
Fungal Biodiversity Centre, P.O. Box 85167, 3508
                                                                 flagella in those species. As the first representative of
AD Utrecht, Netherlands. crous@cbs.knaw.nl.
                                                                 the chytridiomycete phylum to have its genome
Mycosphaerella is polyphyletic. Mycosphaerella is
                                                                 sequenced, this genome provides a new vantage point
probably one of the largest genera of Ascomycetes,
                                                                 for genomic comparisons across the fungal clade as
encompassing several thousand species, with
                                                                 well as with its sister animal clade. Symposium
anamorphs residing in more than 30 form genera.
Previous phylogenetic studies based on the ITS locus
considered the genus to be monophyletic. However,                Curland, Rebecca* and Volk, Thomas J. Department
DNA sequence data derived from the 18S and 28S                   of Biology, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La
nrDNA genes of an extended set of taxa distinguish               Crosse, WI 54601, USA.
several clades and families in what has hitherto been            curland.rebe@students.uwlax.edu. Preliminary
considered to represent the Mycosphaerellaceae.                  mycodiversity studies of AMF colonization in a
Several important leaf spotting and extremotolerant              southwestern Wisconsin prairie dominated by the
species need to be disposed to the genus                         invasive exotic plant Euphorbia esula (leafy
Teratosphaeria, for which a new family needs to be               spurge). Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) is a Eurasian
introduced. Other distinct clades represent the                  invasive perennial forb that is rapidly colonizing
Schizothyriaceae, a clade consisting of Dissoconium              much of North America’s prairies and rangelands,
spp., and some less well resolved lineages. Within the           typically crowding out native species and destroying
two major lineages, namely Teratosphaeria and                    rangelands used for livestock grazing. Although E.
Mycosphaerella, most anamorph genera are                         esula’s impact on the plant and wildlife community
polyphyletic, and new anamorph concepts have to be               has been well studied, its impact on the soil microbial
derived to cope with dual nomenclature within the                community is not currently well understood.
Mycosphaerella complex. Contributed Presentation                 Specifically, there is a lack of studies on the dynamic
                                                                 between E. esula and native arbuscular mycorrhizal
Cuomo, Christina1*, Rokas, Antonis1, Alvarado,
                                                                 fungi (AMF) populations. Likewise, there is a
Lucia1, Grabherr, Manfred1, Pearson, Matthew1,
                                                                 deficiency of research concerning community
Kodira, Chinnappa1, Galagan, James1, James,
Timothy2, Leroux, Michel3, Longcore, Joyce4 and                  feedbacks in terms of native plant species, native
                                                                 AMF community composition, and E. esula. We
Birren, Bruce.1 1Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard,
                                                                 designed a study in southwestern Wisconsin to assess
Cambridge, MA, USA, 2Uppsala University,
                                                                 the AMF colonization in field monocultures of E.
Uppsala, SWE, 3Simon Fraser University, Burnaby,
                                                                 esula, mixed plots of E. esula with native prairie
BC, CAN, 4University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA.
                                                                 plants, and plots of native plants without E. esula.
cuomo@broad.mit.edu. The genome sequence of
                                                                 Through the combined use of PCR, cloning, RFLP
the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium
                                                                 analysis and DNA sequencing, we have identified
dendrobatidis. Batrachochytrium is a pathogen of
amphibians implicated as a primary causative agent               AMF species that have infected the roots of E. esula
of amphibian declines. Batrachochytrium                          as well as the roots of some representative native
                                                                 prairie plants at our study site. Our ultimate research
dendrobatidis was identified in 1998 as the cause of
                                                                 goal is to formulate an accurate depiction of the AMF
amphibian deaths in Australia and Central America,
                                                                 community as it relates to invasion by E. esula.
and, more recently, it has been implicated in global
frog population declines. We sequenced the genome


Davey, Marie L.*, Tsuneda, Akihiko and Currah,                 and large suites of enzymes involved in secondary
Randolph S. Department of Biological Sciences,                 metabolism and what role they play a role in the
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E9,             disease process. I will highlight recent results from
Canada. mdavey@ualberta.ca. Morphology and                     functional analyses including transcription profiling
development of Papulaspora sepedonioides Preuss.               and high throughput gene knockout experiments. I
Papulospores are large multicellular conidia with              will close with new strategies, including proteomic
several, thick walled central cells enclosed within a          and comparative evolutionary approaches we are
sheath of smaller thin-walled cells. This morphology           undertaking. Efforts are currently focused on
facilitates survival of adverse environmental                  interrogation of novel non-coding transcripts,
conditions. Some aspects of the developmental                  transcriptional networks and protein-protein
sequence of these structures have been observed, but           interactions to define the circuitry regulating host-
the differentiation of the two cell types has not been         pathogen interactions. In addition, I will discuss new
addressed. An isolate of Papulaspora sepedonioides,            tools and resources we are developing to examine the
recovered from spruce cones in Alberta, provided               role of gene duplication in pathogenesis through
sporulating material that allowed us to revisit                large-scale comparative analyses of sequenced fungal
development using light, and scanning and                      genomes. Symposium Presentation
transmission electron microscopy. Spiral primordia
                                                               Degagne, Rebecca S.1, Henkel, Terry W.2* and
are formed from short lateral branches on vegetative
                                                               Steinberg, S.J.1 1Department of Environmental and
hyphae. Branching of primordial cells produces
                                                               Natural Resources Sciences, Humboldt State
ensheathing hyphae, creating a knot-like papulospore
                                                               University, Arcata, CA 95521, USA, 2Department of
initial. Meristematic division of the original
                                                               Biological Sciences, Humboldt State University,
primordial cells produces 2-8 central cells. The
                                                               Arcata, CA 95521, USA. twh5@humboldt.edu.
surrounding ensheathing hyphae become septate and              Examining the distribution of ectomycorrhizal
pseudoparenchymatous as the papulospore matures.
                                                               Dicymbe forests in Guyana using satellite imagery
As mature size is reached, the central cells’ walls
                                                               and field surveys. Ectomycorrhizal (EM) canopy
become thickened and melanized. Autolysis of the
                                                               trees in the genus Dicymbe (Caesalpiniaceae) form
sheathing cells produces a mature papulospore
                                                               monodominant forests in the Pakaraima Mountains of
consisting of an outer sheath of thin walled, deflated
                                                               western Guyana. Dicymbe forests, which occur
hyaline cells surrounding a core of thick walled,
                                                               locally in the Upper Potaro River Basin as patches
melanized central cells containing large numbers of
                                                               within an anectotrophic forest matrix, function as
lipid globules. We suspect sheath cells both provide
                                                               habitat islands for a diverse assemblage of putatively
additional nutrients to the central cells and provide          endemic EM fungi. Ground-based studies have not
additional germination potential early in papulospore
                                                               been extensive enough to determine the regional
development. Both central cells and living sheath
                                                               extent of Dicymbe forests. Distribution information is
cells germinated to produce new primordia and germ
                                                               critical to allow broader sampling of Dicymbe forests
tubes, suggesting microcyclic conidiogenesis occurs
                                                               and their EM fungal constituents and ultimately
in this species. Contributed Presentation
                                                               inform conservation plans for these unique habitats.
Dean, R. A. Center for Integrated Fungal Research,             The rugged, remote nature of the Upper Potaro River
Dept. Plant Pathology, North Carolina State                    Basin study site and the spatially discrete occurrence
University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA.                            of Dicymbe stands suggest that satellite technology
Ralph_Dean@ncsu.edu. An “omics” interrogation                  may be an ideal tool for examining the extent of these
of fungal pathogenicity. Magnaporthe grisea is the             relatively unknown tropical forest systems. The
causal agent of rice blast, the most devastating               purpose of this project was to examine the
disease of rice world-wide and is a seminal model to           distribution of Dicymbe forests using remote sensing
elucidate the basis of pathogen–host interactions. The         and GIS technology. Field data and satellite imagery
recent completion of the genome sequence for both              were used to identify and map the location of
Magnaporthe and rice as well as the genome                     monodominant Dicymbe corymbosa and Dicymbe
sequences for several other pathogenic and non-                altsonii in the central Pakaraima Mountains.
pathogenic filamentous fungi has provided a wealth             Accuracy assessment on the ground revealed that
of new information regarding the raw components of             maps created from the image classification process
the pathogen’s offensive arsenal and host’s defenses.          are accurate at > 70% level. These results suggest
In my presentation I will discuss some of the novel            that Landsat image classification may be successful
discoveries that have only come to light as a result of        on regional and extra-regional scales in identifying
having access to the genome sequences, such as                 tropical forests dominated by EM trees. Poster
novel classes of secreted proteins, surface receptors


Dentinger, Bryn T. M.1*, McLaughlin, David J.1 and            to accurately measure the key prokaryotic
Henkel, Terry W.2 1Dept. of Plant Biology,                    components in air, water, and soil environments.
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA,             Unique regions of DNA within gene sequences of
  Dept. of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State                16S small subunit of bacterial and archaeal ribosomes
University, Arcata, CA 95521, USA.                            are used to identify specific organisms. A minimum
dent0015@umn.edu. Gaping into gaps: evolution of              of 11 oligonucleotide probes (25-mers) are used in
porcini mushrooms. Phylogenetic studies in the                combination to identify, in parallel, any of over 9,000
Boletineae, which contains a substantial proportion of        distinctive species or taxa on a 500,000 probe, high-
the described species of boletes, have suffered from          density microarray. The combinatorial approach of
poor backbone resolution resulting in phylogenetic            multiple probes has clear advantages over a single
combs that render circumscription of monophyletic             probe for the identification of a target sequence.
groups tenuous. Most of these studies have relied             Broad-range bacterial and archaeal 16S primers that
primarily upon rDNA sequences and none have                   target conserved areas at the 5΄ and 3΄ ends of the
attempted to incorporate length-variation as                  16S rRNA gene are used to amplify 1400 to 1500-bp
phylogenetic data. One of the key questions that              fragments for analysis. Building on the success of
remains unsolved is: Are porcini mushrooms                    this phylogenetic microarray, we are developing a
monophyletic? The answer to this question holds               prototype high-density microarray to identify
considerable taxonomic bearing because the porcini            eukaryotic microbial community structure. As a first
group contains the type species, Boletus edulis, on           step, a fungal sequence repository was developed,
which the taxonomy of the order Boletales is based.           similar to our greengenes site
In this study, we compared the phylogenetic utility of        (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) bacterial repository to
length-variable regions of the nuclear LSU rDNA and           maintain a comprehensive set of aligned, chimera-
portions of RPB1 introns, in combination with the             screened 18S, ITS and the D1/D2 regions of the 28S
unambiguously aligned regions of these genes, to the          rRNA gene sequences. From these alignments, 25-
unambiguously aligned regions alone. We used a                mer potential targets are extracted and filtered based
small but broad sampling of taxa in the Boletineae,           on their physical properties (GC content, Tm, folding
including representatives of the major groups of              potential, self-dimerization potential, synthesis
porcini. We compared the results of employing                 efficiency criteria) and their cross-hybridization
alignment-independent methods (implemented in                 potential. Each target gene is progressively clustered
POY) and recoding schemes (INAASE) to those                   into taxa with its nearest neighbors until a set of
obtained from standard phylogenetic methods. Our              approved probes are found that target nearly all
results indicate that while the backbone of the               members of the taxa and do not exhibit cross-
Boletineae remains poorly resolved, the hypothesis            hybridization potential. For taxa where the ribosomal
that porcini are monophyletic cannot be rejected.             operon as a whole is distinctive but no probe-level
Contributed Presentation                                      sequence is identified that is not shared with other
                                                              taxa, a set of probes are designed to a combination of
DeSantis, Todd Z., Torok, Tamas, Brodie, Eoin L.,
                                                              regions on the operon that taken together do not exist
Piceno, Yvette M. and Andersen, Gary L.* Dept. of
                                                              in any other taxa. The selected probes will each be
Ecology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,
                                                              paired with a control probe containing a central
Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
glandersen@lbl.gov. Characterization of microbial             mismatch to reduce the effects of non-specific
diversity with high-density microarrays. The                  hybridization and synthesized on a NimbleGen
                                                              platform. This microarray could greatly advance our
applicability of biomarkers, such as the ribosomal
                                                              knowledge of the role fungi play in important matters
small subunit (SSU), internal transcribed spacer
                                                              such as bioremediation, carbon sequestration and
region (ITS) and the ribosomal large subunit (LSU)
                                                              human diseases in addition to providing a monitoring
for microbial classification are now well accepted.
                                                              tool to assess the health of an ecosystem. Symposium
One of the main reasons that the ribosomal operon is
the most popular region for molecular phylogeny is
that conserved segments can serve as priming sites to         Dewsbury, Damon R.1* and Moncalvo, Jean-Marc.2
create heterogeneous PCR products from                          Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,
environmental samples. Cloning-and-sequencing the             University of Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada,
PCR products has been the general method of                     Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario
sampling the DNA types but does not scale well for            Museum, ON M5S 2C6, Canada.
large studies. Instead, hybridizing PCR products to a         damondewsy@yahoo.com. A molecular phylogeny
universal microarray allows a more rapid evaluation.          of Eastern North American morels (genus
We have developed a high-density microarray system            Morchella) focusing on the “Carolinian” forest


zone. Members of the genus Morchella are easily                “ex-situ” in culture collections is clearly left aside
identified in the field but species boundaries are             with money destined to collections being funneled to
problematic given the limited morpho-characters.               collateral activities even in institutions whose
DNA sequences of the ITS, LSU, RPB2 and EF-1                   primary mission is exactly that of preserving
alpha regions are being obtained from many                     germplasm. With the establishment of the “Centro de
specimens sampled from four Maryland national                  Biotecnologia da Amazônia” (Amazonian
parks and southern Ontario. Most of these specimens            Biotechnology Center) in Manaus by the Federal
were collected in the “Carolinian” forest zone, which          Government it is expected that the first step will be
is characterized by a particular suite of flora                the organization of a unique mycological collection,
dominated by Tuliptrees (Liriodendron tulipifera).             and the same must become real for the cerrado where
The Tuliptree belongs to the Magnoliaceae and thus             Embrapa is giving the first steps in the same
is quite distinct from other dominant tree species in          direction. On the other hand several frustrated
Eastern North America. It has been noted anecdotally           experiences led to difficulties in motivating the
that there is a correlation between these trees and            financing agents to invest in culture collections,
morel fruitings. Sequence data will be used to                 treasure still unexplored. Data will be gathered and
elucidate a molecular phylogeny to answer several              presented to permit an evaluation of the mycological
questions. Of the four morphotaxa that can be                  progress in Brazil post-Rio 92. Symposium
distinguished in the field, do any mask multiple               Presentation
phylogenetic species? Do Southern Ontario morels
                                                               Dianese, J. C.* and Pereira-Carvalho, R.C.
from the Carolinian zone cluster with Maryland
                                                               Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade de
collections, following the tree host/forest ecotype, or
                                                               Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.
with geographically closer taxa from forests with
                                                               jcarmine@unb.br. A new hyphomycete genus based
more northern floral elements such as maple (Acer              on Alternaria qualeae. A re-examination suggested
genus) and pine (Pinus genus)? Lastly, this study will
                                                               by Dr. Emmory Simmons (personal communication)
begin to address whether there is a need for a
                                                               of the type material of Alternaria qualeae Dornelo-
taxonomic revision of the genus in eastern North
                                                               Silva & Dianese, deposited in Herbarium UB, led to
America to provide formal names for morels that are
                                                               the conclusion that the specimen does not really
phylogenetically distinct from their European
                                                               belong in an Alternaria species but indeed belongs in
counterparts. Poster
                                                               a new genus to be published soon. The specimen can
Dianese, José Carmine* and Pereira-Carvalho, Rita              not be included in Alternaria because of the the
C. Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade de              presence of a stroma produced by the fungus on the
Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.        abaxial face of the host leaves, and the fact that a
jcarmine@unb.br. Fungal conservation with the                  careful examination of the conidial base and the
Rio Convention: the experience of Brazil.                      conidiogenous cells revealed scars but not the
Mycology in Brazil suffered a long period of                   characteristic tretic condition needed to characterize
stagnation mainly after the deaths of Augusto Chaves           an alternarian species. Finally, a close observation of
Batista, Ahmés Pinto Viégas in the 1960s, and more             the conidiogenous cells revealed their annellidic
recently the loss of Alcides Teixeira. However,                condition. The specimen could not be fitted in any of
coinciding with the signature of “The Convention on            the known genera of dematiaceous hyphomycetes.
Biodiversity”, a few people woke up for the need of            Poster
fungal conservation starting with a systematic
                                                               Didukh, Maryna* and Moncalvo, Jean-Marc.
description of our mycodiversity. Thus major projects          Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology,
involving the study of savanna (cerrado) microfungi,
                                                               University of Toronto, and Department of Natural
fungi of the “caatinga” (semi-arid Northeast region),
                                                               History, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada.
survey and description of endomycorrhizal fungi,
                                                               maryna.didukh@gmail.com. DNA barcoding
microfungi of interest to biocontrol of insects and
                                                               Pleurotus species (Agaricales, Basidiomycota).
plant diseases, and description of important fractions
                                                               DNA barcoding is an approach designed to increase
of the Boletales and other macrofungi, were all
                                                               the efficiency of recovering and documenting species
initiated after 1992 in Brazil. These efforts, in some
                                                               across different kingdoms of life. In numerous groups
instances based upon cooperation with American and             of animals, a short, ca. 600 bp segment of the
European mycologists, although conducted by                    cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (CO1) was shown to very
isolated groups deserve consideration and an effort to
                                                               be effective for that purpose, and this gene has been
present an overview of the mycological progress in
                                                               proposed as a possible universal marker. However,
our Country in the last 15 years. It must be
                                                               the utility of CO1 as a species marker in fungi still
emphasized that in Brazil the preservation of fungi
                                                               remains to be tested. Primary disputes over CO1


involve fundamental issues like accuracy                      Microbiology, University of California, Riverside,
(intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence)        CA 92521, USA. gdouhan@ucr.edu. Species
and the proposed use of single-gene thresholds as an          diversity of Hypomyces associated with boletes in
initial step in species discovery. Prior to the               California. Mycoparasitic Hypomyces (anamorph =
barcoding initiative, information on the organization         Sepedonium) species are commonly observed
and variation of CO1 in fungi was scarce and                  parasitizing members of the Boletales. In California,
restricted mostly to model organisms in the                   only two species have been recognized; the generalist
Ascomycota. In this study, over 40 strains of seven           pathogen H. chrysospermus which infects many
species of the genus Pleurotus as well as                     genera within the Boletates and the specialist H.
representatives of other agaricoid taxa were used to          microspermus which infects hosts within the
assess variation in the target CO1 region and to              Xerocomus chrysenteron complex. We have recently
compare its performance with more widely used                 discovered that cryptic species occur in both
nuclear markers: nuclear ribosomal DNA internal               pathogens with two phylogenetic species occurring in
transcribed spacer (nrDNA ITS) region and                     each group. However, this was based on a limited
elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha). Pleurotus             sample size and we hypothesized that even more
strains were further used to compare cDNA vs.                 unrecognized diversity occurs in California.
genomic sequences for CO1 and EF-1 alpha in order             Therefore, our objective was to test this by
to retrieve information on nuclear gene organization.         broadening our collections. From Jan 2003 to
Contributed Presentation                                      February 2006, parasitized mushrooms were
                                                              collected throughout California from Humboldt to
DiMarco, Michael J. and Silliker, Margaret E.*
                                                              Riverside Counties and identified by ITS sequencing.
Department of Biology, DePaul University, 2325 N.
                                                              European isolates were also obtained for comparison
Clifton Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.
msillike@depaul.edu. RNA editing of Didymium                  purposes. Over 120 CA isolates were recovered and
                                                              we identified two previously unrecognized species
iridis atp8 and nad4L mitochondrial genes.
                                                              occurring in California; H. laevigatum and H.
Mitochondrial genomics has provided evolutionary
                                                              ampullosporum. Contrary to our hypothesis, we only
insights, however, in some organisms, the
                                                              found the four phylogenetic species as were
mitochondrial DNA genes appear to be scrambled;
                                                              identified in our previous study. All ‘species’ were
functional genes arise after the mRNA undergoes an
                                                              distributed throughout the sampling range in CA and
editing process. In the Myxogastria (plasmodial slime
                                                              these same species were also found occurring
molds) editing is primarily by cytosine-base
                                                              throughout Europe. However, most bolete hosts are
insertions that alter the transcript to remove stop
codons. We characterized editing events in two                not shared between Europe and CA suggesting that
                                                              the hosts have speciated faster than the parasites.
mitochondrial genes, atp8 and nad4L of Didymium
                                                              Contributed Presentation
iridis. Total RNA was isolated, reverse transcribed,
cloned, sequenced, and aligned with the genomic               Douhan, Greg W.1*, Smith, Matthew E.2, Huryn,
DNA sequences to reveal the editing sites. Nad4L              Karyn L.1, Westbrook, Andrea2 and Fisher, Alison.3
was edited evenly throughout by C-insertions, while             Department of Plant Pathology, University of
atp8 was predominantly edited at the beginning of             California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA, 2Department
the transcript. Editing sites were downstream of a            of Plant Pathology, One Shields Avenue, University
purine-pyrimidine dinucleotide 67% of the time.               of California, Davis, CA 956161, USA, 3USDA,
Given the base composition of the genes, A-T                  ARS, Exotic and Invasive Weeds Research Unit,
dinucleotides are predicted to occur in 16% of the            Albany, CA 94710, USA. gdouhan@ucr.edu.
sequence, however, this dinucleotide pair was found           Multigene analysis suggests ecological speciation
immediately upstream at 57% of all the upstream               in the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea.
pur-pyr editing sites. The C-base insertions were             Claviceps purpurea is an important pathogen of
preferentially inserted in the 3rd position (wobble           grasses and source of novel chemical compounds.
position) of the codon to create a correct reading            Three groups within this species (G1, G2, and G3)
frame. Editing sites were conserved 63% and 85% in            have been recognized based on habitat association,
atp8 and nad4L, respectively, between D. iridis and           sclerotia and conidia morphology, and alkaloid
Physarum polycephalum, a related Myxogastria. In              production. These groups have further been
both organisms a similar mechanism of RNA editing             supported by RAPD and AFLP markers, suggesting
appears to be responsible for maintaining protein             this species may be more accurately described as a
function. Poster                                              species complex. In this study, we used a multi-gene
                                                              approach to test for speciation within C. purpurea
Douhan, Greg W.*, Douhan, LeAnn I. and Huryn,
                                                              using DNA sequences from ITS, a RAS-like locus,
Karyn. Department of Plant Pathology and


and a portion of beta-tubulin. We found that C.                Sporothrix schenckii, and Trichophyton species. The
purpurea sensu lato appears to be in the early stages          comprehensive screenings of more than two-hundred
of speciation. The G1 types are significantly                  species of fungi have lead to some possible
divergent from the G2/G3 types based on each of the            candidates for new antifungal drugs. These agents
three loci and the combined dataset, whereas the               once characterized may benefit patients and have a
G2/G3 types are more integrated with one another.              significant economic impact. Contributed
Although the G2 and G3 lineages have not diverged              Presentation
as much as the G1 lineage based on DNA sequence
                                                               Edwards, Sally M.* and Spiegel, Frederick W.
data, the use of three DNA loci does reliably separate
                                                               Department of Biological Sciences, University of
the G2 and G3 lineages. Our results suggest that
                                                               Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.
these fungi are in the process of speciation and we
                                                               smedwar@uark.edu. Impacts of land use changes
argue that this process is driven by adaptations to
                                                               on cellular slime molds. The development of forest,
ecological habitats; G1 isolates are associated with
                                                               pastoral and riparian ecosystems has the potential to
terrestrial grasses, G2 isolates are found in wet and          significantly affect the biodiversity of a given area.
shady environments, and G3 isolates are found in salt          Previous research has shown the effects of land use
marsh habitats. All divergent ecotypes can coexist in
                                                               shifts on macro-organism diversity. However, such
sympatric populations with no obvious physical
                                                               works have not fully addressed the possible impacts
barriers to prevent gene flow. However, our results
                                                               on soil microorganisms. This study will examine the
suggest that no genetic exchange is occurring
                                                               effects of different land uses on the dictyostelid
between these divergent groups. Poster
                                                               cellular slime molds. Currently recognized as a group
Dunek, Craig* and Volk, Tom. Department of                     within the taxon Eumycetozoa, the dictyostelids are a
Biology, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La                 cosmopolitan group of eukaryotic microorganisms.
Crosse, WI 54601, USA.                                         These soil and humus-dwelling protists spend much
dunek.crai@students.uwlax.edu,                                 of their life cycle as bacteriotrophic amoebae. Upon
volk.thom@uwlax.edu, TomVolkFungi.net. The                     depletion of their microhabitat, the amoebae
incidence of antifungal drugs from fungi. The                  aggregate into a multicellular slug, which can then
clinical significance of fungal pathogens has                  develop into a fruiting body. Collections of soil and
increased dramatically in the past 30 years.                   dead vegetation were made from 10 sets of paired
Conditions such as aspergillosis, sporotrichosis,              sites (with one site per pair disturbed by construction)
blastomycosis, candidiasis, and cryptococcosis are             throughout Arkansas. Five samples were collected
occurring more often and with greater virulence,               from each site. The resulting soil samples were
especially in those who are immunocompromised.                 diluted according to the Cavender method and grown
Treatment of fungal pathogens with antifungal drugs            on WMY agar with E. coli at 20-26 C. Plates were
is normally lengthy and is associated with a plethora          examined for dictyostelid growth, using a Nikon
of side effects, such as headaches, vomiting, as well          SMZ1500 dissecting microscope, each day on days
as more serious complications such as hepatitis and            3-14. Species richness and diversity were compared
renal failure. These side effects are not only                 for disturbed versus undisturbed sites. The potential
devastating to the patient but also have a huge                of soil microorganisms as indicators of
economic impact, costing millions every year for               environmental change is also discussed. Poster
increased hospital stays. Once discovered, new
                                                               Everhart, Sydney E.*, Keller, Harold W. and Ely,
antifungal drug classes could reduce side effects as
                                                               Joseph S. Department of Biology, University of
well as lower overall costs in antifungal treatments.          Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO 64093, USA.
However, discovery of antifungal drugs is very
                                                               everhart@ucmo.edu. Corticolous myxomycetes
difficult, because both humans and fungi have
                                                               (true slime molds): species assemblages and
eukaryotic cells. Humans and fungi are so similar that
                                                               distribution in the tree canopy of selected forests
antifungal drugs tend to also be generally anti-
                                                               of Kentucky and Tennessee. Corticolous
eukaryotic, killing both fungal and human cells, thus
                                                               myxomycetes complete their life cycle on the bark of
causing side effects. “Perfect” antibiotics are
                                                               living trees and vines. Trees with grapevines
selective for the infectious agent and at the same time
                                                               (Vitaceae) were selected to compare the occurrence
are innocuous to the host. This research looks for             and distribution of species in the tree canopy. The
new antifungal compounds from fungal fruiting                  double-rope climbing technique was used to access
bodies. Extracts from fungal fruiting bodies were
                                                               the canopy and sample bark at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15
tested against six strains of pathogenic fungi:
                                                               meters. Tree species sampled were Acer saccharum,
Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans,
                                                               Fraxinus americana, Liquidambar styraciflua,
Cryptococcus neoformans, Emmonsia crescens,
                                                               Liriodendron tulipifera, Platanus occidentalis, and


Tsuga canadensis. Bark from five trees of each                 Exeter, Ronald L.1 and Norvell, Lorelei L.2* 1USDI
species and their corresponding grapevines, Vitis              Bureau of Land Management, 1717 Fabry Road SE,
aestivalis or V. vulpina, was used to prepare moist            Salem, OR 97306-1720, USA, 2Pacific Northwest
chamber cultures and induce fruiting of                        Mycology Service, Portland, OR 97229-1309. USA.
myxomycetes. A total of 580 moist chamber cultures             llnorvell@pnw-ms.com. Ramarias of Pacific
yielded 44 myxomycete species, representing 19                 Northwest. The colorful coral fungi are among the
genera, with an additional 2 taxa identified only to           loveliest denizens of the vast temperate rainforests of
genus. Common species found were Echinostelium                 western North America. The US government's
minutum, Arcyria cinerea, and Perichaena                       Northwest Forest Plan targeted 28 rare or uncommon
chrysosperma. Variation in occurrence and                      taxa of Ramaria (Basidiomycota, Gomphales) as
assemblages of myxomycete species is associated                worthy of survey and management within the range
with tree species and bark pH, indicating a few                of the endangered northern spotted owl. Examination
species are restricted to bark of a certain pH, while          of both type and recent collections and reference to
many species occur over a wide range. Financially              classic papers by Marr & Stuntz, Petersen, and others
supported by Willard North Graduate Research                   led to the development of a single key identifying all
Award, NSF Award DEB-0343447, National                         species in the region and the discovery of a new
Geographic Research and Exploration Award-7272-                species, Ramaria rasilisporoides. A recent 157-page
02, and Discover Life in America Awards 2001-26                USDI-BLM publication, Ramaria of the Pacific
and 2002-17. Contributed Presentation                          Northwestern United States (Exeter, Norvell &
                                                               Cazares, 2006), treats all four subgenera:
Everhart, Sydney E.*, Keller, Harold W. and Ely,
                                                               Lentoramaria, Echinoramaria, Ramaria, and
Joseph S. Department of Biology, University of
                                                               Laeticolora. The lavishly illustrated monograph
Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO 64093, USA.
everhart@ucmo.edu. Quantitative analysis of bark               contains 193 color photos and covers all 90 of the
                                                               region's known species and varieties. Each one- to
characteristics and epiphyte cover on distribution
                                                               two-page taxonomic treatment presents synonyms,
patterns of corticolous myxomycetes (true slime
                                                               field descriptions, summary technical descriptions
molds) in the tree canopy. Corticolous
                                                               from hard-to-find publications, ecological and
myxomycetes form plasmodia and fruiting bodies on
                                                               distributional data, diagnostic characters, additional
the bark of living trees and vines. Bark was sampled
                                                               comments, and references. Known phylogenetic
from 30 trees and 30 grapevines along a vertical
                                                               relationships, taxonomic characters, tables, a new
transect up to 15 m, to examine the relationship
                                                               glossary, complete bibliography, and previously
between bark characteristics (pH, water absorption,
                                                               published microscopic keys are also provided. Poster
and thickness), epiphyte cover, geographic location,
and myxomycete species. Moist chamber culture                  Fedorova, Natalie1, McDonagh, Andrew2, Yu, Yan1,
technique was used to induce myxomycete fruiting               Armstrong-James, Darius2, Haynes, Ken2, Bignell,
and bark pH was measured after 24 hours using an               Elaine2 and Nierman, William C.1* 1J. Craig Venter
Orion 610 pH flat probe. Plates were scanned for               Institute, Rockville, MD, USA, 2Department of
presence of myxomycetes after 4, 16, and 32 days,              Molecular Microbiology and Infection, Imperial
and percent cover data was collected in a stratified           College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.
random design on day 32. Different species of trees            wnierman@jcvi.org. Transcriptome analysis of
and grapevines had significantly different bark                Aspergillus fumigatus during early stage
characteristics, however, the only tree which had a            mammalian lung infection. Aspergillus fumigatus is
significant difference in the vertical variation of any        a particularly virulent fungus whose spores infect
bark characteristic was P. occidentalis. Accordingly,          human hosts having compromised immunity. Its
P. occidentalis also had a significant decrease in             success as a pathogen is unique among close
richness of myxomycete species with increasing                 phylogenetic relatives and thought to depend upon
height in the canopy. Non-metric multi-dimensional             concerted control over multiple functions including
scaling and multi-response permutation procedure               nutrient acquisition, metabolic plasticity and
were performed; distinct species assemblages                   immunotoxin production. A. fumigatus virulence, and
correspond to each tree and grapevine species and              that of other opportunistic fungal pathogens, has
were differentiated by pH, DBH, and elevation.                 escaped definition at the molecular level promoting
Financially supported by NSF Award DEB-0343447,                scepticism regarding the existence of ‘true’ virulence
National Geographic Research and Exploration                   factors in such species. Newly published genomes for
Award-7272-02, and Discover Life in America                    several fungal pathogens and emerging evidence for
Awards 2001-26 and 2002-17. Poster                             epigenetic control of fungal virulence mechanisms
                                                               support the view that hierarchical co-ordination of


multiple processes may underpin fungal                           transversal septa and rare longitudinal septa, covered
pathogenicity. Comparative genomics analysis has                 by a mucilaginous sheath. Poster
raised suspicions that niche adaptation genes may
                                                                 Ferrer, A.1*, Sarmiento, C.2 and Shearer, C.A.1 1Plant
reside in lineage-specific regions of the Aspergillus
                                                                 Biology, University of Illinois, 505 S. Goodwin Ave.,
genomes. To assess transcriptional co-ordination
                                                                 Urbana, Il 61801, USA, 2Universidad de Los Andes,
during host niche-adaptation we have characterised               Bogota, Colombia. aferrer@life.uiuc.edu.
A. fumigatus gene expression during initiation of
                                                                 Distribution of ascomycete diversity in Costa
mammalian infection, using laboratory cultured
                                                                 Rican freshwater habitats. Diversity patterns of
germlings as a comparator. We show that during the
                                                                 freshwater ascomycetes in the tropics are
early phase of infection A. fumigatus co-ordinately
                                                                 undescribed. As part of an ongoing study of the
regulates expression of gene clusters encoding
                                                                 distribution of freshwater ascomycetes along
biosynthesis of gliotoxin, iron siderophore, and five
                                                                 latitudinal gradients, we undertook a comparative
other putative secondary metabolites. In addition our
                                                                 survey of three lowland sites and one lower montane
analyses identify multiple clusters of physically                site in Costa Rica. Submerged wood was collected
linked, co-regulated genes, which are likely to share a          from streams at La Selva, Barra del Colorado and Las
concerted function, which cannot be predicted from
                                                                 Cruces National Park and from lentic habitats in
genomic analyses alone. The analysis demonstrated a
                                                                 Caño Negro. At each site, 30 samples of submerged,
genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming favoring
                                                                 partially decomposed woody debris were collected.
subtelomeric and lineage-specific genes. Taken
                                                                 Wood samples were incubated in moist chambers and
together these observations reveal a pattern of co-
                                                                 examined periodically for fruiting body production.
ordinated gene regulation thus far undiscovered from
                                                                 Species richness was higher than that reported from
in vitro analyses, and provides the first transcriptional
                                                                 temperate areas and included new species discovered
snapshot of a fungal genome during initiation of                 at each site. No one genus or family dominated any
mammalian infection. Symposium Presentation
                                                                 site. We recorded very few species that were shared
Ferreira, Renato B.1, Inácio, Carlos A.2 and Dianese,            between sites indicating high alpha and beta diversity
José C.2 1 Centro Universitário de Brasília,                     in this fungal community. Numerous species
UNICEUB, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF, Brazil, 2Dep. de               collected from Costa Rica also have been reported
Fitopatologia, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900,              from similar habitats in the paleotropics, suggesting a
Brasília, DF, Brazil. jcarmine@unb.br. New                       global distribution for some tropical freshwater
Ascomycota on petioles of Mauritia flexuosa                      species. Our results highlight the importance of
(Palmae) from Central Brazil. Mauritia flexuosa                  sampling multiple sites to capture freshwater fungal
(Burití) is a palm tree found endemically on swampy              diversity, and indicate that many freshwater taxa
areas (“veredas”) of the cerrado. In 2006 leaf samples           remain to be discovered. Poster
were collected from the State of Goiás in Central                Fischer, A.1*, Klironomos, J.N.1, Moncalvo, J.M.2
Brazil. Two new Ascomycota were detected on leaf
                                                                 and Malcolm, J.R.3 1Department of Integrative
petioles and are now described, as follows: 1. a new
                                                                 Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, 2 Centre
xylariaceous ascomycete, forming lesions that are
                                                                 for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal
darkened and irregular; ascomata 50 – 213 × 105 -
                                                                 Ontario Museum, Toronto, ON, 3Department of
300 µm, black, partially erumpent, irregular in shape
                                                                 Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
with a convoluted internal lining, and 26 – 13 µm
                                                                 fischera@uoguelph.ca. Fungal diversity measured
thick black outer wall; paraphyses: 1 µm diam.,
                                                                 across two decay classes of spruce wood in
hyaline, septate, branched; asci: 30 - 50 × 7 - 15 µm,           disturbed boreal forest sites. Woody debris is a key
cylindrical, unitunicate, 7-8 ascospores, J+;
                                                                 component for maintaining biological diversity in
ascospores: 11 – 17 × 5 - 10 µm, ellipsoidal, guttulate
                                                                 forest ecosystems. Fungi play essential roles in these
when young becoming light-brown to brown,
                                                                 systems by releasing nutrients from dead wood,
uniseriate, aseptate, with mucilaginous sheath and a
                                                                 directly providing food and indirectly providing
clear germ slit. 2. a new Saccardiaceae
                                                                 shelter for many organisms. Knowledge of fungi
(Dothideomycetidae) forming colonies 8-21 mm
                                                                 associated with woody debris is therefore an
diam., dark, circular, confluent; greyish, containing
                                                                 important step for management and conservation of
dark ascomata; ascomata 75 – 103 × 225 - 475 µm,                 forest resources. To investigate fungal diversity in
superficial, black, circular, discoid, non-ostiolate;            decaying wood, samples were collected from 60
upper wall 13 – 24 µm; paraphyses: 40 – 60 × 1 – 2
                                                                 spruce logs in 3 logged and 3 unlogged sites in a
µm diam., hyaline, filiform, simple; asci: 20 – 45 ×
                                                                 boreal forest in northern Ontario. Half of these logs
16 - 34 µm, globose to ovoid, bitunicate; ascospores:
                                                                 were in an early stage of decay (decay class 1) and
17 – 30 × 8 - 14 µm, hyaline, ellipsoidal, 6 - 8
                                                                 half in a late stage of decay (decay class 4). Three


wood cores were collected from each log and pooled              Boletaceae of Guyana. In the Pakaraima Mountains
together. Fungal DNA was extracted from these                   of Guyana, large expanses of primary mixed
samples, and the nLSU-rDNA gene was PCR                         rainforest of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree
amplified, cloned, and sequenced. These sequences               species are juxtaposed with extensive
were used to measure fungal diversity in two ways:              ectomycorrhizal (EM) monodominant Dicymbe
(1) sequence or operational taxonomic unit (OTU)                corymbosa (Caesalpiniaceae) forests. One component
diversity and (2) phylogenetic diversity. Fungal                of current research on the Dicymbe system in Guyana
fruiting bodies were collected from the same logs as a          is a multi-year investigation of macrofungal diversity
third measure of fungal diversity. We compare fungal            in the D. corymbosa stands, and the surrounding
diversity among the different sites and logs by using           mixed forests, and comparison of EM and
phylogenetic, fruiting body and OTU methods with                saprotrophic fungal guilds and their ecological
the hypothesis that each of these measures will yield           significance in these highly contrasting forest types.
different results. Preliminary results suggest that             This work has uncovered >150 species or
fungal diversity measured by phylogenic diversity               morphospecies of EM fungi associated with
differs from fruiting body and OTU diversity                    Dicymbe, nearly doubling the number of EM fungi
measurements. Poster                                            known from the lowland Neotropics. Ongoing
                                                                systematic work on the EM fungi indicates that >70
Fitzsimons, Michael S.1*, Miller, R. Michael2 and
                                                                % are new taxa at the specific or generic level.
Jastrow, Julie D.2 1University of Chicago,
                                                                Boletaceae are especially rich at the Guyana site,
Department of Ecology & Evolution, Chicago, IL
                                                                numbering at least 20 morphospecies in numerous
60637, USA, 2Argonne National Laboratory,
                                                                genera (Tylopilus, Xerocomus, Austroboletus,
Argonne, IL 60439, USA. fitz@uchicago.edu. Niche
                                                                Pulveroboletus, Boletellus, Fistulinella, and
axes and scale of study in arbuscular mycorrhizal
fungi. Research into microbial niches has only                  Phylloporus) from a single collecting area in the
                                                                Upper Potaro River Basin. Taxonomic novelties and
recently begun receiving the attention that such an
                                                                their impact on generic concepts in several bolete
important topic and diverse group of organisms
                                                                genera will be discussed, as well as novel ecological
deserve. In this study, we investigate the niche of a
                                                                roles and biogeographical implications. Contributed
group of mutualistic fungi, the Arbuscular
Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF). Our goal was to
determine the relative importance of host plants, soil          Garcia-Sandoval, Ricardo* and Hibbett, David S.
chemical parameters, and time since disturbance in              Clark University, Biology Department, Lasry
determining AMF community composition. We                       Biosciences Center, 950 Main Street, Worcester,
found that all three were important, but that the               Massachusetts 01610-1477, USA.
appropriate scale of inquiry is required to identify all        rgarciasandoval@clarku.edu. Molecular
three interactions. Time since disturbance was                  phylogenetics of the Gloeophyllales, insights from
significant at both the point and plot level scales, but        ribosomal and protein-coding genes. The
soil characters were only significant at the point scale        Gloeophyllales is a monophyletic group that includes
and plant community change only significant at the              representatives of the genera Gloeophyllum,
plot scale. When plants and soil changes are looked             Neolentinus, Veluticeps, and Heliocybe. Species from
at in greater detail (i.e. at the species and individual        Donkioporia and Boreostereum have also been
soil parameter) we found that individual plants do not          included based on analysis of the nuc-ssu rDNA
alter the community enough to produce a signal, but             region alone. In spite of its small size, this clade
that pH and nitrate levels were clear indicators of             exhibits a wide diversity of morphological and
AMF community change. The significance of this                  physiological characters, including species with
study lies in identifying time since disturbance as a           pileate-sessile, pileate-stipitate and resupinate
determinant of AMF community change, pH and                     basidiomes, lamellate or poroid hymenophores,
nitrate as soil drivers of the community, and that to           brown or white rot wood-decay capabilities, and
uncover interactions between groups of organisms,               bipolar or tetrapolar mating systems. Previous studies
especially those with radically different dispersal             using mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA genes suggest
abilities, point level comparisons may not be an                that this group is closely related to the Thelephorales,
appropriate scale of study. Poster                              but without strong support. Our current research
Fulgenzi, T.D.1*, Henkel, T.W.1 and Halling, R.E.2              seeks to assess the phylogenetic placement and
1                                                               composition of the Gloeophyllales. For this purpose,
  Department of Biological Sciences, Humboldt State
                                                                we are extending the taxonomic sampling relative to
University, Arcata, CA 95521, USA, 2Institute of
                                                                prior studies, and we are gathering data from nuclear
Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden,
                                                                rDNA (ssu and lsu) and protein-coding genes (rpb2
Bronx, NY 60605, USA. tdfungal@aol.com.


and tef1). Results wil be discussed with particular             Encyrtidae), and the cockroach it parasitizes, Supella
regard to evolution of morphological and                        longipalpa (Blattaria: Blattellidae), are examined
physiological characters. Poster                                using both molecular- and culture-based methods.
                                                                From LSU cloning data there is evidence of two
Gaya, Ester1*, Llimona, Xavier2, Navarro-Rosines,
                                                                fungi in the wasps (basidiomycete relatives), and
Pere2 and Lutzoni, François.1 1Department of
Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0338,                three fungi in the cockroaches. Two of the cockroach
                                                                fungal symbionts are identical to the basidiomycete
USA, 2Departament de Biologia Vegetal (Unitat de
                                                                relatives recovered from wasps and there is an
Botanica), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de
                                                                additional lecanoromycete relative. Using general
Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona,
                                                                16S primers, Blattabacterium and Wolbachia are also
Spain. eb62@duke.edu. The lobate Caloplaca:
                                                                recovered from the cockroaches. Culturing efforts
phylogeny and taxonomy of a problematic species
                                                                reveal that only one of the basidiomycete-like fungi
complex within the Teloschistaceae (Ascomycota).
                                                                from the wasps is cultivable and an additional
Caloplaca is a widespread and common lichen-
forming genus, found mostly in mesic and xeric                  (possibly nitrogen fixing) bacterium is cultivable
habitats. Despite its conspicuous habit, it is among            from the cockroaches. The characterization of the
                                                                microbial associates in this system lays the
the least known taxonomically and the poor
                                                                foundation for understanding symbiont contributions
understanding of its species has often led to its being
                                                                to these wasps and cockroaches. This research
overlooked. The delimitation of this genus has
                                                                reveals cryptic fungal diversity in an understudied
always been problematic due mostly to the strong
                                                                niche, insect hosts, as well as demonstrates the role
similarity between lobate species of Caloplaca and
                                                                that fungi could have in shaping the evolution of
species of other genera within the Teloschistaceae.
                                                                host-parasitoid interactions. Poster
Among all lobate Caloplaca species, the C. saxicola
group has been the most controversial taxonomically.            Gillevet, Patrick, M., Sikaroodi, M. and Torzilli,
To provide a comprehensive and more natural                     Albert, P.* Department of Environmental Science
classification of this group of lobate Caloplaca, we            and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA
first tested the hypothesis that these species form a           22030, USA. atorzill@gmu.edu. Analysing salt-
monophyletic group within a broad taxon sampling of             marsh fungal community diversity: community
the Teloschistaceae, including taxa representing all            ARISA fingerprinting vs. community clone
species groups of Caloplaca. The results from                   sequencing. Fungi are important decomposers in the
phylogenetic analyses carried out on sequences of the           detrital-based food webs of temperate salt-marsh
nuclear rDNA internal trancribed spacer region (ITS)            ecosystems. Knowing the composition of salt-marsh
are reported. These analyses supported the polyphyly            fungal communities is essential for understanding
of Caloplaca and allied genera Fulgensia,                       how detritus processing is affected by changes in
Teloschistes and Xanthoria. Based also on an ITS                community dynamics. Previous results from our
phylogeny, together with morphological and                      laboratory have shown that different salt-marsh
anatomical characters, some species in the C.                   plants harbor distinct fungal communities as judged
saxicola group thus far accepted were associated with           by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis
high support values. The same was true for                      (ARISA) of fungal DNA amplified from the different
potentially new cryptic species. Contributed                    plant hosts. ARISA fingerprinting data provide non-
Presentation                                                    taxon-specific snapshots of community structure
                                                                where each peak in a community profile represents
Gibson, Cara M. Dept. of Entomology, University of
Arizona, 410 Forbes Building, PO Box 210036,                    an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) of a given
                                                                amplicon size. In order to associate specific taxa with
Tucson, AZ 85721-0036, USA.
                                                                community OTUs we cloned, fingerprinted, and
cgibson@ag.arizona.edu. Microbial community in a
                                                                sequenced the fungal community DNA from each
wasp parasitoid and its cockroach host. Currently,
                                                                plant in order to match the size and sequence of
there is tremendous interest in understanding both the
                                                                specific clones with the community OTU sizes.
diversity of insect-associated microbes and the
                                                                BLAST results indicated that a given OTU amplicon
effects that they exert on their hosts. Despite frequent
                                                                may represent more than one species, confirming
and intimate associations with insects, fungi have
received comparatively little attention. Often, insects         earlier observations. Also, the ability to assign a
may be infected with multiple symbionts, including              specific taxon to a community amplicon by matching
                                                                amplicon sizes was limited by the extent of species
simultaneous infection with both fungal and bacterial
                                                                coverage in the BLAST database. Furthermore,
symbionts. The vertically transmitted fungal and
                                                                differences in the relative abundances between
bacterial symbiont communities of a particular
                                                                community fingerprint amplicons and comparable
parasitoid wasp, Comperia merceti (Hymenoptera:


clone abundances suggested significant biases during         one of the most diverse genera adapted to arenicolous
the cloning process. Nonetheless, the cloning and            habitats and is distributed widely from tropical to
sequencing data did confirm the conclusion from              temperate regions. During the past decade, a surge
fingerprinting that plant (substrate) type is an             has taken place in the investigation of the Mexican
important factor in determining fungal community             and Cuban arenicolous microfungi biodiversity. At
composition. Poster                                          present, these countries have an active interest in
                                                             describing, preserving, and using the biodiversity of
Goldmann, Lauren* and Weir, Alex. Department of
                                                             marine fungi. The advances in recording the
Environmental & Forest Biology, SUNY College of
                                                             distribution of species from several beaches of
Environmental Science & Forestry, 241 Illick Hall, 1
                                                             Mexico and Cuba are presented. Symposium
Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
lmgold01@syr.edu. Laboulbeniales from western
Russia. As a part of the SUNY-ESF Moscow State               Gross, Stephanie*, Suh, Sung-Oui and Blackwell,
University Exchange Program we had the                       Meredith. Department of Biological Sciences,
opportunity in summer 2006 to collect                        Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Laboulbeniales fungi at the Zvenigorod Biological            70803, USA. sgross2@lsu.edu. Diet and its effect on
Station, some 50km west of Moscow, and at the                the abundance of endosymbiotic gut yeast found
White Sea Biological Station near Poiakonda. The             in a wood-boring beetle Odontotaenius disjunctus:
most recent literature of the Laboulbeniales of the          Passalidae. Pichia stipitis, a xylose fermenting and
western portion of Russia is that by Hulden (1983),          assimilating yeast, has consistently been isolated
who records 41 species. Our collections have added           from the gut of over 400 adult, wood-boring beetles
an additional 10 species, including 3 new genera for         (Odontotaenius disjunctus: Passalidae). We examined
the region; Aphanandromyces, Euzodiomyces, and               the affect of beetle diet on gut yeasts by varying
Rhadinomyces. Of particular interest was our                 nutrients provided for the host beetles. Beetles were
observation of very high levels of infection at both         provided only autoclaved water and starved for 6 da
these sites with 15% of collected beetles infected at        and then were fed different diets, (e.g., decayed
Zvenigorod, and 14% at the White Sea. These figures          wood, sterilized decayed wood, and artificial diet
are much higher than those recorded by Hulden (1%)           containing polysaccharides and other nutritional
and may be related to the range of microhabitats             resources). Beetles were dissected periodically and
sampled. Poster                                              yeast colony counts were made on selective agar
                                                             media. Colonies on each plate were identified based
Gonzalez, Maria C.1* and Enriquez, Diana.2
1                                                            on morphology, and some were confirmed as P.
  Departamento de Botanica AP 70-233, Instituto de
                                                             stipitis by use of specific primers. After 6 da
Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de
Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico DF 04510, Mexico,                   starvation, the abundance of P. stipitis in the gut
  Instituto de Oceanologia, Agencia del Medio                decreased substantially when compared to pre-
                                                             starvation numbers. However, 5 da after
Ambiente, Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y
                                                             reintroduction of food, yeast numbers in the gut
Medio Ambiente de Cuba (CITMA), La Habana,
                                                             increased to approximately pre-starvation levels. We
Cuba. mcgv@ibiologia.unam.mx. Microfungi
                                                             observed no significant difference in colony numbers
diversity in the coastal sand beach environment of
                                                             between beetles fed unsterilized and sterilized wood,
Mexico and Cuba. The marine interstitial
                                                             but beetles fed certain diets sometimes had low levels
microfungi living in sandy sediments between the
                                                             of yeasts compared to those fed wood. From this
tide lines of the beaches are important ecologically
because they are major decomposers of the vegetable          study, we concluded that within the O. disjunctus gut
                                                             environment P. stipitis is dependent on nutrients
organic matter that enter this marine ecosystem. In
                                                             provided by the insect diet. Contributed Presentation
this particular environment, named endopsammon,
the microbial production is dominated by eumycotes,          Guardia Valle, Laia1 and Cafaro, Matias J.2* 1Unitat
mainly by ascomycetes. Arenicolous microfungi have           Botanica Dep. BABVE F. Ciences, Universitat
a distinctive physiology, morphology, and adaptation         Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain,
to the endopsammophilous medium. The                           Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico –
characteristics that the arenicolous species exhibit         Mayaguez, PR 00681. matcaf@gmail.com. First
are: carbonaceous ascocarps attached to sand grains          observation of zygospores in Asellariales
with a subiculum, papilla with an ostiole opening            (Trichomycetes). The ecological group of gut
close to the subiculum, a pseudoparenchyma of thin           endosymbionts trichomycetes (sensu lato) includes
walled cells with pit-like thickenings, deliquescent         two fungal orders, Harpellales and Asellariales, and
asci without an apical structure, and appendaged             two protistan orders, Amoebidiales and Eccrinales.
ascospores. The genus Corollospora is considered as          Asellariales inhabit the digestive tract of aquatic,


terrestrial and marine isopods as well as springtails           animal or human parasites, and is most closely
(Collembola). They have branched and septated thalli            related to two mainly lichenized orders, the
and reproduce asexually by arthrospore-like cells. No           Verrucariales and the Pyrenulales. Together, these
sexual reproduction has been reported until now. In a           three orders are recognized as forming the subclass
recent survey of islands in the Carribean, a new                Chaetothyriomycetidae, which is characterized by a
unnamed species of Asellaria has been found in                  large diversity in lifestyles and habitats. Preliminary
terrestrial isopods in Puerto Rico and Dominican                results showed that the most recent common ancestor
Republic. Conjugating tubes and zygospores were                 of this subclass was probably a lichenized rock-
observed in this Asellaria sp. Zygospores are                   inhabitant. Information on the phylogenetic positions
spherical and hyaline in contrast to the ones in                of non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi within this
Harpellales, which are conical or biconical.                    subclass will help to understand the evolution of
Asellariales zygospores share characteristics with              lifestyles and substrate transitions in the
those of Dimargaritales and Kickxellales as well as             Chaetothyriomycetidae. Contributed Presentation
their septal pore structure, which is present in all            Hallen, Heather E.*, Guenther, John C. and Trail,
three orders plus the Harpellales, thus giving                  Frances. Department of Plant Biology, Michigan
morphological support to this monophyletic group,
                                                                State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
recently established through DNA analyses. The
                                                                hallenhe@msu.edu. Analysis of gene expression
spherical shape of Asellaria zygospores reveals a
                                                                and lipid accumulation during sexual development
possible terrestrial origin of the group in comparison
                                                                in Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium
to the conical shape of Harpellales zygospores, which
                                                                graminearum). Lipid accumulation and storage is
is regarded as an adaptation to aquatic environments.
                                                                vital to survival of all organisms. Stored lipids are
                                                                then used for development. In fungi, lipids are stored
Gueidan, C.1*, Ruibal, C.2, de Hoog, G.S.2,                     in vegetative hyphae and spores as lipid bodies. The
Untereiner, W.A.3, Gorbushina, A.4 and Lutzoni, F.1             wheat pathogen, Gibberella zeae, stores lipids mainly
  Duke University, Biology Department, Box 90338,               as triacylglycerides (TAG) in anticipation of sexual
Durham NC 27708, USA, 2 Centraalbureau voor                     development. We have characterized the process of
Schimmelcultures, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT, Utrecht,              lipid accumulation and utilization in association with
The Netherlands, 3Department of Zoology, Brandon                perithecium development in culture and leading up to
University, 270-18th Street, Brandon, MB Canada,                perithecium development in planta. We examined
  Geomicrobiology, ICBM, Carl-von Ossietzky str 9-              gene expression patterns for genes associated with
11, 26111 Oldenburg, Germany. cg19@duke.edu.                    lipid biosynthesis and degradation using data
Phylogenetic affiliations of non-lichenized rock-               collected from Affymetrix GeneChips. Information
inhabiting fungi and their role in the evolution of             gathered from these studies indicates an essential role
the Chaetothyriomycetidae. Rock surfaces harbor                 for lipids in the formation of perithecia. Contributed
ubiquitous communities of highly adapted fungi with             Presentation
peculiar lifestyles. Some of these rock-inhabiting
                                                                Halling, Roy E. Institute of Systematic Botany, The
fungi are found in semiarid and even desert habitats,
                                                                New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-
and have been shown to be well adapted to extreme
                                                                5126, USA. rhalling@nybg.org. Queensland
environmental conditions. Previous studies revealed
                                                                boletes: a biogeographic and generic enigma. A
that these specialized rock-inhabiting strains could
                                                                targeted inventory of Boletaceae (s.l.) occurring in
tolerate surprisingly wide ranges of temperatures,
                                                                NE Australia and elsewhere in SE Asia has provided
irradiations and osmotic stresses, and are able to              exquisite material for revisionary studies on well-
grow in conditions with low availability of water and
                                                                known genera and iconic species. As with most early
nutrients. Particular characteristics of rock-inhabiting
                                                                surveys of understudied regions, the application of
fungi include slow meristematic growth and the
                                                                northern hemisphere names to poorly documented
presence of melanin (as well as carotenoids and
                                                                specimens has contributed to the perception of
mycosporines) in their mycelia. These
                                                                globally distributed taxa. However, knowledgeable
extremotolerant fungi were previously shown, using
                                                                individuals engaged in a concerted effort with a
ITS similarity, to mostly belong to two classes of
                                                                broader bias are beginning to document localized
ascomycetes, the Eurotiomycetes (mostly in the order            endemics at one extreme as well as entities that
Chaetothyriales) and the Dothideomycetes. Three                 appear to portray little morphological change.
ribosomal RNA genes (nucSSU, nucLSU, and
                                                                Because of an obligate symbiotic lifestyle, coupled
mtSSU) were used to estimate their phylogenetic
                                                                with geographic and tectonic constraints on genetic
affiliations within the ascomycetes. The order
                                                                exchange, localized evolutionary pressures appear to
Chaetothyriales includes saprophytes as well as
                                                                have contributed to a heretofore undocumented


assemblage of taxa. Examples of such “taxa” have               Henk, Daniel A.* and Aime, M. Catherine.
been discovered and documented which show                      Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, 10300
features that would indicate classic undescribed               Baltimore Ave, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.
genera and species, possible generic hybrids, distinct         dan@nt.ars-grin.gov. Evolution of mating
but related and widely distributed siblings, as well as        pheromone and receptor genes in
intercontinental clinal disjuncts with no apparent             Pucciniomycotina. Mating pheromones and their
distinction but for differences in ribosomal coding            receptors act as a switch controlling phenotypic
genes; this latter probably attributed to random drift.        changes required for successful mating in fungi.
Contributed Presentation                                       Although basidiomycete mating pheromones and
                                                               their processing were first described in
Hawkins, Lauraine* and Brantley, Elizabeth. Penn
                                                               Rhodosporidium toruloides, a “red yeast” in the
State Mont Alto, Mont Alto, PA 17237, USA.
                                                               Sporidiobolales, the receptor gene was never
lkh1@psu.edu. Macrofungi of four Mid-Atlantic
                                                               described, and much of the mating process remains
national parks. The National Park Service approved
an Inventory of Macrofungi in the National Capital             unexplored in any species of Pucciniomycotina. We
Region in late 2004. The parks chosen for work were            used published data from whole-genome-sequencing
                                                               projects to detect putative mating pheromones and
Antietam Battlefield (ANTI), Catoctin Mountain
                                                               their receptor genes in several Pucciniomycotina.
(CATO), C&O Canal Historical (CHOH) and Prince
                                                               Primers were designed for direct amplification and
William Forest (PRWI) Parks. In coordination with
                                                               sequencing of a putative receptor gene similar to
NPS personnel, we selected two 20 x 20 m plots in
                                                               Sterile 3 (ste3) and a closely linked gene similar to a
different areas of each park. We sampled each plot
                                                               putative nuclear localization protein from other red
three times per season during peak fruiting (July-
                                                               yeasts. Results suggest that pheromones and their
October) of 2005 and 2006. To complement our
intensive searches of the small plots, we conducted            receptors, as well as synteny around the pheromone
                                                               receptor locus, are relatively conserved in the
one foray at each park each year. During the forays,
                                                               Sporidiobolales. Although only a single ste3 locus
small groups of people searched along Park trails.
                                                               could be detected in Sporidiobolales genomes, three
Fungi were much more abundant at PRWI (343
                                                               separate loci similar to ste3 were detected in the
fruiting bodies collected) and CATO (329) than at
                                                               Puccinia graminis (Pucciniales) genome. In
CHOH (126) or ANTI (103). Identification work is in
                                                               phylogenetic analyses the Puccinia STE3 sequences
progress. The presentation will include initial results
from this survey. Contributed Presentation                     formed a well-supported clade at the base of the
                                                               basidiomycetes while the Sporidiobolales sequences
Hawksworth, David L. Universidad Complutense de                formed a well-supported clade nested within the
Madrid, Calle Manuel Bartolomé Cossío S/N, 28040               basidiomycetes. Contributed Presentation
Madrid, Spain; and The Natural History Museum,
Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK.                            Henkel, Terry W. Department of Biological Sciences,
                                                               Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521, USA.
d.hawksworth@nhm.ac.uk. Index Fungorum to
                                                               twh5@humboldt.edu. The importance of primary
Species Fungorum and the BioCode. Index
                                                               tropical forests for fungal biodiversity. Guyana is
Fungorum aims to be a nomenclator of all scientific
                                                               fast becoming unique among tropical countries in
names proposed for fungi, which is intended to
                                                               having the majority of its primary forest estate intact,
progress towards a Species Fungorum which will
                                                               including biodiversity at all trophic levels.
provide a reference work giving the currently
                                                               Mycological inventories have historically been
accepted names of species. The Index Fungorum is
now a working tool for all systematic mycologists,             wanting in Guyana. Recent explorations have
                                                               revealed a diverse macromycota in Guyana's
and a marvellously imperfect work needed by all.
                                                               Pakaraima Mountains. Forests dominated by
Progress to a Species Fungorum is being made, but
                                                               ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees, a relative rarity in
depends on the inputs of the international
                                                               lowland Neotropical regions, exist in a patch mosaic
mycological community. The Draft BioCode (1997)
                                                               in the Pakaraima Mountains and appear to be
was prepared by representatives of all current five
                                                               regionally exclusive habitats for a large assemblage
internationally mandated codes to cover all groups of
                                                               of endemic EM fungi. While ecological threats to
organisms, but has as a prerequisite finite lists of
nomenclaturally honed names to be considered in the            Guyana's ectotrophic forests are currently minimal
nomenclature of the future. The history and prospects          due to the remoteness of the region, the majority of
                                                               the landscape known to house these systems has no
for these three initiatives are discussed. Symposium
Presentation.                                                  formally protected status. The likelihood of these
                                                               Gondwanan relictual ectotrophic forests and their
                                                               apparently unique fungal constituents persisting into


the future will be discussed. Symposium                        untreated paper homologs (controls) were challenged
Presentation                                                   with a suspension containing a high concentration of
                                                               fungal spores of six species of common molds.
Hernandez Roa, Jonatan* and Cafaro, Matias J.
                                                               Results suggest that (a) paper entering processing
Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico,
                                                               facilities does not harbor large concentrations of
Mayaguez Campus, Mayaguez, PR 00681.
jonatan.her@gmail.com. Biodiversity of                         mold; (b) treated cellulose insulation is sporocidal to
                                                               the six species of fungi used in this study, and
trichomycetes associated with marine arthropods
                                                               possibly many other fungal species; and (c) unilateral
in Puerto Rico. The increasing interest in
                                                               exposure to sodium polyborate, the principle active
biodiversity has raised an effort to define it, to
                                                               ingredient in the samples of treated cellulose, is
characterize it and to understand how it is lost. There
                                                               sufficient to preclude spore germination of these
are few studies about trichomycete diversity in
                                                               same species (actually killing spores of some). Poster
coastal ecosystems in general and even less in
tropical coasts. Puerto Rico is an ideal place to              Hesse, Cedar N.1*, Dunham, Susie M.2 and
conduct the current research on such diversity due to          Spatafora, Joseph W.2 1Oregon State University,
the variety of habitats and ecological zones available         Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 2082
for trichomycete hosts, especially marine crustaceans.         Cordley Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA,
Only three surveys for trichomycetes in Puerto Rico              Oregon State University, Department of Forest
exist in which Amoebidium, Genistellospora,                    Science, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, Oregon
Parataeniella, Harpella, Leidyomyces,                          97331, USA. hessec@science.oregonstate.edu.
Paramoebidium, Stachylina, Smittium, Asellaria,                Eukaryotic community structure of mat-forming
Enterobryus and Taeniellopsis are reported, the last           ectomycorrhizal fungi from the H.J. Andrews
three being associated to marine crustaceans in the            Experimental Forest. Mat-forming ectomycorrhizal
isopod Ligia sp., the crab Uca sp., and the amphipod           (EM) fungi are known to colonize significant
Orchestia sp., respectively. More recently, we have            portions of the soils of temperate conifer forests and
discovered Enterobryus halophilus in the mole crab             form beneficial symbioses with forest trees. While it
Emerita portoricencis, which is a new record for this          is relatively easy to identify the major mat-forming
trichomycete for both its host species and                     fungi, little is known about the biotic communities
distribution. Currently, we are conducting prevalence          associated with these mats. To better understand the
and abundance studies in beach populations of this             ecology and evolution of EM mats the “Microbial
organism in Puerto Rico. In this report, we present            Observatory at the H. J. Andrews LTER” has been
data of trichomycetes distributions for the Caribbean,         investigating the diversity, structure and function of
which broadens their geographic distribution, adding           EM mats in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA.
new information about host range and specificity as            Research focused in late seral Douglas-fir stands has
well as their ecological preferences reflecting the            identified two major EM mat types, which exhibit
potential of trichomycetes in terms of their                   different abiotic soil properties. Phylotyping studies
biodiversity. Symposium Presentation                           identified the mat-forming species as belonging to the
                                                               genera Piloderma and Ramaria. Piloderma mats tend
Herrera, Jose. 100 E. Normal, Division of Science,
                                                               to form in the organic horizon and are conspicuously
Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501,
                                                               rhizomorphic, whereas Ramaria mats tend to form in
USA. jherrera@truman.edu. The sporocidal and
                                                               the mineral horizon and are hydrophobic. Here, we
sporostatic effect of sodium polyborate-treated
                                                               report preliminary findings on the eukaryotic
cellulose insulation on common indoor fungal
species. Continuing interest in mold and mold-related          community structure in the two different mat soils
                                                               using ribosomal DNA clone libraries. This research,
health problems within indoor environments has
                                                               coupled with a complementary study designed to
spurred the building industry to develop ecologically-
                                                               assess the prokaryotic community structure, will
friendly, cost-effective, safe and useful antifungal
                                                               provide a framework for future transcriptomic or
additives for building materials. Treated cellulose
                                                               metagenomic research on these EM mats.
insulation, made from recycled newsprint and
                                                               Contributed Presentation
amended with a variety of chemical compounds, has
gathered attention and interest from a wide variety of         Higgins, K. Lindsay1*, Arnold, A. Elizabeth2, Kursar,
sources including the building industry,                       Thomas1 and Coley, Phyllis D.1 1Department of
environmentalists, and occupational hygienists. This           Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
study reports an assessment of antifungal properties           84112, USA, 2Department of Plant Sciences,
of treated cellulose insulation (as a whole) and one of        University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
the most common principal active ingredients,                  higgins@biology.utah.edu. Diversity and ecological
sodium polyborate. Boron-treated cellulose and                 interactions of fungal endophytes in tropical


grasses. Tropical fungal endophytes are extremely               cinnamopurpureum and that P. georgiense is not
diverse, but the extent to which environmental factors          closely related to P. exiguum or either Eupenicillium
such as rainfall, light availability, host phylogeny, or        species, though its precise phylogenetic placement
host origin (native or exotic) affect endophyte                 within the genus Penicillium is unresolved.
community composition has been not been well                    Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum, E.
characterized. In addition, nearly all studies                  cinnamopurpureum, and P. exiguum sporulated
examining the diversity and abundance of tropical               predominantly on the heads of section Flavi species.
endophytes have been conducted in dicots. In this               In contrast, P. georgiense was restricted to the heads
study, tropical grasses were sampled at three sites             of section Nigri species. Additional studies are
across the Panamanian isthmus in order to describe              required to clarify whether the Eupenicillium and
patterns of endophyte abundance and diversity, and              Penicillium species are parasitic or simply epibiotic
determine the extent to which environmental factors             on their hosts. Poster
or features of the plant host affect endophyte
                                                                Horton, Thomas R.1*, Ashkannejhad, Sara M.2 and
community composition. Cultures of 1127 isolates                Galante, Tera E.1 1SUNY, College of Environmental
were obtained from healthy, asymptomatic leaves of              Science and Forestry, 246 Illick Hall, Syracuse, NY
19 grass species sampled across a rainfall gradient.
                                                                13210, USA, 2USDA Forest Service, Plumas
Sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer
                                                                National Forest, 875 Mitchell Ave, Oroville, CA
(nrITS) region were obtained for 244 isolates,
                                                                95996, USA. trhorton@esf.edu. Ectomycorrhizal
yielding 43 unique genotype groups conservatively
                                                                fungi on coastal sand dunes in Oregon. We
delimited by 90% sequence similarity. Sequenced
                                                                investigated the ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi on
endophytes displayed BLAST affinity to diverse
                                                                coastal sand dunes in Oregon. Over 100 species were
lineages of Ascomycota. Asymptomatic genotype
                                                                collected during the fall fruiting season for two
accumulation curves revealed high endophyte                     consecutive years, with Cortinarius, Inocybe,
diversity, and ecological analyses indicated that light
                                                                Laccaria, Lactarius, Rhizopogon, Russula, Suillus,
and moisture environment, as well as host origin (i.e.
                                                                and Tricholoma being particularly species rich and
native or exotic) play important roles in shaping the
                                                                productive. Pine seedlings were colonized by many
structure of grass endophyte communities. Poster
                                                                of these fungi when in close proximity to mature tree
Horn, Bruce W.1* and Peterson, Stephen W.2                      stands, but almost exclusively by Suillus and
  National Peanut Research Laboratory, Agricultural             Rhizopogon species in the middle of the dunes where
Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,               mycelial networks were absent. Although many of
Dawson, GA 39842, USA, 2National Center for                     the fungi produce binucleate spores, it was concluded
Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural                 that these spores were homokaryotic, so the
Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,               establishment of new dikaryons in the middle of the
Peoria, IL 61604, USA. bhorn@nprl.usda.gov. Host                dunes still requires two spores of opposite mating
specificity of Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum, E.                 type. Deer feces contained tens of millions of suilloid
cinnamopurpureum, and two new Penicillium                       spores per deposit, providing ample opportunity for
species associated with the conidial heads of                   spores of opposite mating type to be deposited
Aspergillus. The genus Penicillium comprises                    together. Laboratory bioassays with deer feces
species that mostly colonize plant matter. However,             yielded abundant mycorrhizae of Suillus and
early reports suggest that several species are capable          Rhizopogon species. We are now investigating why
of parasitizing Aspergillus. More recently                      other disturbance species such as Laccaria,
Eupenicillium ochrosalmoneum and E.                             Hebeloma, Inocybe and Thelephora are not observed
cinnamopurpureum, both with Penicillium                         on seedlings in the middle of the dunes by
anamorphs, have been observed sporulating on the                investigating wind dispersal and survival of
heads of Aspergillus species belonging to section               outplanted seedlings inoculated with these fungi.
Flavi during the colonization of peanut seeds. Little           Symposium Presentation
is known about the host specificity underlying these
                                                                Huang, Bo1, Humber, Richard A.2 and Hodge, Kathie
Aspergillus–Penicillium associations. In this study,
                                                                T.3* 1Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory for Microbial
Aspergillus species representing nine taxonomic
                                                                Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei
sections were paired in culture with E.                         230036, China, 2Dept of Plant Pathology, Cornell
ochrosalmoneum, E. cinnamopurpureum, and two                    University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA, 3USDA-ARS
new species described here based on morphological
                                                                Plant Protection Research Unit, Plant, Soil &
and molecular characters, P. exiguum and P.
                                                                Nutrition Laboratory, Tower Road, Ithaca, NY
georgiense. Phylogenetic analysis using three loci
                                                                14853, USA. kh11@cornell.edu. Basidiobolus:
shows that P. exiguum is a sister species of E.
                                                                infrageneric relationships and biology. The genus


Basidiobolus is a pivotal one. Its species include              Mountains National Park Agaric ATBI is in the third
opportunistic agents of human disease, cryptic                  year of collection and documentation. As part of the
inhabitants of leaf litter, and coprophilous fungi of           documentation, genetic identifiers based on the
frog dung. Its large primary mitospores are forcibly            ribosomal ITS region have been obtained where
discharged by a unique mechanism involving                      possible. Using an arbitrary criteria that 98% or
explosive rupture of the sporogenous cell. Various              greater sequence homology as indicating
molecular-based studies have assigned Basidiobolus              conspecificity, we calculated the proportion of
to its traditional home in the order Entomophthorales;          collections which are represented in GenBank. Of
others have placed it among flagellate fungi. We                533 collections, 23 matched a sequence deposited as
undertook a study of infrageneric relationships in              an environmental sample. These were predominantly
Basidiobolus, using isolates from culture collections           collections from Duke Forest generated by O’Brian et
plus our own collections isolated from decaying                 al. (2005) and thus may logically represent the same
litter. Our results based on phylogenetic analysis of           taxon as found in the GSMNP. An additional 159
multiple genetic loci clarify species concepts, and             collections matched named species in GenBank. No
unexpectedly reveal two major clades supported by               genetic match was found for 159 collections
both molecular and phenotypic evidence. Our                     indicating that in spite of the large numbers of fungal
sampling of Basidiobolus and its allies will ultimately         sequences in GenBank, species coverage is still poor.
help resolve taxon sampling issues among early-                 Many of the collections were heterozygous for
evolving fungal lineages. Poster                                multiple indels which may be a function of
                                                                populations from different glacial refugia
Hughes, Karen W.1 and Arnold, A. Elizabeth.2*
1                                                               rehybridizing in the Southern Appalachians. Several
  Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of
                                                                lines of evidence suggest that one glacial refugium
Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA, 2Department
of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ            was in Central America. The proportion of
                                                                heterozygotes for indels varied among genera. At this
85721, USA. khughes@utk.edu. FESIN,
                                                                time, the discovery curve does not seem to have
introduction to a new fungal/ecological research
                                                                leveled off and it is clear that much more needs to be
coordination network. The National Science
                                                                done in the Great Smoky Mountains. Poster
Foundation has funded a research coordination
network designed to bring together mycologists and              Hustad, Vincent P.1*, Vernier, Kimberly L.1,
ecologists (FESIN: Fungal Environmental Sampling                Methven, Andrew S.1 and Miller, Andrew N.2
and Informatics Network). The focus of FESIN is                   Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920,
threefold: to coordinate the development of rapid               USA, 2Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign,
identification methods for fungi from environmental             IL 61820, USA. vphustad@eiu.edu. Terrestrial
samples, to create cyberinfrastructure for the retrieval        macrofungal species composition and richness in
of multiple layers of biologically relevant                     old growth prairie groves. This study is
information on fungal taxa, and to stimulate                    investigating species composition and richness of
educational and outreach opportunities in fungal                terrestrial macrofungi in Brownfield (26.1 ha) and
ecology. This network is open to all interested people          Trelease Woods (24.5 ha), Champaign Co., Illinois.
and will meet alternately at MSA and ESA annual                 These woods are remnants of a larger, pre-settlement
meetings. Proposed topics include: 1) Nucleic acid-             prairie grove now encircled by houses, fragmented
based identification of fungi in ecological settings:           forests, prairie and agricultural land. Although
current limitations and future directions; 2) Building          initially a virgin, deciduous upland forest dominated
a microarray for identification of fungi in the                 by oak, ash and maple with a high, closed canopy and
environment, a joint effort between European and                fairly open (Brownfield Woods) to moderately dense
North American Scientists; 3) Connecting sequence               (Trelease Woods) understory, sugar maple is rapidly
data with the ecology of taxa; 4) Ecological genetics           becoming the dominant tree species. Beginning with
in the -omic era: genomes, proteomes, and fungal                a windstorm in November 1994 that damaged canopy
ecology; and 5) Fungal ecology: cultivating a new               trees in Trelease Woods, fallen trees in both woods
generation of fungal ecologists. Symposium                      have been tagged with an ID number, date of
Presentation                                                    windfall, dbh and location relative to a network of
Hughes, Karen W.*, Petersen, Ronald H. and Lickey,              marked grids. Terrestrial and wood-inhabiting
Edgar B. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary                 macrofungi on the forest floor are being surveyed
                                                                along twenty, 100 m long transects. Among the
Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN
                                                                questions to be answered are: i) How does
37996, USA. khughes@utk.edu. The agaric all taxa
                                                                macrofungal species composition and richness
biodiversity inventory in the Great Smoky
                                                                change in relation to adjacent vegetation? ii) How
Mountains National Park. The Great Smoky


does macrofungi production vary within and between           distributed at two loci associated with the breakpoints
years?; iii) How does macrofungi species                     of a reciprocal translocation and encompass ca. 1.2
composition and species richness change within and           Mb of A+T rich, highly repetitive DNA present in
between years?; iv) How do tree windfalls perturb            race T, but missing in non-T-toxin producing race O,
macrofungi species composition and richness                  and from all other species of Cochliobolus.
patterns?; and, v) Are other parameters influencing          Furthermore, the T-toxin genes are not clustered,
macrofungi species composition spatially                     unlike genes required for biosynthesis of most fungal
autocorrelated? Poster                                       polyketides e.g. lovastatin and aflatoxin. Together,
                                                             these data suggest that the T-toxin genes may have
Hyde, Kevin D.1*, Zhang, Y.1, Jeewon, R.1 and
                                                             been acquired by race T from an unknown source and
Fournier, J.2 1Centre for Research in Fungal
                                                             that, upon integration of this DNA, a reciprocal
Diversity, School of Biological Sciences, The
                                                             translocation occurred, distributing the genes at two
University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong
                                                             loci. To further investigate evolution of the T-toxin
Kong SAR, P.R. China, 2Las Muros, Rimont, Ariège,
F 09420, France. kdhyde@hkucc.hku.hk. Revision of            locus, we screened 117 close and distant relatives for
Pleosporales. We are working on a monograph                  the presence of new ChPKS1 orthologs and found
                                                             just one. We are currently investigating the origins of
revising the Pleosporales by examining the type
                                                             the remaining 8 T-toxin genes from race T. The data
specimen of each genus and other collections. We
                                                             obtained so far do not contradict the horizontal
will provide a full description of the type specimens
                                                             transfer hypothesis, but a vertical origin cannot be
and illustrate the genera using photographic plates
                                                             ruled out. Contributed Presentation
and line drawings. Of the 127 genera in Pleosporales,
we have presently examined 56 type specimens                 Isikhuemhen, O. S.* and Mikiashvili, N. Mushroom
(44%). Most of the type specimens are in good                Biology & Fungal Biotechnology Laboratory, SAES,
condition. The other specimens are in the process of         North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro,
being loaned. We are also searching for fresh                NC 27411, USA. omon@ncat.edu. Lignin, cellulose,
material of Pleosporales. We have obtained 93 fresh          and hemicellulose degrading enzyme production
specimens. Most of these are from France, including          by selected polypores. Lignocellulose degrading
a new genus Amniculicola lignicola gen et sp. nov.           enzymes and biodegradation of wheat straw by
from freshwater. Eight fresh specimens of type               Grifola frondosa, Grifola umbellata and two strains
species of Pleosporales genera have so far been              of Polyporus squamosus (1165 and 456) were
obtain. By examining types and obtaining identical           investigated. Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose
fresh material we can be sure that the materials we          degrading enzymes, as well as loss of organic matter
use in molecular studies are correctly identified.           (LOM) were assayed at 16, 30, 44 and 60 days from
Where necessary we can also designate epitypes               start of experiment. Lignin modifying enzymes,
using the fresh material as these specimens also have        laccase, manganese dependent and manganese
living isolates. Our further work will be focused on         independent peroxidise were detected in fungi
searching more fresh material of the type species to         isolates tested. Cellulose degrading enzymes detected
conduct systematic phylogenetic analysis with rDNA           were carboxymethyl cellulase and cellobiosidase and
sequences. We are also linking the teleomorphs with          hemicellulose degrading enzymes were xylanase, 1,4-
their anamorphs where possible. Poster                       α-xylosidase. The two Polyporus strains tested
Inderbitzin, Patrik1*, Schoch, Conrad2 and Turgeon,          produced more lignocellulose degrading enzymes
                                                             than G. frondosa and G. umbellata. In hemicellulose
B. Gillian.1 1Cornell University, Plant Pathology,
Ithaca, NY, USA, 2Oregon State University, Dept. of          degradation, Grifola strains produced more
                                                             xylosidase than the P. squamosus strains. However,
Botany and Plant Pathology, Corvallis, OR, USA.
                                                             the reverse was the case with xylanase, for which P.
prin@uckac.edu. Exploring the evolutionary
                                                             squamosus strains showed activities in the order of
origins of T-toxin, the Cochliobolus heterostrophus
                                                             36% (456) and 10% (1165) higher than G. umbellata.
polyketide virulence factor implicated in the
                                                             The highest LOM (36 %) was in P. squamosus
Southern Corn Leaf Blight epidemic. The
                                                             (1165), followed by 456 (34 %), G. frondosa (20.4%)
polyketide virulence factor, T-toxin, is produced by
                                                             and G. umbellata (7.6%). Our results indicate that
race T of the ascomycete Cochliobolus
heterostrophus, the cause of Southern Corn Leaf              higher ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzyme activities
Blight. Due to complex structural features of the            resulted in higher levels of degradation (LOM) in
                                                             wheat straw substrate. Optimization of wheat straw
locus, Tox1, required for T-toxin production and the
                                                             degradation under solid-state fermentation is under
sporadic phylogenetic distribution of the 9 known T-
                                                             investigation. Poster
toxin genes, unraveling the evolutionary history of
the genes is not straightforward. T-toxin genes are


Isikhuemhen, O.S.1*, Sisson, J.2, Liedl, B.E.2 and              comes from a mycologically little-explored region of
Chatfield, J.M.2 1Mushroom Biology and Fungal                   the country, and brief information on previous
Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture &               mycological (including lichenological) studies in the
Environmental Sciences, North Carolina A&T State                area is provided for the first time in English. A new
University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA,                          combination of another species under the same genus
  Agricultural and Environmental Research Station,              Sporidesmium is also made. Poster
Gus R. Douglass Land-Grant Institute, West Virginia
                                                                Izzo, Antonio D.* and Mazzola, M. USDA
State University, Institute, WV 25112, USA.
                                                                Agricultural Research ServiceTree Fruit
omon@ncat.edu. Cultivation of Agrocybe aegerita
                                                                Laboratory,1104 N. Western Ave.,Wenatchee, WA
on solid waste from thermophilic anaerobic
                                                                98801, USA. Izzo@tfrl.ars.usda.gov. Assessing the
digestion of poultry litter. Solid waste (SW)
                                                                utility of a taxonomic macroarray for monitoring
effluent from thermophillic anaerobic digestion of
                                                                fungal community development in soils exhibiting
poultry litter was tested as substrate for the
                                                                suppression of root disease. A broad range of fungi
cultivation of Agrocybe aegerita (black poplar                  can impact plant health either directly or indirectly,
mushroom). Substrate combinations tested contained              and the interactions that lead to the development of a
0, 10, 25, 50 75 and 100% SW. Ten replicates of each
                                                                healthy or diseased plant are very complex. We tested
substrate combination, after sterilization at 121 °C for
                                                                the viability of a membrane-based PCR product
3 h, was inoculated with spawn from the test fungus,
                                                                taxonomic macroarray as a means to monitor the
incubated at 25 °C and transferred to the fruiting
                                                                transformation of soil fungal communities following
house upon pinning. Significant differences existed
                                                                the incorporation of Brassica seed meals (BSM)
between substrate combinations evaluated by fresh
                                                                known to have differential impact on members of the
and dry weight yields. Substrate combinations with
                                                                pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease
100% and 75% SW appeared to be the best,                        (ARD). Tests with probes of known composition
producing mean fresh weight yields of 321.75 g and
                                                                demonstrated that the approach is capable of
308.94 g and mean dry weights of 31.79 g and 28.26
                                                                distinguishing DNA sequences differing by amounts
g, respectively. They out performed the positive
                                                                that generally translate into sub-generic lineages.
control, which had mean fresh and dry weights of
                                                                Tests using mixed-community probes constructed
278.23 g and 22.65 g. In general, any substrate
                                                                from soils amended with either of two BSMs
combination that had 50% or more SW out
                                                                indicated that Trichoderma species were initially
performed the positive control. Results indicate that
                                                                preferentially dominant in amended soils known to
solid waste effluent can be used for A. aegerita
                                                                suppress the Pythium spp. component of ARD
cultivation. A pilot study for commercial application           whereas the fungal community was more evenly
of SW in the cultivation of A. aegerita is ongoing in
                                                                distributed in the soils conducive to Pythium spp.
our laboratories. Poster
                                                                growth. This pattern supported both visual
Iturriaga, Teresa1*, Hawksworth, David L.2 and                  observation of sporulation patterns and other
Crane, J. Leland.3 1Departamento Biología de                    molecular analyses (cloning and T-RFLP) of the
Organismos, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado                 fungal community resident to these soils. Membrane-
89000 Sartenejas, Baruta, Edo. Miranda, Venezuela,              based macroarrays coupled with environmental
  Departamento de Biología Vegetal II, Facultad de              probes represent a very accessible and powerful tool
Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramón y                for studying fungal communities and their dynamics.
Cajal, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040, Spain,               Poster
  607 E Peabody Natural Resources Building, Illinois            Jackson, Jason1, 2*, Richter, Daniel D. Jr.2 and
Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL 61829, USA.
                                                                Vilgalys, Rytas.1 1Department of Biology and
titurri@usb.ve. A new lichenicolous fungus on                   2
                                                                  Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth
Leptogium from Venezuela. A new species of
                                                                Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
Sporidesmium is described from the decaying thallus
                                                                jaj2@duke.edu. Quantitative PCR assessment of
of an unidentified Leptogium species growing on
                                                                fungal community change. Here we describe a
unidentified tree bark from the Guaramacal National
                                                                quantitative assay to measure the relative abundance
Park in Boconó, Táchira State, in western Venezuela.
                                                                of basidiomycete fungi in forest soils using real-time
This is only the second lichenicolous species to be             PCR. We developed and tested a set of novel, taxon-
described under this generic name, and differences              specific primers. The primers are nested
from that species and similar species in
                                                                hierarchically within the basidiomycota and
Sporidesmium s. lat are discussed. A more precise
                                                                ascomycota and target several known
generic placement will have to await a molecularly
                                                                ectomycorrhizal and saprophytic groups. We use this
based taxonomy of the genus. The original material
                                                                assay to estimate shifts in the relative abundance of


these taxa during old field succession in a series of            ultrastructural details of the cystidium to be
grassland, pine, and mixed forest plots in the South             conserved in two closely related species. The results
Carolina Piedmont. Previous studies using clone                  are presented for inclusion in the AFTOL Structural
libraries have found extremely high basidiomycete                and Biochemical Database (http://aftol.umn.edu). The
diversity in both pine and hardwood stands from this             cystidia of these Suillus species appear to be united
system, and that the diversity in both forests is                by a series of conserved characters, including
dominated by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Clone libraries              secretion mechanisms, smooth tubular endoplasmic
are a powerful estimate of species richness but are              reticulum, and abundant free ribosomes. The
not quantitative. This assay allows for an estimate of           remarkable conservation of these subcellular traits
the relative abundance of the dominant fungal taxa in            suggests that ultrastructural details of cystidia may
forest soils and, combined with measures of total                provide a wealth of characters for phylogenetic
fungal biomass, provides the ability to characterize             analysis. Inclusion of such characters in phylogenetic
community responses to land use change.                          analyses may have the power to resolve or provide
Contributed Presentation                                         support for monophyletic groups at the level of
                                                                 family or genus. Poster
Jarvis, Elisabeth* and Volk, Thomas J. 3024 Cowley
Hall, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse,              Johnson, James E.*, Belmont, Susan F. and Wagner,
WI 54601, USA. jarvis.elis@uwlax.edu.                            R. Steven. Central Washington University, 400 E
Preliminary studies of mycodiversity from                        University Way, Ellensburg, WA 98926, USA.
differently aged prairies. Over the past 30 years the            jjohnson@cwu.edu. Chytridiomycosis and declines
Midwest has seen a dramatic proliferation in acres of            of Pacific Northwest amphibian populations. The
prairie restoration. Over time the quality of these              chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)
restorations has improved drastically as                         has been implicated in mass mortalities and declines
restorationists have come to a better understanding of           of amphibian species worldwide. The fungus has
prairie plant communities. However, most of these                been detected on a variety of amphibians in the
restorations never achieve the complex structure or              Pacific Northwest, but there has been little evidence
diversity of prairie remnants. While the proper                  presented of mass mortality events or population
proportions of plant species may be replicated today,            declines. Using PCR and microscopy the presence of
little information exists on the microbe community of            Bd was associated with a mass mortality event at
pre-settlement prairie soil. This is especially true with        Swamp Lake (Kittitas Co., WA) involving several
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Although the                 amphibian species. The fungus has also been
role of plant AMF interactions in prairie structure and          associated with mortality of the endangered Northern
diversity have been documented, the species of AMF               leopard frog (Rana pipiens) in the Potholes Reservoir
have not. Past studies have used spores to identify              (Grant Co., WA). In a third population at Engelhorn
species of prairie AMF, but recent research have                 Pond (Kittitas Co., WA), demographic changes in
shown that spores do not accurately reflect the whole            abundance have been estimated in a population of
population. In our research, we compared                         Hyla regilla since 2002 using mark-recapture
Andropogon gerardii (Big Bluestem) root samples                  methods. During the spring of 2006, Bd was detected
from differently aged prairie restorations and prairie           in the population using PCR analyses. Consequently,
remnants. AMF species were identified using nested               we implemented a swabbing/PCR procedure for all
PCR with AMF specific primers. Our working                       captured/recaptured individuals to measure pathogen
hypothesis is that we expect to find much higher                 prevalence. Initial prevalence of the disease was
diversity of fungi in the older and remnant prairies.            approximately 43% and mark-recapture results
With further research, we hope that our                          suggest a decline in the number of recaptured
mycodiversity lists can help facilitate the restoration          individuals compared to previous mark-recapture
of native fungi along with native plants. Poster                 years. In addition, no individuals testing positive for
                                                                 Bd were recaptured. The results of this study suggest
Jenkinson, Thomas S.*, Celio, Gail J., Padamsee,
                                                                 that Bd is responsible for a significant decline in
Mahajabeen, Dentinger, Bryn T. M., Meyer, Michelle
                                                                 abundance at this site. These data suggest that Bd is
E. and McLaughlin, David J. Dept. of Plant Biology,
                                                                 responsible for significant amphibian mortality, and
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
tsjenkinson@riseup.net. Wha choo talkin bout,                    may have widespread implications for persistence of
Suillus? ultrastructure of cystidia in slimy boletes.            other Northwest amphibians. Contributed
Cystidia of Suillus americanus and S. granulatus
(Boletales) were examined cytochemically and                     Joneson, Suzanne1*, Dietrich, Fred2, Lutzoni,
ultrastructurally using cells prepared by freeze                 François1 and Armaleo, Daniele.2 1Department of
substitution. We present the first study showing                 Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA,


 Department of Molecular Genetics and                           responded to manipulations (P>0.05). However, 21
Microbiology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710,                (~10%) of the 200 most abundant OTUs responded to
USA. slj2@duke.edu. Differentially regulated                    altered precipitation. We conclude that MPS is an
genes and lichen symbiosis. Lichens are the                     efficient high throughput tool to assess diversity,
symbiotic association of fungi (mycobionts) with                species richness and community composition.
green algae and/or cyanobacteria (photobionts).                 Contributed Presentation
Although one fifth of all known fungi form
                                                                Kariuki, George M.1* , Mibey, Richard K.2 and
obligatory lichens with photobionts, we know
                                                                Mutitu, Eunice W.3 1NARL, Kenya Agricultural
nothing of the genetic or molecular mechanisms
                                                                Research Institute, P.O. Box 14733 Nairobi, Kenya,
underlying this nutritional mode. Here we present the           2
                                                                  Department of Botany, University of Nairobi, P.O.
first investigations into differentially expressed genes
                                                                Box 30197 Nairobi, Kenya, 3Department of Crop
in early lichen development including pre-contact,
                                                                Protection, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197
and initial contact of the symbionts. We used
                                                                Nairobi, Kenya. gmmkariuki@yahoo.com. Some
Suppression Subtractive Hybridization to find up-               potential mycoherbicides candidates for the
regulated genes between the fungus Cladonia grayi               biocontrol of water hyacinth in Kenya. A survey of
and the green alga Asterochloris sp. in in vitro
                                                                plant pathogenic fungi associated with naturally
resynthesis. We sequenced over 2000 fungal and
                                                                infected water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes was
algal clones, and used BLAST and FASTA
                                                                conducted at different sites in Kenya. Twenty fungal
algorithmic searches of protein and conserved protein
                                                                isolates belonging to different genera were isolated.
domain databases to characterize our sequences. This
                                                                Two Alternaria spp. isolates designated WH3b1 and
dataset represents the first global survey of fungal
                                                                WH3b2 were found to be pathogenic to the water
and algal gene sequences involved in lichen
                                                                hyacinth both under green house and field conditions.
symbiosis, and a summary of these genes and their               On the basis of conidial measurements, growth
putative functions will be presented. The results of
                                                                characteristics and pigmentation in cultures, the two
this study allow us to identify candidate genes of
                                                                Alternaria spp. were identified as A. alternata and A.
early lichen development for future research.
                                                                eichhorniae respectively. A. eichhorniae caused
Symposium Presentation
                                                                severe leaf blight. Symptoms started to appear
Jumpponen, A.*, Jones, K.L. and Blair, J.M. Division            between fifth and the seventh day after inoculation
of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS,             and were manifested in the form of leaf spots and leaf
USA. ari@ksu.edu. Use of a massively parallel                   blotches usually on the older leaves. For A. alternata,
sequencing (MPS) to assess soil eukaryote                       symptoms appeared 3 days after inoculation as small
responses to altered precipitation and warming.                 yellowish, chlorotic lesions with necrotic brown
To test eukaryote responses to rainfall and warming             centers. Later these lesions enlarged gradually and
in a tallgrass prairie, we used MPS of the ITS1. The            centers turned dark brown with pale yellow margins.
acquired 100bp reads were screened for quality: those           Contributed Presentation
with intact primers, without ambiguous bases, and
                                                                Kasuga, Takao1*, Greenwald, Charles2, Wilkinson,
meeting length thresholds were binned at ≥98%
                                                                Heather2, Ebbole, Dan2, Shaw, Brian2 and Glass,
similarity. Across 24 plots, the sampling intensity
                                                                Louise.1 1Department of Plant & Microbial Biology,
(~1,500 reads/plot) sufficiently covered diversity and
                                                                Univ. California, Berkeley, CA 94501, USA,
species-effort curves reached a plateau. A quarter of a         2
                                                                  Department of Plant Pathology & Microbiology,
complete MPS run generated 41,512 sequences
                                                                Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843,
across 5,066 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs)                 USA. kasugat@berkeley.edu. mRNA profiling
and included 1,802 non-singletons (92% of the reads)
                                                                revealed enrichment of orphan gene transcripts
and 3,264 singletons. The non-singletons represented
                                                                during asexual development of a filamentous
Fungi (82.1%), unknown eukaryotes (13.6%),
                                                                ascomycete Neurospora crassa. We asked if there is
Viridiplantae (1.9%), and Metazoa (1.7%), plus other
                                                                any correlation between the pattern of expression and
eukaryotes (Alveolata, Stramenopila, and
                                                                phylogenetic age for Neurospora crassa genes. N.
Mycetozoa). The fungi were distributed among
                                                                crassa genes were classified into six mutually
known fungal phyla with 37.2% ascomycetes, 15.7%
                                                                exclusive groups (Cai et al., J. Mol. Evol 2006): (1)
basidiomycetes, 8.6% glomeromycetes and few zygo-               Eukaryote/Prokaryote-core, a group of genes whose
(0.9%) or chytridiomycetes (0.2%). Nearly 40% of                orthologs were identified in non-fungal Eukaryotes
the fungal OTUs could not be assigned to a phylum
                                                                and/or Prokaryotes, (2) Basidiomycota-core, genes
because of unclear affinities or affinities exclusively
                                                                shared with basidiomycetes, (3) Hemiascomycete-
to environmental reads. When the treatment effects
                                                                core, (4) Euascomycete-specific, (5) N. crassa
were analyzed, neither the richness nor diversity
                                                                orphans, which lack sequence similarity to any of the


genes in SIMPS database and (6) Remainder. We                  fluorescent Pseudomonas was studied in rhizosphere
then examined the mRNA profiles obtained during                and rhizoplane of healthy, partially and completely
vegetative growth and conidiation using N. crassa              wilted chickpea plants. A total of 117 isolates of F.
microarray representing all the predicted ORFs (c.a.           oxysporum were collected from different commercial
11,000). We found an over-representation of                    grower’s field in Ludhiana District of Punjab State.
Euascomycete-specific genes in very young hyphae               Results of pathogenicity test revealed that the isolates
(0 to 3 hours old) and in mature hyphae engaged in             of F. oxysporum included both pathogenic and
conidiation (18 to 27 hours old; enrichment test,              nonpathogenic strains. Amongst all the isolates of F.
p<0.01). On the other hand, Eukaryote/Prokaryote-              oxysporum studied, 58 were pathogenic and 59
core genes showed peak expression pattern in 6 to 15           nonpathogenic isolates. The maximum number of
h old hyphae. The most notable finding was the                 pathogenic isolates was present in soils of completely
expression timing of N. crassa orphan genes. There             wilted plants whereas its minimum number
are c.a. 2,000 orphan genes in the N. crassa genome            enumerated in soil samples of healthy plants. In
and 95% of them do not have functional annotation.             contrast, maximum number of nonpathogenic isolates
N. crassa orphan genes were over-represented during            was obtained from rhizosphere and rhizoplane of
development of aerial hyphae and conidiation, which            healthy plants. On the basis of wilt development the
coincided with development of the conspicuous and              pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum were further
distinctive asexual morphology characteristic of this          categorized as highly, moderately, least pathogenic.
fungus. This research is funded by NIH, multi-                 Diversified populations of fluorescent Pseudomonas
institutional program project grant (GM068087).                differed in their antagonistic potential. Out of 90
Symposium Presentation                                         isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas maximum
                                                               antagonistic isolates were obtained from rhizosphere
Kaur, Ramandeep1* and Singh, Rama S.2
  Department of Entomology and Nematology,                     and rhizoplane of healthy chickpea plants, while
                                                               maximum no. of least antagonistic (23) and non-
University of Florida, P. O. Box 110620, Gainesville,
                                                               antagonistic (5) were obtained from soil collected
FL 32611-0620, USA, 2Department of Plant
                                                               from completely wilted plants. Poster
Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-
141004, Punjab, India. ramanz15@ufl.edu.                       Keller, Harold W.*, Everhart, Sydney E., Kilgore,
Pathogenicity and vegetative compatibility groups              Courtney M., Scarborough, Angela R. and Carmack,
among the isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from                  Glenda, J. Department of Biology, University of
Cicer arietinum. A total of 117 isolates of Fusarium           Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO 64093, USA.
oxysporum were obtained from rhizosphere and                   keller@ucmo.edu. Myxomycete plasmodial tracks
rhizoplane soil of chickpea from different locations in        and fruiting bodies on animal skulls, fungi,
Punjab State to study the variability in Fusarium              myxomycetes, rocks, spiders, and canopy bark of
population associated with chickpea. Isolates were             living trees. The myxomycete life cycle includes a
first categorized as pathogenic and nonpathogenic              relatively small, microscopic protoplasmodial stage
isolates on the basis of pathogenicity test. The               that gives rise to one, tiny fruiting body as in species
pathogenic isolates were categorized as highly,                of Licea or Echinostelium. The phaneroplasmodium
moderately and least pathogenic. Further, these                (slime stage), with a fan-like, anterior, feeding edge
isolates were grouped into vegetative compatibility            and posterior trailing veins, visible to the naked eye,
groups by demonstrating heterokaryosis by                      often occurs on decaying leaves or logs leaving
complementation tests using nitrate non-utilizing              plasmodial tracks and also hundreds of fruiting
mutants. Total ten VCGs, five each of pathogenic               bodies as in many physaraceous species. Fruiting
(PFoc I-V) and nonpathogenic isolates (NPFo I-V)               bodies were found on unusual substrata such as rocks
were distinguished. No self incompatibility was                (Physarum albescens a snowline species and
observed in any of the isolates within both categories.        Lamproderma scintillans a decaying leaf litter
Poster                                                         species) and a stalked sporangium of Licea
                                                               poculiformis attached to a spider leg. Myxomycete
Kaur, Ramandeep1* and Singh, Rama S.2
1                                                              sporangia fruiting on top of each other: Didymium
  Entomology and Nematology Department,
                                                               ovoideum on D. minus. This is the first report of
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611,
USA, 2Department of Plant Pathology, Punjab                    myxomycetes on animal skeletal remains; plasmodial
Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141001, Punjab,              tracks on canine and deer skulls and fruiting bodies
                                                               (Craterium leucocephalum) on a squirrel skull on
India. ramanz15@yahoo.com. Population diversity
                                                               ground sites. Diachea arboricola, a tree canopy
of Fusarium oxysporum and fluorescent
                                                               species that forms bright, yellow plasmodia, deposits
Pseudomonas in chickpea fields in India.
                                                               plasmodial tracks over a vertical distance of 15 m.
Population diversity of Fusarium oxysporum and


Examples of special photographic and laboratory                observed in the IGS1 region of 19 Trametes
moist chamber techniques used with the skulls are              versicolor strains. In aligned IGS1 sequences of T.
described. This project is financially supported by            versicolor, T. pubescens, and T. velutina, three
NSF Award DEB-0343447, National Geographic                     polymorphic regions consisting of six types (Types 1
Research and Exploration Award-7272-02, and                    and 1-1, Types 2 and 2-1, and Types 3 and 3-1) were
Discover Life in America Awards 2001-26 and 2002-              discovered. Based on IGS1 sequences,
17. Contributed Presentation                                   polymorphism-specific PCRs, and maximum-
                                                               likelihood trees, it was inferred that Types 1-1 and 3-
Kennedy, Allison* and Campbell, Jinx. University of
                                                               1 were diverged from Types 1 and 3 respectively that
Southern Mississippi Gulf Coast Research
                                                               exist in the common ancestral state of T. versicolor
Laboratory, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs,
                                                               and T. velutina. It is probable that the speciation of T.
MS 39564, USA. allison.kennedy@usm.edu. Fungal
                                                               versicolor was followed by the occurrence of Type 2-
diversity of Gulf Coast saltmarshes: how
                                                               1 from Type 2 of the most recent common ancestor.
community profiles can aid coastal restoration.
Saprophytic fungi are the dominant decomposers of              It is suggested that Type 2-1 occurred through the
standing saltmarsh plants such as Spartina                     expansion of Type 2 with the microsatellite (TAG)2
                                                               caused by the replication slippage, while Type 3-1
alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus and thus
                                                               was probably originated from Type 3 by
perform vital roles in coastal ecosystem nutrient
                                                               intramolecular recombination or replication slippage.
cycling. Saltmarshes are critical habitats but are
                                                               The IGS1 sequences corresponding to the region of
declining worldwide primarily due to human-induced
                                                               Types 1 and 1-1 seem to provide some clues for the
disturbances. In an attempt to counteract these losses
                                                               elucidation of the genetic mechanisms, but the
in the northern Gulf of Mexico, marsh restoration
                                                               polymorphism between Types 1 and 1-1 needs to be
efforts have increased; however, it is currently
                                                               explained further in future. Poster
estimated that half of these restoration projects fail.
This study assessed the role of saprophytic marine             Kokaew, J.1*, Manoch, L.1, Worapong J.2,
fungi as indicators of coastal saltmarsh ecosystem             Visarathanonth, N.1 and Singburaudom, N.1
function and the length of time needed for                       Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of
establishment of the marine fungal saprophyte                  Agriculture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900,
community in created marshes. Created saltmarshes              Thailand, 2Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of
of differing ages were compared with two natural               Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400,
reference saltmarshes using marine fungal saprophyte           Thailand. agrlkm@ku.ac.th. Diversity of endophytic
diversity and abundance, and belowground fungal                fungi from medicinal plants and antagonist
biomass. Morphological and molecular methods (ITS              activity tests against plant pathogenic fungi in
T-RFLP analysis) were used to generate fungal                  vitro. This research aimed to isolate endophytic fungi
community fingerprints. Belowground living fungal              from 19 families representing 21 species of medicinal
biomass was measured using the index biochemical               plants namely Ampelocissus martini, Amomum sp.,
ergosterol. The resulting community profiles revealed          Ancistroclaudus extensus, Artabotrys spinosus,
similar fungal communities in natural saltmarshes              Artemisia annua, Cassia javanica, Crateva magna,
and created saltmarshes aged three years and older,            Claoxylon indicum, Globba sp., Lepisanthes
with a 1.5 year-old created marsh showing lower                fruticosa, Melastoma malabathricum, Muehlenbeckia
levels of fungal colonization. Fungal saprophyte               platyclada, Moringa oleifera, Morinda citrifolia,
communities can serve as indicators of restoration             Myriopteron extensum, Pandanus sp., Punica
success and must be considered when planning                   granatum, Spondias sp. Thunbergia laurifolia,
coastal restoration activities. Symposium                      Tiliacora triandra and Tinospora crispa. They were
Presentation                                                   collected from Khao Yai National Park, Nakhon
                                                               Rachasrima province (March 2006), Sireerukhachart
Kim, Hyo Jin1*, Kim, Kyung Mo2, Hong, Soon Gyu3,
                                                               Garden, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus,
Lim, Young Woon1 and Jung, Hack Sung.1
1                                                              Nakhonpathom province (August 2006) and Suphan
  Department of Biological Sciences, College of
                                                               Buri province (April 2007). For isolation method,
Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul
                                                               sodium hypochlorite – ethanol surface sterilization
151-747, Korea, 2Department of Agricultural
Biotechnology, College of Agricultural Life                    and culture on water agar or half strength PDA were
Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921,            employed. A total of 550 isolates of endophytic fungi
                                                               were found, comprising 14 isolates, 4 genera of
Korea, 3Polar Bio Center, Korea Polar Research
                                                               Hyphomycetes: Alternaria sp. (1 isolate), Curvularia
Institute, KORDI, Incheon 406-840, Korea.
                                                               pallescens (3), C. lunata (5), Cylindrocladium sp. (3),
minervas@snu.ac.kr. IGS polymorphisms of
                                                               Nigrospora oryzae (2); 250 isolates, 5 genera of
Trametes versicolor. Sequence polymorphisms were


Coelomycetes: Colletotrichum capsici (5), C.                    pattern-matching software. More widely used is
dermatium (5), C. gloeosporioides (10),                         comparison of sequences from the ca. 450-600-
Colletotrichum spp. (30), Phomopsis spp. (45),                  nucleotide domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) variable region
Pestalotiopsis spp. (30), Phoma spp. (10),                      at the 5’ end of the large subunit rRNA gene. D1/D2
Phyllosticta spp. (25) unidentify Coelomycetes (90);            sequences for all known ascomycetes (1) and
5 isolates of Ascomycetes, 30 isolates of Xylariacous           basidiomycetes (2) were published nearly a decade
fungi and 251 isolates non- sporulating fungi (sterile          ago. The widespread use and expansion of these
hyphae). The most dominant genera were                          datasets has resulted in a near doubling of known
Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Pestalotiopsis and                   yeasts and these datasets, which are accessible in
Phyllosticta respectively. Fifteen species of                   GenBank, are widely used in clinical diagnostics,
endophytic fungi were selected for antagonistic                 ecology and biotechnology. How well does the
activity tests against ten species of plant pathogenic          D1/D2 region compare with other gene sequences for
fungi in vitro. Five isolates of slow growing, non-             rapid species identification, and are species
sporulating fungi, three isolates of Pestalotiopsis spp.        relationships determined from D1/D2 congruent with
(E-1, E-41, E-107) and Xylaria sp. (M8) could                   analyses from other gene sequences? Examples of
effectively inhibit plant pathogenic fungi including            multi-gene analyses will be presented and the
Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris maydis, Lasiodiplodia           usefulness of D1/D2 and other single gene sequences
theobromae, Phytophthora palmivora, and                         for phylogenetics and for bar coding species will be
Sclerotium rolfsii. Poster                                      discussed. 1. Kurtzman, C. P. and C. J. Robnett.
                                                                1998. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 73:331-371. 2. Fell,
Kropp, Bradley R.1*, Sirunyan, A.2, Matheny, P. B.3
                                                                J. W., T, Boekhout, A. Fonseca, G. Scorzetti and A.
and Nanagulyan, S.G.2 1Utah State University,
                                                                Statzell-Tallman. 2000. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol
Logan, UT 84322, USA, 2Department of Botany, A.
                                                                50:1351-1371. Symposium Presentation
Manoogian St. 1, 0025, Yerevan State University,
Armenia; Faculty of Biology, 3 Biology Department,              Lau, Helen1* and Johnson, James.2 1Central
Clark University, 950 Main St., Worcester, MA                   Washington University, Science Building Room
01610, USA. brkropp@biology.usu.edu.                            236N, 400 E University St. Ellensburg, WA 98926,
Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Inocybe                USA, 2Central Washington University, Science
splendens complex. Species concepts for Inocybe                 Building Room 338J, 400 E University St.
splendens differ among mycologists. The most                    Ellensburg, WA 98926, USA. lauh@cwu.edu.
widely accepted concept for this species now                    Ectomycorrhizae communities found on Pinus
encompasses a fairly wide range of morphological                pondersosa in two moisture regimes.
variation and includes two varieties, var. splendens            Ectomycorrhizae are a type of mutualistic symbiotic
and var. phaeoleuca. Inocybe splendens is                       association between the roots of forest trees and a
ectomycorrhizal with both angiosperms and                       fungus. This association benefits both participants,
gymnosperms and is characterized by having smooth               and trees, such as pines, grow poorly in their absence.
spores, pleurocystidia, and metuloid caulocystidia              Few ectomycorrhizal communities are well
distributed over the stipe. A preliminary phylogenetic          characterized and how ectomycorrhizal communities
analysis of Inocybe splendens variants from Europe              change along environmental gradients is unknown.
and the western United States indicates that Inocybe            The proposed research will utilize both molecular
splendens is polyphyletic, falls into several clades,           methods and fruiting structures to characterize the
and that most of the specimens going by this name               biodiversity, species composition, and relative
from Europe and the western United States are not               abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with
conspecific. Spring-fruiting specimens from the                 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) growing
Olympic Penninsula appear to represent an                       in moist and arid environments. This research
undescribed taxon. This study was supported in part             represents the first attempt to characterize the
by NFSAT (grant ARB-1-3230-YE-04). Poster                       community of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with
                                                                natural stands of ponderosa pine and the diversity of
Kurtzman, Cletus P. National Center for Agricultural
                                                                ectomycorrhizal fungi along an environmental
Utilization Research, USDA ARS, 1815 N.
                                                                gradient. This study is building the foundation
University Street, Peoria, IL 61064, USA.
kurtzman@ncaur.usda.gov. Identification of yeasts               needed in order to answer other ecological questions
from DNA sequence-based 'bar codes'. The most                   about the effects and functions of these mycorrhizae
                                                                on plant health and biogeographical distribution.
reliable method for yeast identification is from DNA
analysis. RAPDs can give accurate identifications,
especially when species are from narrowly defined               Lauer, Carrie K.* and Volk, Thomas J. Department
groups and the profiles are scanned and compared by             of Biology, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La


Crosse, WI 54601, USA.                                           19 days after planting, respectively. Our data
lauer.carr@students.uwlax.edu. Ornamental plants                 suggested that the endophytic isolates of F.
as potential reservoirs for Scedosporium                         verticillioides do not directly enhance maize growth
apiospermum, an emerging fungal pathogen of                      but can reduce smut disease incidence when the two
humans. Scedosporium apiospermum (teleomorph                     fungi were simultaneously inoculated to maize
Pseudallesceria boydii) is an emerging, opportunistic            seedlings in the greenhouse conditions. Poster
fungal pathogen. It can cause a degree of infections,
                                                                 Lee, Maria1*, Volk, Thomas J.2, Cooper, Chester R.3
ranging from minor allergic reactions to fatal
                                                                 and Chandler, Julie M.4 1Department of
systemic infections. Research suggests that many
                                                                 Microbiology, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse,
such infections have been misdiagnosed as more
                                                                 WI 54601, USA, 2Department of Biology, University
common aggressively growing fungi, such as
                                                                 of Wisconsin, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA,
Penicillium and Aspergillus species. The implications            3
                                                                   Department of Biological Sciences, Youngstown
of misdiagnosis are significant due to the inherent
                                                                 State University, Youngstown, OH 44555, USA,
resistance of S. apiospermum to many antifungal                  4
                                                                   Proteomics Research Group, Youngstown State
therapies, especially Amphotericin B (AmB). S.                   University, Youngstown, OH 44555, USA.
apiospermum is even able to use AmB as primary
                                                                 lee.mari@students.uwlax.edu. Proteomics profiling
carbon and nitrogen sources. In general, little is
                                                                 of dimorphism in Penicillium marneffei, an
known about the ecology, physiology, and
                                                                 opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans.
transmission of this fungus. The objective of our
                                                                 Penicillium marneffei is a unique thermal dimorphic
research is to formulate a selective medium to aid in
                                                                 fungus. It causes disease among
rapid and appropriate diagnosis. The media was
                                                                 immunocompromised patients and is endemic in
supplemented with chemicals that S. apiospermum
                                                                 parts of Southeast Asia. Although the exact mode of
has a tolerance to, such as cycloheximide and AmB.               transmission is unknown, inhalation of the spores is
Our second objective was to isolate S. apiospermum
                                                                 thought to cause initial pulmonary infection, which
from common ornamental plants in houses, hospitals
                                                                 then disseminates to other organs. It can be fatal if
and offices. Identification was carried out using PCR
                                                                 diagnosis is not done early and no treatment
and morphological characteristics. The purpose of
                                                                 administered promptly. The main objective of this
this research is to provide insight into the ecological
                                                                 proteomics research is to characterize some of the
niche of S. apiospermum and to delineate possible
                                                                 proteins produced by P. marneffei that effect
reservoirs for its transmission to humans, both of
                                                                 dimorphism. P. marneffei was cultured at 25 degree
which may aid in the proper diagnosis, treatment, and
                                                                 Celcius and 37 degree Celcius for the mold and yeast
prevention of infections caused by S. apiospermum.               phase, respectively. The cells of each phase were
                                                                 processed for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.
Lee, Keunsub1* and May, Georgiana.2 1Plant                       Protein profiles from each phase were compared for
Biological Sciences and 2Department of Ecology,                  unique protein spots. These spots were excised and
Evolution & Behavior, University of Minnesota                    the proteins separated via mass spectrometry. From
Twincities, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.                             these data, specific proteins can be correlated with
leex1708@umn.edu. Competitive interactions                       genes known to be associated with dimorphism.
between endophytic Fusarium verticillioides and                  From these profiles, one protein or more can be
Ustilago maydis reduce smut disease severity. An                 selected and studied as possible diagnostic marker(s)
ascomycete fungus Fusarium verticillioides is                    or antifungal target(s) for the disease. A
widespread throughout the world and often causes                 comprehensive molecular-based understanding of
symptomless infections. We have investigated the                 dimorphism as developed in P. marneffei may be
effects of endophytic F. verticillioides on the fitness          useful in understanding more about other dimorphic
of maize and a fungal pathogen, Ustilago maydis                  fungal pathogens such as Blastomyces, Histoplasma,
using in planta experiments. In planta interaction               Coccidiodes, Paracoccidiodes, and Sporothrix.
experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with                  Poster
multi-factorial design: 2 F. verticillioides isolates X 2
                                                                 Letcher, Peter M.1*, Velez, Carlos G.2, Powell,
U. maydis genotypes X 3 timing of F. verticillioides
                                                                 Martha J.1 and Churchill, Perry F.1 1Dept. of
inoculation. The mixture of two mating compatible                Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama,
sporidia of U. maydis was inoculated onto the whorl              Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, 2Dept. de Biodiversidad
of 9-day-old maize seedlings and the spore
                                                                 y Biologia Experimental, Universidad de Buenos
suspension of F. verticillioides was pipetted onto the
                                                                 Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
7, 9, and 11-day-old maize seedlings. Maize height
                                                                 letch006@bama.ua.edu. Waking a sleeping giant:
and smut disease symptoms were measured at 17 and
                                                                 diversity in the Rhizophydiales. The genus


Rhizophydium (Chytridiomycetes, Chytridiomycota)               it is estimated that over 3000 species of higher fungi
has long been a taxonomically challenging entity,              exist. An All Taxa Biotic Inventory project was
with over 220 described taxa. Members of the genus             initiated in the Big Thicket National Preserve in 2006
occur in both soils and aquatic habitats as                    to further document the fungal diversity. Poster
saprophytes and parasites. Traditionally, species were
                                                               Lewis, David P.1*, Ovrebo, Clark L.2 and Mata, Juan
artificially characterized based on substrate or host.         L.3 1Gulf States Mycological Society, RR 2, Box 194-
Thallus characters were similarly problematic, often
                                                               L, Newton, TX 75966, USA, 2Department of
intergrading with those of other genera. Our recent
                                                               Biology, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond,
studies of the monophyletic Rhizophydium clade
                                                               OK 73034, USA, 3Department of Biology, University
using ultrastructural and molecular analyses have
                                                               of Southern Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA.
revealed remarkable diversity and highlight the need
                                                               plewis@jas.net. New species described and
for taxonomic revision of this group. A new order,
                                                               bibliography of Agaricalean fungi from Louisiana,
Rhizophydiales, was excised from the Chytridiales
                                                               Mississippi and Alabama. The United States Gulf
and erected based on a unique suite of zoospore                Coast is an area of great biodiversity, is a transition
ultrastructural character states and molecular-based           zone from the mesophytic gulf coastal plain into the
phylogeny. Kappamyces was the first chytrid genus
                                                               more humid tropics, and with abundant moisture and
established based on molecular phylogenetics. Most
                                                               tree diversity provides excellent habitats for the
recently, ultrastructural and molecular analyses of
                                                               appearance of fleshy fungi. Early research on the
140 isolates in Rhizophydiales from diverse habitats
                                                               agarics and boletes of the three Gulf States,
have resulted in delineation of ten new families and
                                                               Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama was prevalent
twelve new genera. Within the new order
                                                               from the 1890s to the 1920s. W. A. Murrill, F. S.
Rhizophydiales there are more than twenty distinct
                                                               Earle, L. M. Underwood and C. H. Peck described
zoospore morphologies represented, a variety in form           many species. Centers of collecting activity include
that suggests we have only begun to discover the
                                                               New Orleans, Biloxi and Ocean Springs,
diversity that resides in these classically considered
                                                               (Mississippi) and Auburn, Alabama. Many of these
“little round chytrids”. Contributed Presentation
                                                               new taxa were reported in North American Flora and
Lewis, David P.1* and Ovrebo, Clark L.2 1Gulf States           Mycologia by W.A. Murrill, although F. S. Earle and
Mycological Society, RR 2, Box 194-L, Newton, TX               L. M. Underwood made many of the collections.
75966, USA, 2Department of Biology, University of              Many of the taxa described over a century ago have
Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034, USA.                       not been collected since their original description.
plewis@jas.net. New species described and                      Recently, from the 1970s to the 1990s, new taxa of
bibliography of Agaricalean fungi from East                    agarics and boletes were described by W. G. Cibula,
Texas. East Texas is an area of great biodiversity, is         G. M. Mueller, T. Feibelman, R. Singer, A. Bessette,
a transition zone from the mesophytic gulf coast into          E. Both, T. Baroni, D. Jenkins, N. Weber, A. H.
the more xeric southwest, and with abundant                    Smith and L. Hesler. It is estimated that from 3000 to
moisture and tree diversity provides excellent                 5000 species of fleshy fungi occur along the Gulf
habitats for the appearance of fleshy higher fungi.            Coast, but no extensive treatment is available. Poster
While plants have been documented in eastern Texas
                                                               Lindley, L.A.*, Brown, M.W., Lawrence, A.,
for over 150 years, little work has been accomplished
                                                               Silberman, J.D. and Spiegel, F.W. Department of
on the higher fungi. Forty-nine taxa of agarics and
                                                               Biological Sciences, SCEN 632, University of
boletes have been described from east Texas. Harry
                                                               Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA.
Thiers initiated the first survey of the agaric and            lalindl@uark.edu. Schizoplasmodium: a genus
bolete mycota of East Texas in the mid 1950s. He
                                                               reconstituted. When the Protostelid slime mold
described 30 new taxa and reported over 200 species
                                                               genus Schizoplasmodium was described in 1966 it
of agarics and boletes. Starting in the 1970s, David
                                                               included a single species, S. cavosteliodes. Two new
Lewis and Bill Cibula began surveys of the Big
                                                               species were described that same year, S. ovatum and
Thicket National Preserve and surrounding areas and
                                                               S. gracile. In 1970, Olive moved the long-stalked
reported their findings in various publications and
                                                               species S. ovatum and S. gracile to a new genus
reports and helped document several new taxa. O.K.
                                                               Nematostelium. The discovery of an
Miller, E. Both, R. Singer, S.L. Miller, B. Buyck,             amoeboflagellate stage in the life-cycle of an
H.V. Smith, A.H. Smith and N.S. Weber are other                organism that otherwise looked like Nematostelium
mycologists who have documented or described new
                                                               “Schizoplasmodium” gracile led to the description of
species from this region. Despite these initial
                                                               a third genus Ceratiomyxella. In 1976, Olive added
inventories, eastern Texas remains an area in need of
                                                               two rare ballistosporous species to the genus
critical analysis of its agaric and bolete mycota where
                                                               Schizoplasmodium, S. obovatum, and S.


seychellarum. We performed detailed morphologic                 while cloning indicated the presence of 8 taxa on the
reassessment and molecular analyses of these taxa to            SRT and 14 on the LRT. Furthermore cloning
assess their phylogenetic relationships. Gene                   resulted in the recovery of usable sequences from
sequences from the small subunit of the ribosome                100% of the root tips sampled compared to 83% for
(SSUrDNA) place these organisms into a well                     direct sequencing. Poster
supported clade. Additionally, the characters which             Lombard, Lorenzo1, Bogale, Mesfin1*, Montenergro,
separate the organisms as individual species: stalk-
                                                                Fernando2, Wingfield, Brenda D.1 and Wingfield,
length, spore dispersal method, and presence/absence
                                                                Michael J.1 1Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology
of an amoeboflagellate stage in the life-cycle are
                                                                Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South
overwhelmed by the majority of life-cycle,
                                                                Africa, 2Fundacion Forestal Juan Manuel Durini,
morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular
                                                                Ecuador. lorenzo.lombard@fabi.up.ac.za. A bark
characters that hold these organisms together as a
                                                                canker disease of the tropical hardwood tree,
monophyletic group. Here we present morphological
                                                                Cedrelinga catenaeformis in Ecuador. Cedrelinga
and molecular evidence that shows that these                    catenaeformis is an indigenous leguminous tree that
organisms are all closely related. Both morphology              occurs naturally in the Amazonian regions of
and molecular data support the synonomy of
                                                                Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. This tree is an
Nematostelium gracile and Ceratiomyxella tahitiensis
                                                                economically valuable component of local forestry
therby casting doubt on the validity of genus
                                                                industries and it is also culturally important to rural
Ceratiomyxella. On this basis we propose to move
                                                                communities in these countries. A canker disease has
the species Nematostelium ovatum, Nematostelium
                                                                recently emerged on C. catenaeformis in Ecuadorian
gracile, and Ceratiomyxella tahitiensis into the genus
                                                                plantations of this tree. The disease is characterized
Schizoplasmodium and to rename them as
                                                                by severe cracks in the bark, from which gum exudes,
Schizoplasmodium ovatum, Schizoplasmodium                       wood discoloration associated with these cracks as
gracile, and Schizoplasmodium tahitiensis
                                                                well as die-back and stunted growth. Isolations from
respectively. Poster
                                                                cankers consistently yielded species of Fusarium.
Lindner, Daniel L.* and Banik, Mark T. Center for               These species were identified as F. solani, F.
Forest Mycology Research, Madison Field Office of               oxysporum and F. decemcelluare based on
the Northern Research Station, USDA-Forest                      morphology as well as on comparisons of their partial
Service, One Gifford Pinchot Drive, Madison,                    translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences.
Wisconsin 53726, USA. dlindner@wisc.edu. A                      In inoculations, all three Fusarium species gave rise
comparison of direct sequencing versus cloning                  to cankers similar to those found on trees under
and sequencing for studying fungal associates of                natural conditions and they were consistently re-
spruce roots. To better understand DNA sequencing               isolated from the lesions. The canker disease on C.
as a tool to assess fungal root associates, 40 root tips        catenaeformis appears to be caused by three species
were collected from a single Picea glauca root                  of Fusarium, all of which are equally pathogenic.
system. Genomic DNA was isolated from 20 small                  Poster
root tips (SRT, 1.0 - 2.0 mm long) and 20 large root
                                                                Luangsa-ard, Janet Jennifer*, Tasanathai, Kanoksri,
tips (LRT, 5.0 - 6.0 mm long). All 20 of the SRT and
                                                                Ridkaew, Rungpet and Hywel-Jones, Nigel. National
17 of the LRT yielded visible PCR bands with
                                                                Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
primers ITS1F/ITS4. The resultant PCR products
                                                                (BIOTEC), Thailand Science Park, 113 Paholyothin
were sequenced directly using primer ITS4 and also
                                                                Rd., Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120,
cloned using the Promega pGem-T Vector System II.               Thailand. jajen@biotec.or.th. Phylogenetic
The 20 SRT all yielded DNA that was identified with
                                                                distribution and relationships of Ophiocordyceps
direct sequencing as one of four commonly
                                                                producing Hymenostilbe and Hirsutella
associated root fungi. Thirteen of the LRT also
                                                                anamorphs in Thailand. Hymenostilbe has its
yielded DNA whose sequences matched one of these
                                                                known teleomorph in the genus Ophiocordyceps and
same four fungi while the other 7 yielded no useful
                                                                is closely related to the Hirsutella anamorphs
sequence from direct sequencing. Cloning of the PCR
                                                                producing the same teleomorph. There are about 13
products followed by sequencing resulted in the
                                                                species of Hymenostilbe known worldwide, all are
detection of additional fungi beyond those found via            pathogens of arthropods and several of these are
direct sequencing in 7 SRT and 2 LRT. In addition all           found in Thailand. These are Hy. dipterigena (O.
7 of the LRT that yielded no usable sequences with
                                                                dipterigena), Hy. nutans (O. nutans), H. aurantiaca
direct sequencing produced identifications when
                                                                (O. myrmecophila/O. irangiensis), Hymenostilbe spp.
cloned. Overall, direct sequencing indicated the
                                                                linked to O. sphecocephala and O. pseudolloydii.
presence of 4 fungal taxa on both SRT and LRT,
                                                                There are ca. 80 known species of Hirsutella


worldwide with teleomorphs in three genera:                    decaying Ficus twig. Pure cultures of all fungal
Ophiocordyceps, Torrubiella and Cordycepioideus.               isolates are being maintained at the Fungal Culture
This suggests of a polyphyletic nature of the genus.           Collection at the Department of Plant Pathology,
In Thailand Ophiocordyceps species linked with                 Kasetsart University for further investigations. Poster
Hirsutella anamorphs are O. unilateralis, O.                   Mata, Juan L.1* and Ovrebo, Clark L.2 1Dept. of
brunneapunctata, O.communis, O. humbertii, O. cf.              Biological Sciences, University of South Alabama,
acicularis and O. rhizoidea. Of these six
                                                               Mobile, AL 36695, USA, 2Dept. of Biology,
teleomorphs, only two were formally linked to
                                                               University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK
Hirsutella anamorphs (O. unilateralis – H.
                                                               73034, USA. jmata@usouthal.edu. New reports of
formicarum and O. humbertii – H. saussurei)
                                                               Gymnopus for Costa Rica and Panama. Field trips
although on the host Hirsutella anamorphs have been
                                                               to the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica and Panama
identified. Molecular work has shown the close
                                                               in the last two decades have yielded several dozen
relationship of Hymenostilbe and Hirsutella and there
                                                               collybioid collections. Morphological examination of
are species sharing features of these two genera in            those collections has resulted in the discovery of
their morphology. Our results show that the genus              species not previously reported for this region of
Hymenostilbe is derived from Hirsutella, occupying
                                                               Central America. The distribution range for
more the upper branches in the tree infecting dipteran
                                                               Gymnopus luxurians, initially described from
flies to wasps and ants. Contributed Presentation
                                                               southern United States and recently reported in
Manoch, L.*, Jeamjitt, O., Dethoup, T., Eamvijarn,             Dominican Republic, is extended into the Caribbean
A. and Pikulklin, S. Department of Plant Pathology,            lowlands of Costa Rica and Panama. Similarly, G.
Faculty of Agriculture, Kasetsart University,                  subpruinosus, known from the Greater Antilles, is
Bangkok 10900, Thailand. agrlkm@ku.ac.th. Some                 reported for Panama. Other new reports for Panama,
noteworthy ascomycetes from soil and plants in                 but previously recorded from Costa Rica, are G.
Thailand. During the course of an ecological survey            neotropicus, G. omphalodes, G. subcyathiformis, and
on the ascomycetes of Thailand, soil samples and               G. luxurians var. copeyi. Poster
diseased plants were collected from various locations.
                                                               Matheny, P. Brandon1*, Aime, M. Catherine2, Buyck,
Alcohol and heat treatments, soil plate, dilution plate
                                                               Bart3, Desjardin, Dennis E.4, Horak, Egon5 and
methods and Gochenaur’s glucose ammonium nitrate
                                                               Lodge, D. Jean.6 1Biology Department, Clark
agar were used to isolate soil fungi. The supplement
                                                               University, 950 Main St., Worcester, Massachusetts
of actidione (cyclohexemide) to agar media was
                                                               01610, USA, 2USDA-ARS, Systematic Botany and
employed to isolate keratinolytic fungi. The tissue
                                                               Mycology Laboratory, Room 304, Building 011A,
transplanting technique and half strength potato
                                                               10300 Baltimore Ave, Beltsville, Maryland 20705-
dextrose agar (PDA) were employed for isolation of             2350, USA, 3 Museum National D’histoire Naturelle,
plant parasitic fungi from diseased tissues.                   Départment Systématique et Evolution, Bâtiment de
Morphological characteristics of the ascomycetes
                                                               Cryptogamie, Herbier de Mycologie, Case postale 39
were determined, such as growth rate, color, texture
                                                               – 57, rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France,
on different agar medium. Microscopic characters               4
                                                                 Department of Biology, San Francisco State
were examined under stereo, light and scanning
                                                               University, San Francisco, California 94132, USA,
electron microscopes. The results revealed that a              5
                                                                 Ex-Curator Cryptogamic Herbarium ZT, Federal
number of Pyrenomycetes were found from soil
                                                               Institute of Technology, ETH, CH-8092 Zurich,
including Echinopodospora spinosa, Gelasinospora
                                                               Switzerland, 6International Institute of Tropical
dictyophora, G. hippopotomata, Nectria viridescense            Forestry, USDA Forest Service-FPL, PO Box 1377
with Acremonium anamorphic state, Neurospora
                                                               Luqillo, Puerto Rico 00773-1377.
africana and N. dodgei. Species of Eurotiales
                                                               pmatheny@clarku.edu. The evolution of tropical
(Trichocomaceae) from soil included Emericella
                                                               species of Inocybaceae (Agaricales). Neotropical
rugulosa, E. variecolor, Eupenicillium spp.,
                                                               and paleotropical species of the ectomycorrhizal
Eurotium spp., Hamigera avellanea, and
                                                               (EM) mushroom family Inocybaceae currently
Talaromyces spp. Several species of keratinolytic
                                                               comprise 18 percent of the species-level diversity in
fungi were found including Arachniotus sp. and
                                                               the family from tropical latitudes, including lowland
related genera. Pyrenomycetes from diseased plants             and montane habitats. This poor representation of
were Nectria hematococca with Fusarium solani                  tropical taxa, combined with the assumption that
anamorphic state (blight of orchid leaf), Gnomonia
                                                               morphological traits of tropical species are advanced,
sp. on cinnamon leaf, Leptosphaerulina sp. with
                                                               suggests that tropical taxa may be recently derived,
Phoma sp. anamorphic state (blight of cabbage), and
                                                               and that the family as a whole had a temperate
one unidentified species of Pyrenomycetes on
                                                               Northern or Southern hemisphere ancestral area


(center of origin). As a consequence, species of              McLenon-Porter, Teresita1*, Skillman, Jane E.1 and
Inocybaceae are thought to have migrated or                   Moncalvo, Jean Marc.1, 2 1Department of Ecology and
dispersed relatively recently into tropical areas. A          Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25
corollary of these hypotheses would suggest the EM            Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2,
symbiosis has switched repeatedly to tropical                   Department of Natural History, Royal Ontario
angiosperm partners of Casuarinaceae, Fabaceae,               Museum, 100 Queens Park, Toronto, ON M5S 2C6.
Fagaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Myrtaceae,                        terri.mclenon@utoronto.ca. Application of
Polygonaceae, Uapacaceae, and perhaps other                   phylogenetic methods to assess fungal diversity
partners from temperate gymnosperm and                        and community structure from DNA sequences.
angiosperm partners. Our recent research has                  Advances in molecular biology techniques,
uncovered multiple novel lineages of Inocybaceae,             expansion of nucleotide sequence databases, and
almost all of which likely contain endemic                    development of novel bioinformatic tools are
undescribed species from tropical latitudes. In               collectively making large DNA-based environmental
particular, the diversity of the family has been              microbial surveys more common. These methods
undersampled in Miombo woodlands of Zambia,                   routinely detect hundreds of divergent sequences
mixed dipterocarp/Fagaceae forests of Thailand and            from even small half-gram samples of soil that are
India, and in the neotropics. We test these hypotheses        often difficult to identify because they poorly match
in a phylogenetic context using a molecular dataset of        sequences of known taxa in public databases.
multiple nuclear genes. We report that tropical taxa          Phylogenetic methods can be used to classify
of Inocybaceae tend to be diffuse (polyphyletic)              unknown sequences, detect new taxa, and assess the
throughout the family phylogeny, and that tropical            functional diversity of taxa in a sample by
clades represent both early diverging and recently            comparison with known references. However, easy-
derived lineages. Poster                                      to-use methods to cluster sequences and determine
                                                              significant taxonomic and functional differences
McDonald, Tami R.*, Armaleo, Daniele and Lutzoni,
                                                              among samples are still in their infancy. Our
François. Department of Biology, Duke University,
                                                              objective is to compare four methods that are
Durham, North Carolina, USA. trm5@duke.edu.
                                                              currently available: 1. Phylogenetic diversity measure
Epigenetics of the lichen symbiosis. DNA
                                                              (Faith 1992 Biol Cons 61:1); 2. Phylogenetic test
methylation is a key regulator of development in
                                                              (Martin 2002 AEM 68: 3673); 3. Libshuff analysis
higher eukaryotes. Although present at negligible
                                                              (Schloss et al. 2004 AEM 70: 5485); and 4. Unifrac
levels in many fungi, DNA methylation is
                                                              analysis (Lozupone & Knight 2005 AEM 71: 8228).
considerably higher in lichen-forming fungi. In the
lichen Cladonia grayi, the DNA of the                         For this comparison we use LSU-rDNA sequence
                                                              data obtained along a single core of forest soil to test
aposymbiotically grown fungus is relatively
                                                              whether or not fungal community structure changes
unmethylated, while the DNA of the fungus in
                                                              significantly in relation to depth. The significance of
symbiotic association with its algal partner is highly
                                                              our findings is discussed in the more general context
methylated. As DNA methylation is one hallmark of
                                                              of estimating fungal biological diversity from
epigenetic gene silencing, this observation suggests
                                                              environmental samples. Contributed Presentation
that gene silencing may be a critical step in the
formation or maintenance of the lichen symbiosis. To          Mena Portales, J. Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica,
determine which sequences are subject to                      Carretera de Varona Km 3.5. Capdevila. Boyeros.
methylation, we made a library of methylated DNA              A.P. 8029. Ciudad de la Habana 10800. Cuba.
from the fungal component of the lichen. Analysis of          julio.mena@infomed.sld.cu. Preparing a national
clones from the library suggests that most targets of         conservation strategy for fungi: the Cuban
DNA methylation are protein-coding sequences                  experience. Cuba, as a signatory to the 1992 Rio
rather than intergenic regions, transposable elements         Convention on Biological Diversity, developed the
or repeated DNA. The implication is that these                National Study on Biological Diversity in the
regions are downregulated or silenced in the                  Republic of Cuba, finished in 1995 and published by
symbiotic state. The correlation between DNA                  Vales et al. (1998), and the National Strategy of
methylation on these candidate regions and the                Biological Diversity and Action Plan in the Republic
presence of related marks of epigenetic silencing,            of Cuba (Vilamajo et al., 2002). These diagnoses of
including trancriptionally repressive histone H3              Cubas fungal biodiversity status were no more than a
methylation, presence of linker histone H1 and                start which left many holes because of the unique
heterochromatin binding protein are being                     characteristics of these organisms and the dispersed
investigated. Poster                                          nature of mycological information. A national
                                                              conservation strategy explicitly for fungi was


therefore developed, based on information in the                understanding of the ER on P pools in forest soils.
computerised databases of the UK Darwin Initiative              Contributed Presentation
project, Fungi of the Caribbean (1997-2000) and
                                                                Mims, Charles W.1*, Richardson, Elizabeth A.2 and
Cuban mycological literature. The document is
                                                                Taylor, Josephine.3 1Department of Plant Pathology,
probably the first in Latin America specifically to
                                                                University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA,
address conservation of fungal diversity and is one of          2
                                                                  Department of Plant Biology, University of Georgia,
only very few in the world. The strategy has two
                                                                Athens, GA 30602, USA, 3Department of Biology, S.
parts: in the first, the current state of knowledge of
                                                                F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX 75962,
Cuban fungi is reviewed and analysed in respect of
                                                                USA. cwmims@uga.edu. Orange rust of Rubus: a
taxonomic and ecological groups, while legislative
                                                                fascinating challenge for mycologists. Orange rust
aspects, environmental education and resources
                                                                is a common disease of blackberry (Rubus spp.) in
available for study and conservation of Cuban fungi
                                                                the U. S. and has been studied at the light
are also covered; in the second, the strategy itself and
                                                                microscopic level by numerous early workers. The
an action plan are set out in respect of the holes              disease is very important in the northeastern but also
identified in the first part. The document has the              is widespread in southern states. From a mycological
same goals as those of the Cuban National Strategy
                                                                standpoint, orange rust is particularly interesting
of Biodiversity, but it focuses more fully on the issues
                                                                because of the fact that it is caused by two different
which must be addressed before this unique and key
                                                                pathogens that produce virtually identical symptoms.
group of organisms can be conserved and at the same
                                                                One is Gymnoconia peckiana which is demicyclic
time used sustainably and rationally. Symposium
                                                                while the other is a microcyclic species known as
                                                                Gymnoconia nitens. Both are autoecious rusts that
Miller, Bradley W.* and Fox, Thomas R. Forest                   cause permanent systemic infections involving roots.
Nutrition Cooperative, Virginia Polytechnic Institute           Crowns on infected roots give rise to weak spindly
and State University, Department of Forestry,                   shoots with pale green stunted leaves whose
Cheatham Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.                 undersides become bright orange as the result of the
bwmillergk@hotmail.com. Ectomycorrhizal                         development of sori filled with bright orange spores.
rhizosphere affects on long-term inorganic and                  In the case of G. peckiana these spores are
organic P pools in forest soils. Phosphorus is one of           aeciospores but in G. nitens they are actually
the most limiting nutrients in the soil due to strong           teliospores. The study of orange rust disease becomes
sorption to amorphous Fe and Al oxides.                         even more complicated because of the fact that G.
Ectomycorrhizal fungi secrete a variety of organic              nitens has been shown to exist in two forms that
acids, such as oxalate, to solubilize P from                    likely were confused with one another prior to 1924.
amorphous surfaces. A loblolly pine plantation                  One of these forms possesses spermogonia and
established in 1980 was fertilized once with 250 lbs.           produces four-celled basidia while the other typically
per acre of diammonium phosphate. Twenty years                  lacks spermogonia and produces two-celled basidia.
later pine trees responded with a height increase               In this study we used a combination of light and
greater than six feet. Soil samples analyzed suggest            electron microscopy to examine nuclear behavior
that the majority of P applied is now sorbed to Fe-             during both teliospore formation/germination and
and Al-oxides with a small but significant increase in          basidium/basidiospore formation in both forms of G.
organic P in fertilized plots. We will present results          nitens. At this time it is unclear if karyogamy and
of the effects of the ectomycorrhizal rhizosphere               meiosis occur in either of these two forms.
(ER) on organic and inorganic P pools in fertilized             Contributed Presentation
and control plots of a loblolly pine stand 27 years
                                                                Minter, D.W. CABI, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey,
after fertilization. Ectomycorrhizal short roots in
                                                                TW20 9TY, UK. d.minter@cabi.org. Microfungi -
fertilized and control plots will be compared for total
                                                                orphans of the conservation movement. Despite
P content by ICP. The effects of the ER on organic P
                                                                evidence of decline in many populations, fungi are
pools in fertilized and control plots will be compared
                                                                almost completely unprotected worldwide. Most
to the bulk soil using NMR. Total P content of
                                                                conservation law covers only animals and plants.
amorphous Fe- and Al-oxides will be also be
                                                                Most protected areas lack policies to manage fungi in
compared. We will also report the results comparing             their care. The need for fungal conservation is rarely
P released by single and sequential oxalate additions           vocalized, so most policymakers are unaware of the
to soil fractions in an attempt to measure the long-
                                                                issue. The few existing resources are directed only to
term affects of the ER and P fertilization on organic
                                                                Basidiomycetes and perhaps lichen-forming fungi.
and inorganic P pools. Results will advance our
                                                                For the non-lichen-forming microfungi, the
                                                                conservation gap is total. This symposium


presentation will describe a new initiative which aims        Morgenstern, Ingo* and Hibbett, David S.
to address the problem. Three specialist groups are           Department of Biology, Clark University, Worcester,
being established for conservation of microfungi at a         MA 01610, USA. imorgenstern@clarku.edu.
global level. These groups will aim to work in                Characterization of a manganese peroxidase gene
collaboration with the two existing IUCN Species              in Fomitiporia mediterranea (Hymenochaetales).
Survival Commission Specialist Groups (one for                White-rotting fungi in the basidiomycetes are capable
fungi in general, the other for lichens) and with             of degrading lignin, thereby performing an
conservation-minded mycologists worldwide. The                ecologically important role in the global terrestrial
groups will prepare global conservation plans for the         carbon cycle. Lignin degradation is achieved by the
organisms they represent and seek to stimulate                secretion of extracellular peroxidases, namely
awareness of threats, including climate change. A             manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase
draft and preliminary website for each group has              (LiP) and versatile peroxidase (VP). Although white
been constructed (www.cybertruffle.org.uk/ascos for           rot taxa occur widespread over the phylogenetic tree
non-lichen-forming ascomycetes & conidial fungi,              in almost all major clades, the presence of genes
www.cybertruffle.org.uk/rustsmut for rusts & smuts,           encoding for lignin degrading peroxidases based on
and www.cybertruffle.org.uk/moulds for                        sequence data has only been established in a few
chromistans, chytrids, myxomycetes and                        lineages. These include the polyporoid, euagarics,
zygomycetes). Those websites will make available              and russuloid clades. Recently, we reported the
each plan and, it is hoped, will evolve to become a           presence of a MnP encoding gene based on a partial
focus for conservation of microfungi, providing               sequence in Fomitiporia mediterranea, which is a
information and advice. Symposium Presentation                member of the hymenochaetoid clade. In a
                                                              phylogenetic analysis this sequence takes a basal
Mongkolsamrit, Suchada, Luangsa-ard, Janet
Jennifer* and Hywel-Jones, Nigel. National Center             position in a well defined clade of “classical” MnPs.
                                                              Our current research is aimed at obtaining a full-
for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
                                                              length sequence for this gene and to compare it with
(BIOTEC), National Science and Technology
                                                              characterized full-length MnP sequences found in
Development Agency, 113 Paholyothin Rd., Khlong
                                                              polyporoid and euagarics species. Results from this
1, Khlong Luang Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand.
                                                              analysis may not only help us to better understand the
jajen@biotec.or.th. Phylogenetic relationships of
                                                              evolution of lignin degrading enzymes in the
Hypocrella species producing orange stromata in
                                                              basidiomycetes, but may also be of interest in an
Thailand. Hypocrella discoidea is a fungal pathogen
                                                              applied field. F. mediterranea is associated with a
of white flies producing an Aschersonia samoensis as
the anamorph. It was described by Petch (1921) and a          plant disease (Esca) affecting grape vines in Europe
                                                              and other parts of the world. Symptoms of the disease
complete re-description was made by Hywel-Jones &
                                                              include an extended white rot in the trunks of
Evans (1993). Field material provisionally labeled as
                                                              affected vines. Poster
Hypocrella cf discoidea were compared with H.
discoidea strains because they were morphologically           Mueller, Gregory M. * and Hosaka, Kentaro.
similar, having orange color and producing perithecia         Department of Botany, Field Museum of Natural
and pycnidia embedded in the stromata. These were             History, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL
all Hypocrella teleomorphs with orange stroma and             60605-2496, USA. gmueller@fieldmuseum.org.
producing whole ascospores. For the molecular study           Using the Laccaria-Hydnangium clade as a model
a phylogeny based on sequences of the 5.8S rDNA               to study diversity, biogeographic, and host
and flanking internal transcribed spacers regions             specificity patterns of macrofungi. Due to its
clearly showed that Hypocrella cf discoidea is                cosmopolitan distribution, frequency of collection,
distinct from a clade of H. discoidea. This indicates         manageable size (75-100 species worldwide), and
that there is more than one species based on orange           utility in studies on ectomycorrhizas, the Laccaria -
stromata. A review of all Hypocrella specimens                Hydnangium clade is an appropriate model system to
stored at Kew Gardens (UK) showed that this                   study diversity, biogeographic, and host specificity
material (mostly on bamboo but also on                        patterns of macrofungi. Multigene phylogenetic
dicotyledonous plants) has not been previously                analyses were undertaken with material covering the
collected and named. Work is underway to describe             distribution and much of the morphological range of
this as a new species in the genus Hypocrella from            the clade. Hydnangium is nested within Laccaria,
Thailand. The name Hypocrella calendulina is                  consistent with our preliminary data. A number of
proposed to highlight the orange color of the                 previously undescribed species were uncovered. All
stromata. Poster                                              taxa from temperate South America and Australasia,
                                                              including 3 of 4 taxa from Papua New Guinea, form a


basal paraphyly. Taxa from Northern Hemisphere,               Assessment of protostelid diversity from natural
including tropical America and Asia form a well-              and anthropogenic impacted tropical habitats in
supported clade nested within the austral grade.              Kenya. Protostelids are unicellular eukaryotic
While we detect a strong vicariance signal, dispersal         microorganisms which have amoebal trophic cells
and subsequent radiations are responsible for the             and fruiting bodies in their life cycles. They tend to
current distribution patterns. Historical host                show a ubiquitous distribution and are primarily
specificity is not strongly supported in our                  microbivorous of bacteria, fungi, algae and often
phylogeny. Some New Zealand Nothofagus-                       abundant, on or in decaying plant material. In spite of
associated taxa form a monophyletic group, while              their omnipresence in most habitats where they are
others are intermixed within the austral grade that is        suspected to play an important ecological role,
represented mostly by Myrtaceae-associated taxa.              protostelids are still some of the most understudied
Our data suggest Nothofagus-associated taxa                   organisms world wide. In order to contribute more
dispersed into New Zealand after the reestablishment          information, a rapid assessment survey was carried
of Nothofagus on the islands. Presidential Address            out in August 2005 to determine protostelid
Murrin, F.* and LeCointre, C. Department of                   occurrence in Aberdare region, in central Kenya.
                                                              Samples were collected from 45 sites (20 by 20 m
Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St.
                                                              each) along an elevation gradient (1785 to 3396 m) in
Johns, Newfoundland, A1B 3X9, Canada.
                                                              habitats under different land use regimes and
fmurrin@mun.ca. Mycorrhizal mushroom
                                                              different vegetation types. Seventeen species were
communities in the boreal forest of
                                                              recovered from all substrates. Species richness was
Newfoundland: the impact of introduced moose.
                                                              highest in ground litter (16), followed by aerial litter
Within the boreal forest of Terra Nova National Park
                                                              (13), aerial bark (10) and ground bark (7). The most
on the island of Newfoundland, disturbances due to
insect activity and browsing by moose (Alces alces            frequent species on the ground litter were
                                                              Protostelium mycophaga, Soliformovum, irregularis,
andersoni) are resulting in the replacement of Balsam
                                                              Schizoplasmodiopsis pseudoendospora and S.
Fir (Abies balsamea) with species such as Black
                                                              ameboidea whereas P. mycophaga and S. irregularis
Spruce (Picea mariana), thereby changing the
                                                              were most abundant in aerial litter. Species richness,
landscape and reducing biodiversity within the Park.
                                                              composition and microhabitat preferences in
The purpose of this research is to investigate the
                                                              Aberdare region compared more strongly to those
impact of these disturbances on the ectomycorrhizal
                                                              reported in temperate countries than to those recorded
communities in Balsam Fir/Feather Moss stands and
                                                              from relatively similar tropical habitats in Costa Rica
we report here preliminary results of two seasons of
study. Fruiting bodies were collected in control and          and Puerto Rico. However some of the shared species
                                                              showed significant morphological variation. Species
moose exclosure plots within five previously-
                                                              richness and abundance decreased with increase in
established study sites with different levels of past
                                                              elevation whilst land use regimes seemed to influence
insect disturbance. Species identifications and
                                                              protostelid assemblages but in an unclear way. Poster
fruiting body numbers were recorded to determine
species richness, frequency and similarity among              Ndiritu, George, G.*, Spiegel, Fredrick, W. and
plots and sites. At selected sites, fruiting bodies of        Stephenson, Steven L. Department of Biological
non-mycorrhizal species were also processed. While            Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
preliminary data support the hypothesis that lack of          72701, USA. gnderit@uark.edu. Distribution and
moose browsing has a positive effect on                       ecology of the assemblages of myxomycetes
ectomycorrhizal community structure, we found no              associated with major vegetation types in Big
evidence that the ectomycorrhizal community varies            Bend National Park, USA. A study was carried out
with level of past insect disturbance. While moose            to obtain data on the distribution and ecology of the
are native to much of Canada, they were introduced            assemblages of myxomycetes associated with aerial
to the island of Newfoundland in 1878 and again in            litter and ground litter in Big Bend National Park in
1904. The insular, and thus isolated, nature of               Texas. Twelve plots (each 30 by 30 m) were
Newfoundland may increase the effect of this                  established along an elevation gradient (564 to 1807
invasive herbivore on forest community structure and          m) during March 2005. Samples of bark from living
mycorrhizal diversity. Poster                                 trees and litter were obtained from these plots, which
Ndiritu, George, G.1, 2* and Spiegel, Fredrick, W.1           encompassed all of the major vegetation types in the
1                                                             Park: For the 447 moist chambers prepared, 95.8%
  Department of Biological Science, University of
                                                              (428) produced some evidence (either fruiting bodies
Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA, 2Centre for
                                                              or plasmodia) of myxomycetes. Overall, 68 species
Biodiversity, National Museums of Kenya, 40658
                                                              were recorded (57 from aerial litter and 54 from
00100, Nairobi, Kenya. gnderit@uark.edu.


ground litter, respectively). The most abundant                effective scientific communication; names can only
species were Perichaena depressa (13% of 975                   be unambiguous if there are international accepted
records), Arcyria cinerea (9%), P. chrysosperma                rules governing their formation and use. The rules
(8%), Badhamia gracilis (8%), Didymium                         that govern scientific naming in botany (including
squamulosum (5%), Physarum pusillum (5%) and D.                phycology and mycology) are revised at ... successive
anellus (5%). Species composition of the                       International Botanical Congresses.” Given that we
assemblages of myxomycetes present varied between              accepted fungi as Not Plant only recently, the ICBN
aerial litter and ground litter as well as among the           is well suited for the naming of fungi. The venerable
major vegetation types. Environmental factors such             yet mutable Code is a legal document, one governing
as site moisture conditions changed spatially in the           peculiarly fungal quandaries (dual nomenclature for
Park while values of pH differed for the various               pleomorphs) and peppered with enough mycological
substrates sampled. Presumably, these factors are              examples to satisfy the most exacting
largely responsible for the observed differences in            nomenclaturalist. That we revise the ICBN only
species assemblages and distribution patterns in the           every 6 years helps preserve the effective scientific
Park. Poster                                                   communication it was founded to protect. The Code
                                                               does remain responsive to the mycological
Neves, Maria-Alice1*, Binder, Manfred2 and Halling,
                                                               community, as one who has served the Committee for
Roy E.1 1The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx,
                                                               Fungi for the past decade can attest. Yes, we now
NY 10458, USA, 2Clark University, Worcester, MA
                                                               have codes for botany, zoology, bacteria, and phylos,
01610, USA. mneves@nybg.org. Phylloporus
                                                               but why must overworked mycologists abandon
revisited: a new story from the gilled bolete.
                                                               something not broken merely to buy an unimproved
Phylloporus has been seen as an unnatural group and
                                                               lot in a new subdivision? It would be better not to
was reduced to synonymy with Xerocomus based on
limited DNA sequences from two north temperate                 reinvent another wheel but simply to round the wheel
                                                               we have. Let us unite instead to move the fungal
taxa. While most Phylloporus species are pantropical,
                                                               kingdom from perceived handmaiden of the plant
no studies have included the majority of known
                                                               kingdom to full-fledged partner via the International
tropical species along with north temperate taxa.
                                                               Code of Botanical and Mycological Nomenclature.
Species of the genus are unusual in Boletaceae
                                                               Symposium Presentation
because of a lamellate hymenophore. Placement in
the family has been confirmed by morphological,                Oliver, Jason P. 315 Hitchner Hall, University of
chemical, and molecular data. In this study,                   Maine, Orono, Me 04469, USA.
morphological and molecular data were combined to              jason.oliver@umit.maine.edu. Wood decay
test the monophyly of the genus and establish the              mechanisms of species in the family Coprinaceae.
sister group relationships within the Boletaceae. We           Many species in the family Coprinaceae use coarse
present results toward clarifying infrageneric                 woody debris and buried wood as a substrate for
phylogenetic relationships in Phylloporus, including           growth and reproduction. Because these fungi are
the largest selection of species represented in a study        uncommonly found on wood in service and are not
to-date. Phylogenetic relationships of 73 selected taxa        commonly considered “wood decay fungi”, with the
were estimated by MP and ML. Aureoboletus                      exception of the isolation of some ligninolytic
auriporus was used as outgroup. A combined                     enzymes, their wood degrading mechanisms have
analysis for LSU and ITS regions plus morphological            remained poorly understood. As these species exist in
characters for Phylloporus from the Americas,                  a wood/soil matrix and can decompose the
Europe and South East Asia indicates that                      amorphous, aromatic structure of lignin, they show
Phylloporus is monophyletic and confirms Binder’s              great potential as agents of bioremediation and
hypothesis that it is closely related to the Xerocomus         bioconversion. We are currently conducting
subtomentosus group and not a synonym. This study              physiological studies on various species of the genera
establishes hypotheses for species distribution and            Coprinus, Coprinellus, and Coprinopsis, to elucidate
morphological evolution in this important                      mechanisms of wood decay and to screen for
ectomycorrhizal genus, and establishes the                     bioremediation and bioconversion potential. These
groundwork for further analyses. Contributed                   include investigations into enzyme kinetics, decay
Presentation                                                   rates, substrate modification, copper tolerance, and
                                                               aggressiveness toward other pollutants. Poster
Norvell, Lorelei L. Pacific Northwest Mycology
Service, Portland, OR 97229-1309 USA.                          OReilly, Bernadette*, Willmarth, Kirk and Armaleo,
llnorvell@pnw-ms.com. Fungi under the                          Daniele. Box 90338, Biological Sciences Building,
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.                  Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
“Unambiguous names for organisms are essential for             bernadette.oreilly@duke.edu. Sizing the lichen


mycobiont genome. Unpublished data (Armaleo)                  populations have been isolated for a significant time.
suggest a comparatively large genome size for the             We are currently sampling additional loci for an
mycobiont genome of the lichen Cladonia grayi. No             expanded dataset with improved geographical
lichen genome size has yet been determined. To                representation and additional samples from within
assess size, we used quantitative fluorescence                geographical areas. Contributed Presentation
microscopy and a novel quantitative PCR-based                 Ovrebo, Clark L.1*, Hughes, Karen W.2 and Halling,
method. For a typical fluorescence microscopy
                                                              Roy E.3 1Department of Biology, University of
experiment, Cladonia mycobiont spores were rained
                                                              Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034, USA,
from lichen apothecia on poly-L-lysine coated slides          2
                                                                Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of
and incubated at 25˚C for several days. After spore
                                                              Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA, 3Institute of
germination and initial hyphal growth, suspensions of
                                                              Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden,
either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Aspergillus
                                                              Bronx, NY 10458, USA. covrebo@ucok.edu. A new
nidulans conidia were added to the slides as
                                                              species of Tricholoma from Costa Rica. Collections
standards of known genome size. Nuclei were stained           of an undescribed species of Tricholoma sect.
with a mixture of Sybr green and                              Genuina were made in the oak forests of Costa Rica.
paraphenylenediamine and viewed under blue light
                                                              The fungus is characterized by the light yellowish
excitation. Equal-focus nuclei from the mycobiont
                                                              brown, viscid pileus, very pale yellow lamellae and
and the standard were compared on digital images
                                                              stipe, and by crowded lamellae. DNA was extracted
and their fluorescence was quantified using ImageJ
                                                              using a modified CTAB buffer followed by alcohol
software. Genome size estimates from fluorescence
                                                              precipitation. Primers ITS1F and ITSF4 were used
microscopy and qPCR were compared. Final results
                                                              for PCR of the ribosomal RNA ITS region. Dideoxy
will be discussed. Poster
                                                              sequencing was primed with ITS5 in the forward
Osmundson, Todd W.* and Halling, Roy E. Institute             direction and ITS4 in the reverse direction with
of Systematic Botany and The Lewis B. and Dorothy             alignment and trimming done manually. Parsimony
Cullman Program for Molecular Systematics Studies,            analysis was performed in PAUP using 1000
The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458,               bootstrap replicates. A monophyletic clade of nine
USA, and Department of Ecology, Evolution and                 Tricholoma collections resulted. A second clade
Environmental Biology, Columbia University, New               appeared as a sister to the first clade, the latter
York, NY 10027, USA. tosmundson@nybg.org.                     containing two collections deposited in GenBank as
Phylogeography of the widely distributed                      Tricholoma ustale and T. ustaloides respectively, but
ectomycorrhizal bolete Tylopilus ballouii. Dispersal          with poor bootstrap support. Two additional
over historical and contemporary time scales                  collections comprise a third clade which is basal to
influences numerous processes including speciation,           the putative T. ustale/T. ustaloides clade. Collections
metapopulation dynamics, and responses to                     in the first clade represent a hitherto unnamed species
environmental change. To-date, most biogeographic             of Tricholoma apparently related to the second white-
studies of hymenomycetes have focused on saprobic             gilled clade from California. Collections in the third
species; however, ectomycorrhizal (EM) taxa are               clade differ in ITS sequence from the first clade by
likely to exhibit different patterns due to their             only 1.52%. The third clade may represent a sibling
obligately symbiotic life cycles. As a widely-                species or all three clades may represent a single
distributed, easily recognized morphospecies,                 large species complex which has diverged over
Tylopilus ballouii is a promising model for                   distance and time. Poster
biogeographic and population genetics studies for             Padamsee, Mahajabeen1*, Matheny, P. Brandon2 and
EM fungi over multiple spatial and temporal scales.
                                                              McLaughlin, David J.1 1Dept. of Plant Biology,
Here, we present a phylogeographic analysis of T.
                                                              University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA,
ballouii from both Old and New World populations              2
                                                                Biology Department, Clark University, Worcester,
using RPB1 sequence data. The recognition of
                                                              MA 01610. USA. pada0003@umn.edu. Rocking the
several well-supported clades and significant
                                                              coprinoid boat: a phylogenetic study of the little
sequence divergence in both protein coding and non-
                                                              brown mushroom genus Psathyrella. The first
coding regions suggests that T. ballouii is a species
                                                              broad phylogenetic study of the mushroom genus
complex rather than a single species. While the               Psathyrella was based on 132 sequences from the
analysis does reveal some evidence for geographic             nuclear ribosomal large subunit gene and parsimony
structuring, it also yields some unexpected results;
                                                              and Bayesian analyses. For this study Psathyrella
while these results cannot discount the possibility of
                                                              sequences were generated and analyzed to represent
infrequent long-distance dispersal, the degree of
                                                              approximately one tenth of the known species
observed sequence divergence indicates that
                                                              worldwide, and most subgeneric subdivisions.


Representatives of the coprinoid genera (Parasola,             afflicted with HIV/AIDS, malignancy, and organ
Coprinopsis, and Coprinellus) were included to                 dysfunction. Over 90% of IA cases are caused by
evaluate relationships in Psathyrellaceae with                 Aspergillus fumigatus. Despite the recent steady
Coprinus in the outgroup. Psathyrella was found to             increases in IA, new and effective treatments have
be polyphyletic, with representatives in seven clades.         not been discovered in part because little is know
Most species of Psathyrella, including its type                about virulence attributes of A. fumigatus. Like other
species P. gracilis, formed a large clade with                 aspergilli, A. fumigatus produces various secondary
Coprinellus. Generic limits of Parasola, Lacrymaria,           metabolites, including gliotoxin, an immunotoxin that
and Coprinopsis are affected. Morphological                    has been implicated in contributing to virulence.
characters traditionally used to subdivide Psathyrella         However, disruption of a few components of the
and the two major taxonomic systems are evaluated              gliotoxin biosynthetic gene cluster does not reduce
based on phylogenetic analyses. Contributed                    virulence in a mouse model, but gliotoxin does
Presentation                                                   appear to be involved in apoptosis. Therefore,
Palencia, Edwin R.1*, Klich, Maren 2 and Bacon,                gliotoxin may be contributing to virulence but is not
Charles W.3 1University of Georgia, Plant Pathology            acting alone. Recent studies have implicated the
                                                               importance of a global regulator of toxin production,
Department, Athens, GA 30604, USA, 2USDA, ARS,
                                                               LaeA, in IA development. Because chromatin
SRRC, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA, 3USDA,
                                                               remodeling is important for genetic regulation and
ARS, Russell Research Center, Athens, GA 30604,
                                                               has been implicated in LaeA control of secondary
USA. edwin.palansia@ars.usda.gov. Molecular
                                                               metabolism gene clusters, we are exploring the
differentiation of species within the Aspergillus
                                                               possibility that A. fumigatus chromatin remodeling
section Nigri by using an automated repetitive-
                                                               mutants could be affected in both fungal and IA
PCR method. Some species in the Aspergillus
section Nigri, are known for their production of               development. We constructed gene disruption
                                                               mutants of dimE, a methyltransferase of histone 3
mycotoxins, including ochratoxin A, a chlorinated
                                                               lysine 9 (H3K9) and lsdA, a de-methylase of H3K4.
cyclic polyketide compound. Ochratoxin A has been
                                                               Both mutants show alterations in development and/or
classified as possible carcinogenic to humans by the
                                                               secondary metabolite profiles. Contributed
International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the
evidence suggests nephrotoxic, teratogenic and
carcinogenic activities in laboratory animals. The             Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C. and Dianese, José Carmine.
accurate classification and identification of                  Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade de
ochratoxigenic species within the A. niger aggregate           Brasília, 70910-900 Brasília, DF, Brazil.
has been elusive since the morphology of most of the           jcarmine@unb.br. An Actinocymbe species on
members is very similar. Molecular biology                     Alibertia sessilis from the cerrado. A fungus
techniques have been developed in order to                     belonging in family Chaetothyriaceae was for the
differentiate species within this aggregate, however           first time found on leaves of Alibertia sessilis, and
most of them are impractical for routine identification        identified as a new species of Actinocymbe, a rare
and they required too much time. In this work, we              epiphytic ascomycete previously known from India.
report the use of an automated repetitive-sequence-            The fungus shows colonies epiphytic; mycelium
based DNA fingerprinting method which reduces the              septate, superficial, thin; ascomata 216-300-444 µm,
time and labor required by other molecular methods.            dimidiate-discoidal, textura meandriformis, setose,
We used 27 Aspergillus section Nigri species and               ostiolate; setae 153,6-324 x 4,8 - 9,6 (7,2) µm,
strains that were previously identified by microscopy          septate, brown, with a wider 12-48 (24) µm base; asci
and our results indicated a high concordance between           35 -47,5- 57 x 12-20-20 µm, prostate, bitunicate;
the automated DNA fingerprinting system and                    ascospores 13-19-41 x 3-5-8 µm, 1-2-4 septate.
morphology. Poster                                             Poster
Palmer, Jonathan M. *, Perrin, Robyn M. and Keller,            Pérez-Martínez, José M.1* and Piepenbring, Meike.2
Nancy P. Plant Pathology Department, University of               Tropical Research and Education Center, University
Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.                             of Florida, 18905 SW 280th Street, Homestead, FL
palmer3@wisc.edu. Chromatin remodeling                         33031, USA, 2Botanisches Institut, J. W. Goethe-
mutants affect development and secondary                       Universität Frankfurt am Main, D-60054 Frankfurt
metabolism in Aspergillus fumigatus. The                       am Main, Germany. jperezma@ufl.edu. New records
worldwide frequency and the profile of patients at             and new hosts of smut fungi (Ustilaginomycetes)
risk for invasive aspergillosis (IA) continues to              from Cuba. Field work yielded new data on smut
expand, owing to increased numbers of                          fungi in Cuba. Ustilago chrysopogonis is recorded
immunocompromised patients including those                     for the first time for Cuba and the Neotropics on the


new host plant Schizachyrium hirtiflorum.                     till deposition. We investigated the diversity of
Sporisorium bicornis known from Brazil and                    chytrid fungi in both Highland and Lowland soils. A
Colombia is found for the first time in Cuba.                 third sampling from the Orkney Islands, whose
Sporisorium ellisii known only from USA and                   topography is similar to that of the Lowlands, was
Mexico is now reported on the new host Andropogon             also included in this study. Soil samples were
glomeratus from five localities for this country. The         prepared in aquaculture with four baits representative
presence of Sporisorium andropogonis is confirmed.            of refractory materials found in soil detritus.
Descriptions, illustrations, and notes on distribution        Observed taxa were recorded and, when possible,
and ecology of the new records are provided. Poster           isolated and brought into culture. Preliminary data
Perry, Brian A.1*, Desjardin, Dennis E.1 and                  indicate that the predominant chytrids in both
                                                              Highland and Lowland soils are members of the
Moncalvo, Jean-Marc.2 1Department of Biology, San
                                                              family Terramycetaceae and genus Kappamyces,
Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA
                                                              which exhibit cosmopolitan global distribution.
94132, USA, 2Center for Diversity and Conservation
Biology, Royal Ontario Museum and Department of               However, these taxa were more common in Lowland
Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S                soils, which also exhibited higher frequencies of two
                                                              other cosmopolitan species, Rhizophlyctis rosea and
2C6, Canada. brian_perry@post.harvard.edu.
                                                              Chytriomyces hyalinus. The Orkney samples, despite
Molecular systematics of the mycenoid fungi
                                                              geographical similarities to the Lowlands, had a low
(Mycena and allied genera). Our research focuses
                                                              overall frequency of taxa. The absence of chytrids in
on phylogenetic systematics in the mushroom genus
                                                              Orcadian soils may be due to alkaline soils or heavy
Mycena s.l. and allied mycenoid fungi
                                                              concentrations of bacteria resulting from agriculture.
(Tricholomataceae, Euagarics). With over 1880
                                                              In future studies, the chytrids isolated from these
species epithets published in Mycena alone, the
mycenoid fungi represent one of the most diverse              soils will be analyzed molecularly to determine their
                                                              evolutionary proximity to other global populations.
groups of saprotrophic mushrooms. Mycenoid taxa
play major roles in litter decomposition, nutrient
recycling and retention, soil genesis, litter binding,        Podila, G.K.1*, Martin, F.2, Kohler, A.2, Duplessis,
and as a food source for innumerable animals. Within          S.2, Grigoriev, I.V.3, Rouze, P.4, Detter, C.3,
the group, morphological diversity is remarkably              Richardson, P.3 and Muratet, M.1 1Dept. of Biological
high. Body forms range from stipitate-lamellate or            Sciences, The University of Alabama in Huntsville,
pleurotoid forms to reduced-cyphelloid forms with             Huntsville, AL 35899, USA, 2INRA-Nancy, 54280
smooth hymenophores and tiny cupulate basidiomes,             Champenoux, France, 3US DOE Joint Genome
and even poroid forms. To date no comprehensive               Institute, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA, 4Flanders
classification system exists for the mycenoid fungi,          Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), B-
and very little is known about the natural                    9052 Ghent, Belgium. podilag@uah.edu. Genomics
relationships and phylogenetic placement of the over          and transcriptomics of ectomycorrhizal symbiont
60 described genera within the euagarics. To                  Laccaria bicolor. Laccaria bicolor is a ubiquitous
determine the phylogenetic relationships of these             ectomycorrhizal symbiont of tree roots. The
fungi and infer patterns of character evolution and           mycorrhizal basidiomycetes have a beneficial impact
biogeography, we are generating multi-locus                   on plant growth and nutrient cycling in forest
sequence datasets from three nuclear and two                  ecosystems, yet our understanding of this
mitochondrial loci for both tropical and temperate            ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is highly limited. To
mycenoid taxa. Preliminary results suggest Mycena             elucidate the genetic basis of this ecologically and
s.l. is a non-monophyletic assemblage, and the                biologically important behavior, the L. bicolor
mycenoid fungi appear to represent several                    genome sequence has been determined. The genome
independent lineages within the Euagarics.                    assembly contains about 20,355 predicted protein-
Contributed Presentation                                      encoding genes. A complete transcription profile of
                                                              the L. bicolor genome was analyzed using
Picard, Kathryn T.*, Powell, Martha J. and Letcher,
                                                              oligonucleotide microarrays representing the
Peter M. The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL
                                                              predicted gene models, then queried with messenger
35486, USA. kathryn.picard@gmail.com. Chytrid
fungi diversity of the Scottish mainland and                  RNA from multiple tissues and life stages. 74% of
northern isles. The Scottish mainland is divided into         the predicted genes were expressed in either free-
                                                              living mycelium, mycorrhizal symbiotic tissues or
two distinct geographical areas, the Highlands and
                                                              fruit body. These results also provide independent
the Lowlands. The Highlands are characterized by
                                                              support and validation for predicted gene models.
thin, rocky soils and acidic peat bogs, while the
                                                              Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of this first
Lowlands possess richer soils resulting from glacial


symbiotic fungal sequence yielded insights into                Kong SAR, China, 3University of Nottingham,
unexpected aspects of the symbiont biology. This               Institute for Enterprise and Innovation, Nottingham
fungus also possesses expanded protein families                University Business School, Jubilee Campus,
associated with plant interactions, such as signaling          Nottingham NG8 1BB, UK, 4Department of Biology,
proteins and mycorrhiza-regulated small-secreted               Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang
proteins. WD40- and TPR-repeat containing proteins             Mai, Thailand, 50200. ppam118@yahoo.com. How
– key integrators of stress and nutrient availability          can endophytes survive as saprobes after host
signals – are very abundant and mainly expressed in            senescence? Endophytic fungi live in healthy plants
symbiotic tissues. The L. bicolor genome illuminates           and can change their mode of lifestyle to become
the dual ecological behaviors of ectomycorrhizal               saprobes when leaves decay. To illustrate the way in
fungi with their hyphal networks permeating the soil           which endophytes can acquire nutrients after host
and their symbiotic tissues interacting with plant root        senescence and survive as saprobes, the succession of
cells. Symposium Presentation                                  fungi during leaf decay of Magnolia liliifera and the
Porras-Alfaro, Andrea1*, Herrera, Jose2, Sinsabaugh,           expression of enzymes in individual 9 species that
Robert L.1 and Natvig, Donald O.1 1Department of               were found as both an endophyte and a saprobe were
                                                               determined. Freshly fallen senescent leaves of M.
Biology MSC03 2020, 1 University of New Mexico,
                                                               liliifera were incubated in trays covered with gauze.
Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA, 2Division of
                                                               The trays were placed outdoors and sprayed with
Science, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO
                                                               sterile water once a day. The leaves were collected
63501, USA. aporras@unm.edu. Effect of nitrogen
                                                               over a period of 88 days and assays were conducted
fertilization on fungal communities in a semiarid
                                                               for cellulase, laccase, mannanase, polygalacturonase
grassland. Although drylands constitute one-third of
                                                               and xylanase using sterilized leaves as the control. A
the Earth’s terrestrial surface, our knowledge about
fungal communities and the impact the nitrogen                 succession in enzyme production starting with
                                                               xylanase, followed by beta-mannanase and cellulase,
deposition has on these communities is very limited.
                                                               and finally polygalacturonase and laccase was
We studied the effect of long-term nitrogen (N)
                                                               observed. An isoform of beta-mannanase was also
fertilization on the diversity and composition of soil,
                                                               compared using native polyacrylamide gel
endophytic, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)
                                                               electrophoresis and activity staining techniques and
in a semiarid grassland. Soil and Bouteloua gracilis
                                                               was found to be similar among endophytes and their
root samples were collected at the Sevilleta National
                                                               saprobic counterparts. These results suggest that
Wildlife Refuge (New Mexico, USA) from control
                                                               endophytes possess the necessary enzymes required
and N-amended plots. Small subunit and internal
transcribed spacer rDNA were amplified using AMF               to change lifestyle and directly become saprobes after
                                                               host senescence. Poster
and fungal specific primers. Soil and root fungal
communities were dominated by Ascomycetes and B.               Pruett, Grechen*, Bruhn, Johann and Mihail, Jeanne.
gracilis roots were mainly colonized by dark septate           Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri -
fungi. Differences in fungal diversity were found              Columbia, 110 Waters Hall, Columbia, MO 65211,
among samples (roots, cyanobacteria-crust and                  USA. gebc07@mizzou.edu. Native fungal
rhizosphere soil) and between treatments (nitrogen             community composition on roots of truffle
vs. control plots). Soil samples have higher fungal            infected oak seedlings. Ectomycorrhizal fungi play
diversity than roots. Roots collected in nitrogen plots        integral roles in many forest ecosystems.
have higher fungal diversity than control roots. In            Anthropogenic factors have caused precipitous
contrast to roots, fungal diversity in the rhizosphere         declines in fruiting by some ectomycorrhizal
declined with nitrogen amendment while diversity in            mushroom species. Truffles, the hypogeous ascocarps
crusts appeared unaffected. Our data suggest that the          of the ectomycorrhizal genus Tuber, are currently
heterogeneous micro-topography, characteristic of              cultivated in orchards to offset declining wild
semiarid grasslands, may be influencing a differential         production. Truffle cultivation begins by germinating
response of fungal communities to N enrichment.                host seeds, inoculating the host seedlings with truffle
Contributed Presentation                                       spores, growing the seedlings in greenhouses until
                                                               the mycorrhizal relationship is well established, and
Promputtha, Itthayakorn1*, Hyde, Kevin D.2,
Peberdy, John F.3 and Lumyong, Saisamorn.4                     then outplanting the seedlings. Little is known in the
  Section for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History           USA about the effect of native ectomycorrhizal
                                                               species on colonization of host trees by the European
Survey, 1816 S. Oak St., Champaign, IL 61820,
                                                               Burgundy truffle fungus (Tuber aestivum). Here we
USA, 2Centre for Research in Fungal Diversity,
                                                               identify the fungal community composition in the
Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, The
                                                               greenhouse in three types of potting media, and then
University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong


track fungal community composition for two years               nuclear ribosomal sequence data, the new genus is
after outplanting. We found that the infection rates of        placed in the Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The
fungal species commonly present in the greenhouse              characteristic features of this new fungus are white to
decline to low levels in the field. We also found that         cream colored, minute apothecium, stipitate or
after two years of field growth, both Tuber aestivum           sessile, appearing goblet like; cylindric-clavate,
colonization levels and native ectomycorhizal species          slightly cymbiform asci; hyaline smooth-walled, 1-
richness and abundance increased, indicating that              celled, guttulate, short clavate-cylindric ascospores
native species, in the short term, do not displace the         surrounded by an irregular mucilaginous sheath;
introduced Tuber spp. Contributed Presentation                 subhymenium, ectal excipulum, medullary excipulum
                                                               of the apothecium simple and composed of textura
Raja, H.A.*, Ferrer, A. and Shearer, C.A. Department
                                                               oblita type of tissue. The fungus differs from other
of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-
                                                               closely related species in the Helotiales such as
Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. raja@uiuc.edu.
                                                               Aquadiscula and Hymenoscyphus in having a
The latitudinal, habitat, and substrate distribution
of freshwater ascomycetes. Freshwater ascomycetes              relatively simple excipulum made up of only one
play an important ecological role in aquatic                   type of tissue. Aquapoterium pinicola, a new genus
                                                               and species, will be described and illustrated. Poster
ecosystems as decomposers of organic matter.
Despite evidence of their ecological role, there is a          Redecker, Dirk1*, Raab, Philipp1, Oehl, Fritz1,
lack of knowledge of freshwater ascomycete                     Camacho, Francisco J.2 and Courtecuisse, Regis.3
identities, phylogenetic relationships, geographical             Botanical Institute, University of Basel, Switzerland,
distributions and species richness patterns. To                  Dept. of Environmental Science, University of
address these issues, we are surveying freshwater              California, Riverside, USA, 3Dept. of Botany,
ascomycetes using a latitudinal approach by                    University of Lille, France. dirk.redecker@unibas.ch.
collecting submerged herbaceous and woody debris               Phylogeny of a novel clade of sporocarp-forming
in freshwater habitats through North and Central               species of glomeromycotan fungi. Since the early
America to answer the following questions: 1) Do               times of taxonomy of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
community composition and species richness differ              (Glomeromycota) the focus has shifted from
along latitudinal gradients from the subarctic to              sporocarpic species to species forming spores singly.
tropical areas? 2) Do species richness and                     For many of the sporocarpic species described in the
composition differ between lentic and lotic habitats?          1970's and earlier, no molecular data have been
3) Are species substrate specialists or generalists?           available and their phylogenetic position thus has
Research to date reveals; 1) Species composition is            remained unclear. We obtained nuclear-encoded
quite different among subarctic, temperate and                 ribosomal DNA sequences from specimens of
tropical latitudes, but we found high species overlap          glomeromycotan sporocarps from tropical islands
at temperate and tropical latitudes between the                that were assigned to the morphospecies Glomus
eastern and western hemisphere; 2) Some                        fulvum, Glomus pulvinatum and the newly-described
geographically broadly distributed species occur in            species Glomus megalocarpum. Molecular
both lentic and lotic habitat types, but more species          phylogenetic analyses placed all species analyzed as
occur only in one or the other habitat; 3) More                a monophyletic sister group to the Diversispora
species occur on wood, while fewer species are found           spurca/Glomus versiforme clade (Glomus group C)
on herbaceous material; species occurring on wood              within the Diversisporales. The phylogenetic
were also observed on herbaceous substrates, while             divergence from other known species suggests that
those colonizing herbaceous substrates were seldom             this clade may constitute a new genus. The
recorded on wood. Contributed Presentation                     consequences of these findings for taxon definition
                                                               within the Diversisporales and the possible
Raja, H.A.1*, Miller, A.N.2 and Shearer, C.A.1
1                                                              adaptation of these taxa to islands will be discussed.
  Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois
                                                               Contributed Presentation
at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA,
  Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for                  Redhead, S.* Neatby Bldg., ECORC, CEF,
Biodiversity, 1816 Oak Street, Champaign, IL 61820,            Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario,
USA. raja@uiuc.edu. Aquapoterium pinicola gen. et              Canada, K1A 0C6. redheads@agr.gc.ca. Naming
sp. nov. from freshwater habitats in Florida.                  pleomorphic fungi – the debate on how to deal
During investigations of freshwater ascomycetes                with Article 59 of the International Code of
along the Florida peninsula, a very small, hyaline             Botanical Nomenclature. Fungi are the only living
discomycete fungus was found on submerged pine                 organisms that are legitimately permitted by any
needles from lotic and lentic habitats. Based on               Code of Nomenclature to bear multiple Latin
morphological characteristics and 28S large subunit            scientific binomial names. This convention is rooted


in the historical treatment of fungal names before             revealed the presence of three distinct lineages: 1) B.
their life-cycles were fully understood. It has been           bassiana s.l., for which five phylogenetic species
allowed to continue because it is still extremely              were observed, 2) B. pseudobassiana nom. prov., a
difficult to precisely match morphological forms with          lineage that is unrelated but morphologically similar
others expressed by the same holomorph, and, at the            to B. bassiana s.l., and 3) B. brongniartii. All species
generic level, to recognize as congeneric taxa that            detected were present in hedgerow soil samples but
may not resemble each other morphologically. The               only one species of B. bassiana s.l. was recovered
advent of phylogenetic analyses of fungi using DNA-            from the agricultural soils. Mating type determination
DNA sequence comparison independent of phenetic                and multilocus microsatellite genotyping results
morphological comparisons has re-opened the door               suggest a local clonal genetic structure for four of the
on the methodology for describing and naming fungi             five B. bassiana s.l. phylogenetic species. The study
with multiple morphologies. Molecular based                    results suggest that hedgerows may be important
phylogenies now allow mycologists to directly                  reservoirs of entomopathogenic fungi in agricultural
compare and confidently place morphologically                  landscapes. Contributed Presentation
dissimilar taxa leading to the recognition of or               Reynolds, Hannah T.* and Vilgalys, Rytas.
confirming previous suspicions of conspecificity or
                                                               Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham,
other close relationships. However, with over 250
                                                               NC 27708, USA. htr@duke.edu. Competitive ability
years of historical names, agreed upon rules for
                                                               of the sooty mold S. spongiosa. Scorias spongiosa, a
naming and describing different morphological forms
                                                               sooty mold in the Capnodiales (Dothidomycetes),
(anamorphs, teleomorphs), and a lack of consensus or
                                                               grows on the honeydew of the beech aphid
alternatives, mycologist face the dilemma of trying to
                                                               Grylloprociphilus imbricator. In the Duke Forest, the
standardize the naming of fungi in line with other
                                                               fungus was found growing in large quantities on any
sciences, without creating chaos. The issue is so              surface covered in honeydew: beech leaves and bark,
divisive amongst mycologists that it served as the
                                                               understory plants, rocks, and even rotting leaf litter.
lightning rod for debate at the 8th International
                                                               Scorias spongiosa was isolated from conidia and
Mycological Congress (IMC8) on whether to
                                                               grew at a relatively slow rate, suggesting it produces
abandon completely the International Code of
                                                               antimicrobial compounds in order to thrive in
Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN). Previous
                                                               environments generally dominated by communities
discussions at IMC7 resulted in proposals to change
                                                               of fast-growing fungi and bacteria. To test this
ICBN Art. 59, which deals with names for
                                                               hypothesis, bioassays were conducted on Potato
pleomorphic fungi, published by David Hawksworth.
                                                               Dextrose Agar plates. Scorias spongiosa was grown
Changes were made to ICBN Art. 59 at the 17th                  with several other microbes, including fungi and
International Botanical Congress, based upon these
                                                               bacteria isolated from the beech phylloplane and leaf
suggestions, and epitypification of anamorph names
                                                               litter. Zones of inhibition and growth rate of both
by teleomorphs is now permitted. However, this
                                                               microorganisms on the plate were then measured. To
action has not yet been tested and several published
                                                               investigate whether S. spongiosa produces diffusible
recommendations were sent to a Special Committee
                                                               antimicrobials, it was grown in potato dextrose broth
assigned to draw up recommendations for the next
                                                               (PDB) for one month and the broth tested. The results
IBC. This Committee is now examining all of Art. 59
                                                               of these experiments on the competitive ability of S.
as well as the outstanding previously published                spongiosa against a host of ecologically relevant
proposals. Symposium Presentation
                                                               microorganisms will be presented. Contributed
Rehner, Stephen A.1* and Meyling, Nicolai.2 1Insect            Presentation
Biocontrol Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD
                                                               Rivera, Karol1*, Urb, Mirjam2, Thorn, R. Greg2,
20705, USA, 2Department of Ecology, The Royal
                                                               Louis-Seize, Gerry1 and Seifert, Keith A.1
Veterinary and Agricultural University,                        1
                                                                 Biodiversity (Mycology & Botany), Agriculture &
Frederiksberg, Denmark.
                                                               Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6,
Stephen.Rehner@ars.usda.gov. Local phylogenetic                2
                                                                 Department of Biology, University of Western
and population genetic diversity of the
                                                               Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7. riverak@agr.gc.ca.
entomopathogen Beauveria in adjacent
                                                               An undescribed species of Penicillium from Costa
agricultural and non-agricultural habitats. The                Rican caterpillars. About 20 strains of a new species
hierarchical genetic diversity of Beauveria in a tilled        of Penicillium were isolated from the digestive track
agricultural field and an adjacent naturally vegetated
                                                               of the leaf-eating caterpillar Rotschildia lebeau
hedgerow in Denmark was determined. Beauveria
                                                               collected from Spondias mombin leaves in the Area
isolates originated from soil, phylloplanes and latent-
                                                               de Conservacion Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The fungus
infected insects. Molecular phylogenetic analysis
                                                               produces a monoverticillate and slightly vesiculate


penicillus that is characteristic of Penicillium               pipeline of perl scripts that connects several stand-
subgenus Aspergilloides, and subglobose, slightly              alone programs to perform phylogenomic analysis
roughened conidia. On CYA the fungus produces                  and produce robust phylogenetic trees without
turquoise grey to greenish grey, velutinous colonies,          excessive user input. Phylogenomically generated
and clear, yellow exudates. On MEA colonies are                phylogenies provided a well supported framework
greenish grey to grey. Phylogenetic analyses of                and are useful for creating phylogenetically informed
partial beta-tubulin (BenA) and internal transcribed           protein clusters. Protein clusters were identified and
spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rDNA suggest that the              the profiles of different ascomycete proteomes
new species is closely related to P. sclerotiorum,             compared. This process was also used to compare the
another monoverticillate species of Penicillium.               profiles of multi-copy proteins and singletons.
Other genes (cytochrome oxidase 1, calmodulin) will            Overlaying phylogenetically informed clusters with
be analysed to confirm this relationship, and to               GO predictions and SignalP analyses revealed an
determine whether genealogical concordance                     adaptation in certain protein families which
supports the recognition of a single, new species              contributed to the success of each fungus in their
following the phylogenetic species concept. Poster             specific biological niche. Symposium Presentation
Rizvi, Leena* and Moncalvo, Jean-Marc. Royal                   Robert, Vincent A. Curator of the Yeast Division,
Ontario Museum, 100 Queen’s Park, Toronto,                     Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Uppsalalaan
ONM5S 2C6, Canada. leenatoronto@hotmail.com.                   8, 3584 CT Utrecht, Netherlands.
Identifying the host in the lobster mushroom. The              robert@cbs.knaw.nl. Registration of new fungal
lobster mushroom consists of basidiomycota fruiting            names: MycoBank in practice. The Mycobank
body hosting a parasitic ascomycete, Hypomyces                 initiative was launched in 2004 and was aimed as a
lacitfluorum (Hypocreales). Lobster mushrooms have             repository of all available fungal names and
so far been reported from North and Central America.           associated data. In 2005, a first Internet portal was
It is considered to be a prime edible, but questions           proposed and allowed registered users to deposit their
remain about the taxonomic identity of the host                new names and associated data to the MycoBank
mushroom. The identification is important to ensure            database. In 2006, a new and user-friendlier version
that the host is not toxic. The taxonomic identity of          of the website was released. Very soon, we’ll
the mushroom host, however, is difficult to ascertain          introduce new features to the system that will allow,
because the parasite alters its morphology and                 among many others, to perform polyphasic
renders it sterile. Based on tissue anatomy it has been        identifications, automated curation of sequences
suggested that the host belongs to the Russulaceae. In         associated with Genbank, etc. A short demonstration
this study, we used DNA sequences from the nuclear             of the system will be made. Symposium Presentation
ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) in          Robertson, Larry D.1* and Horner, Hollis.2 1Indoor
order to identify the mushroom host of H.                      Environmental Consultants, Inc., 2484 Hwy. 39
lacitfluorum from a broad geographic sampling in its
                                                               North, Jewett, Texas 75846, USA. ldr@iecinc.net.
geographic range. Results have so far shown that the
                                                               Post remedial assessment and clearance criteria
host species of H. lacitfluorum belong to genera
                                                               for mold remediation projects. Post-remedial
Russula and Lactarius. Several species so far
                                                               collection of 2,193 fungi samples were evaluated as a
identified belonging to the genus Russula are species
                                                               component of a three (3) tiered clearance criteria for
of subsection Lactarioideae (R. brevipes complex).
                                                               mold remediations projects. Criterion #1 was the
Preliminary data also suggests that their distribution
                                                               visual evaluation of remediated areas for the absence
may follow a geographical pattern. Lactarius hosts             of fungal growth. Criterion #2 was the visual
could not be assigned to species from currently
                                                               evaluation of surfaces in remediated areas for the
available ITS sequence database. Poster
                                                               absence of visible debris. Criterion #3 involved the
Robbertse, B.*, Reeves, J., Schoch C.L. and                    evaluation of total fungal bioaerosol samples with a
Spatafora, J.W. Department of Botany and Plant                 pre-defined post-remedial clearance criteria of <
Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR              2,000 particles/m3 of total fungi, with individual sub-
97331, USA. robberba@science.oregonstate.edu.                  categories composed of <666 particles/m3
Characterization of ascomycotan proteome                       Cladosporium-like spores, <666 particles/m3
profiles using phylogenomics. Conventional                     Aspergillus/Penicillium-like spores, <666
phylogenetic analyses with more limited character              particles/m3 mixture of spores from other genera with
sampling have more difficulties in resolving deep              no individual component comprising > 33% of this
node relationships. However, using the data from               sub-category, and < 22 particles/m3
whole genomes holds promise for elucidating deep               Stachybotrys/Memnoniella-like spores. Ninety-four
evolutionary relationships. We have developed a                (94%) of the population achieved clearance on the


first assessment. One (1) percent of the initial failing        Resource partitioning and niche overlap in three
population was related to fungal growth in the                  species of Ceratiomyxa. The mycetozoan genus
remedial area. Data obtained in this investigation              Ceratiomyxa seems to have a cosmopolitan
support the modification of clearance criteria of               distribution; however, two of the three macroscopic
Stachybotrys/Memnoniella-like spores to 88                      species within the genus have been reported only
particles/m3. No specific health concerns were                  from tropical regions of the world. In theory, these
documented after the clearance of these areas;                  two tropical species might be expected to display
however, these guidelines are not intended to                   more narrow niches than their cosmopolitan
represent any specific medical or health related                counterpart, due to their specialization for tropical
threshold regarding health. The authors conclude the            environments. However, ecological data
three (3)-tiered clearance criteria provide a                   documenting this phenomenon in mycetozoans are
reasonable and obtainable clearance guideline,                  largely lacking. As part of an ongoing investigation
provided some latitude exists with respect to                   of these organisms in the Amazon forests of
evaluating levels of all categories of fungal spores            southeastern Peru, the ecology of the three
and the potential impact of an outdoor bias on a case-          macroscopic species of Ceratiomyxa was studied.
by-case basis. Contributed Presentation                         The results from in-situ measurements of
                                                                environmental factors associated with their
Rojas, Carlos* and Stephenson, Steven L.
                                                                fructifications show a clear separation of niches
Department of Biological Sciences, University of
                                                                between species, which may be an indication of
Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.
                                                                resource partitioning in the genus. Interestingly, the
crojas@uark.edu. Ecology of myxomycetes from
                                                                cosmopolitan species C. fruticulosa shows a broader
high-elevation areas of the Neotropics. Results
                                                                niche than either C. morchella or C. sphaerosperma,
from recent studies of myxomycetes in high-
elevation areas of the Neotropics suggest that the              a pattern reported for generalist species. The latter
                                                                species is characterized by the lowest overall niche
assemblages of species present are consistent with a
                                                                overlap values, a possible indication of
pattern that reflects the occurrence of temperate
                                                                specialization. Additional data are necessary to more
islands in a tropical landscape. For this reason, the
                                                                firmly substantiate all the patterns observed. This
ecology of myxomycete assemblages in selected
                                                                project was supported by a grant from Amazon
study sites in Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica are
                                                                Conservation Association. Poster
being investigated. All three general study areas are
reported to have been glaciated in the last 15                  Rollins, Adam W.1*, Landolt, John C.2 and
thousand years, which means that major                          Stephenson, Steven L.1 1Department of Biological
recolonization events may have played an important              Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
role in determining the taxonomic composition of the            72701, USA, 2Department of Biology, Shepherd
assemblages of species associated with these areas.             University, Shepherdstown, WV 25443, USA.
Preliminary results show a correlation between                  arollin@uark.edu. Dictyostelids associated with
species richness and soil nutrient status and suggest           North American grasslands. Dictyostelids (cellular
that for some species of myxomycetes there may be               slime molds) are phagotrophic bacteriovores that
specificity in the myxomycete-plant relationship,               have been widely studied in forested ecosystems
which is sometimes reflected at the microhabitat                worldwide. These organisms are commonly
and/or temporal level. Forested and non-forested                recovered from the soil-litter interface zone that
areas also differ in the species composition of the             consists of highly decayed leaves and other plant
assemblages of myxomycetes present, and                         debris. In contrast, the dictyostelids associated with
differences in composition were also found among                grassland ecosystems have received relatively little
different types of forests. These results may favor the         attention. Eight grassland study areas were sampled
idea that for these Neotropical areas, species of               for dictyostelids to further elucidate the assemblages
myxomycetes are responding more directly to                     of dictyostelids present and their ecology within
microenvironmental pressures than predicted by the              grasslands. For the most part, the results obtained
neutral theory, which may be an indication that, after          reinforce earlier more limited studies that reported
all, some myxomycetes are not cosmopolitan.                     lower species richness and diversity for dictyostelids
Contributed Presentation                                        in grasslands when compared to forested ecosystems.
Rojas, Carlos1*, Stephenson, Steven L.1 and Biffi,              Interestingly, intensive sampling at the Konza LTER
                                                                study area in Kansas found unique assemblages of
Daniela.2 1Department of Biological Sciences,
                                                                species associated with grasslands and gallery forests.
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701,
                                                                In addition, the effects of fire and grazing were
USA, 2Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad
Ricardo Palma, Lima, Peru. crojas@uark.edu.


evaluated with respect to the assemblages of                   issues such that nomenclatural guidelines can be
dictyostelids present. Poster                                  developed that apply to unknown situations and
                                                               unintended consequences of changes to nomenclature
Rollins, Adam W.* and Stephenson, Steven L.
                                                               rules are anticipated. The goal is to formulate
Department of Biological Sciences, University of
                                                               proposed changes to the ICBN that will solve this
Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.
arollin@uark.edu. Ecology of grassland                         problem that mycologists can agree on so that
                                                               changes can be implemented at the next International
myxomycetes. Myxomycetes are phagotrophic
                                                               Botanical Congress in 2011. Symposium
eukaryotes that produce fungus-like fruiting bodies.
Their occurrence has been documented worldwide in
virtually every type of ecosystem from the Polar               Ryberg, Martin1*, Nilsson, R. Henrik1, Kristiansson,
Regions to the Tropics. However, with the exception            Erik2, Jacobsson, Stig1 and Larsson, Ellen.1
of studies carried out in gallery forests or those that          Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences,
have examined dung as a substrate, grasslands have             Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden,
been largely neglected. Myxomycete surveys                       Department of Mathematical Statistics, Chalmers
conducted across mid-continental United States tall            University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
grass, mixed grass, and short grass study areas                martin.ryberg@dpes.gu.se. Prospects of using
indicated that myxomycetes are abundant                        emerencia to fetch sequence metadata from
components of grassland ecosystems. Distinct                   GenBank – a case study of the ectomycorrhizal
assemblages of myxomycetes were found to be                    genus Inocybe (Basidiomycota). The lack of well
associated with each grassland type. In addition, the          identified reference sequences hampers DNA-based
ecological factors associated with various                     species identification. This has lead to a situation
microhabitats were found to influence the distribution         where many environmental samples remain
and occurrence of the species of myxomycetes                   unidentified. We used emerencia, a bioinformatics
present. The microhabitat represented by dung                  tool for automated downloading and BLAST:ing of
supported the most distinct assemblage of                      fungal ITS sequences, to fetch unidentified sequences
myxomycetes, and the assemblages of myxomycetes                of Inocybe from GenBank. The unidentified
associated with aerial microhabitats in grasslands             sequences were divided into species that were
were found to differ from those occurring on ground            identified using a reference dataset of sequences from
microhabitats. This research was supported in part by          a phylogenetic study. For species delimitation and
grants from the Prairie Biotic Research Inc. and the           identification both phylogenetic methods and
Wyoming Native Plant Society. Poster                           sequence similarity based clustering were used. 177
                                                               unidentified sequences divided into 97 species were
Rossman, Amy Y. USDA ARS Systematic Botany &
Mycology Lab, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.                       found. Of these species 33% were identified to
arossman@nt.ars-grin.gov. Towards one generic                  species level. The ecology and distribution of the
                                                               genus and its species were explored using sequence
name for monophyletic lineages. With the
                                                               metadata stored in GenBank as well as data from the
integration of asexually reproducing fungi into
                                                               papers in which the sequences were originally
meaningful phylogenies, the need to use the same
                                                               published. We conclude that Inocybe is widely
generic name for a monophyletic lineage has become
                                                               geographically distributed, from snowy and fully
urgent. At present Article 59 of the International
                                                               humid climate in Northern Europe to equatorial
Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) requires the
                                                               savannah in South East Asia. Many species were
use of a sexual state name for sexually reproducing
species (teleomorph) while a second generic name               reported to form associations with several hosts,
                                                               including ecto-, arbutoid and orchid mycorrhiza. The
must be used for asexually reproducing species
                                                               methods used here hold a great potential to utilize
(anamorph) in the same lineage. As a result two
                                                               valuable information available from environmental
different generic names must often be used for
                                                               samples for use in a species and taxonomy oriented
species in one lineage. This dual nomenclature is
                                                               framework. Contributed Presentation
confusing to non-mycologists as well as many
mycologists and needs to be changed. Allowing                  Schoch, Conrad L.*, Sung, Gi-Ho and Spatafora,
asexually reproducing fungi to be placed in                    Joseph W. Dept Botany and Plant Pathology, 2082
teleomorph genera would be a major step forward in             Cordley Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis,
solving this problem. Various proposals will be                Oregon 97331, USA.
presented on how to move in this direction using               schochc@science.oregonstate.edu. When the forest
examples from both well-studied and under-studied              is a single tree: towards a complete phylogeny of
groups of fungi. In examining this issue care must be          Ascomycota. The Assembling the Fungal Tree of
taken to separate nomenclatural from taxonomic                 Life project (AFToL) generated large amounts of


data that resulted in multiple publications and                for extra-cellular enzymatic activity we will partition
resolved numerous deep nodes within the Fungi.                 the variance within and among species and determine
These results have informed the working                        the relative importance of the inter- and intraspecific
phylogenetic classification of Fungi and tested and            variation. Contributed Presentation
developed hypotheses regarding the evolution of
                                                               Six, Diana L.1*, Stone, W. Doug2 and Woolfolk,
fungal morphology, ecology, and life histories. As             Sandra W.2 1Department of Ecosystem and
part of this process several large multigene data sets
                                                               Conservation Sciences, College of Forestry and
devoted to class level lineages were recently
                                                               Conservation, University of Montana, Missoula, MT
produced in the Deep Hypha edition of Mycologia
                                                               59812 ,USA, 2Department of Entomology and Plant
(vol. 98. No. 6). We mined these datasets and
                                                               Pathology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi
combined all relevant data in a phylum wide analysis
                                                               State, MS 39762, USA. diana.six@cfc.umt.edu.
with unpublished data from the AFToL project to
                                                               Ambrosiella and Geosmithia species associated
present the most complete and extensive Ascomycota
                                                               with an exotic ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus
phylogeny to date. This study includes more than 400           mutilatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae),
taxa, representing 56 orders and the majority of               in Mississippi. Xylosandrus mutilatus is an ambrosia
known Ascomycota diversity, and provides the first
                                                               beetle of Asian origin that has recently established in
opportunity to combine all classes presented in the
                                                               the US. Female X. mutilatus transport fungi to plants
current classification. We use this phylogenetic
                                                               in highly specific mesonotal mycangia. The
hypothesis as a template to test and present
                                                               mycangial fungi provide a primary nutritional
hypotheses about character evolution, radiation
                                                               resource for the beetles. Our objective was to identify
events, and the existence of novel fungal lineages.
                                                               the fungi associated with X. mutilatus in Mississippi
The framework will also be used to point towards
                                                               where the beetle is best established. Isolations from
areas that will be productive for the next generation          mycangia revealed an Ambrosiella species,
of phylogenetics and the emerging field of
                                                               Geosmithia obscura, G. lavendula, and a yeast,
phylogenomics. Contributed Presentation
                                                               Candida homilentoma. The Ambrosiella species
Simpson, Nicholas* and Jumpponen, Ari. Division of             appears to be undescribed but closely related to
Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS                Ambrosiella hartigii. The presence of the two
66506-4901, USA. fungi@ksu.edu. Inter- and                     Geosmithia species with this beetle was surprising.
intraspecific variation in the carbon and nitrogen             Associations between Geosmithia and scolytine
nutritional preferences of arctic ericoid                      beetles have previously only been observed for
mycorrhizal fungi. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi utilize           phloem-colonizing bark beetles in Europe. This is the
a broad range of organic sources to acquire both               first record of these fungi in association with a
nitrogen and carbon. Although capable of using                 sapwood-colonizing ambrosia beetle. Our results
diverse nutritional sources, individual fungi within           indicate that several fungi are associated with the
these communities will show preference to one or               mycangia of X. mutilatus in the US. It is likely that
more sources. It remains unclear, however, whether             most, or all, of these fungi are exotic, and have been
this variability in nutritional preference occurs              introduced along with the beetle. Because X.
mainly within a species or among species. To address           mutilatus is highly polyphagous, our results indicate
this question, we isolated 540 fungal pure cultures            that its establishment will result in the exposure of
from the surface-sterilized hair roots from twelve             many new plants in North America to these fungi.
individuals of five ericaceous plant species from              Poster
Toolik Lake LTER in northern Alaska. The cultures              Smith, Matthew E.* and Jaffee, Bruce A. Department
were segregated into RFLP phenotypes and the
                                                               of Nematology, University of California at Davis.
dominant fungi were then identified by sequencing.
                                                               mesmith@ucdavis.edu. PCR primers with
Four strains from four of the most dominant species
                                                               enhanced specificity for nematode-trapping fungi
groups were then randomly selected and grown for
                                                               (Orbiliales). Nematode-trapping fungi are a
four weeks in liquid culture with a single nitrogen
                                                               monophyletic lineage within the Orbiliales that use
source and ten days in liquid culture with a single
                                                               specialized structures to capture and consume
carbon source. The six amino acids used as
                                                               nematodes in soil, litter, wood and other substrates.
nutritional sources represent resource pools that              These fungi have been studied because of their
remain constant throughout the growing season,                 unique predatory life histories and because they are
fluctuate across the growing season, and those that
                                                               potential control agents of plant- and animal-parasitic
are only available at certain points of the growing
                                                               nematodes. Ecological studies of nematode-trapping
season. Using biomass as proxy for successful uptake
                                                               fungi have mostly used culture-based methods, but
of a particular nutritional source and pH as a proxy
                                                               molecular detection techniques are now available and


should be useful. We developed Orbiliales-specific               Lisa.Castlebury@ars.usda.gov. Revision of genera
PCR primers for the ITS and 28s rDNA to detect                   in the Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales, Ascomycota.
nematode-trapping fungi from soil without culturing              The Gnomoniaceae (Diaporthales) is a common but
and also to screen isolates for phylogenetic placement           inconspicuous family of fungi associated with plants.
in the Orbiliales. We used these primers to selectively          Fungi in the Gnomoniaceae occur mostly as
amplify, clone, and sequence Orbiliales directly from            symptomless endophytes of hardwood trees, usually
soil, litter, and wood and we compare the results of             forming ascomata on overwintered leaves or twigs.
molecular detection with those obtained using a                  However some are pathogenic and capable of causing
culture-based method. Of the eight species of                    various anthracnose, blight and canker diseases. This
nematode-trapping Orbilliales detected with our                  family also includes some species associated with
culture-based assay, only three were detected with               herbaceous plants and conifers. Here we present a
PCR. Our molecular sampling, however, detected 18                taxonomic revision of the family based on multigene
species of uncultured Orbiliales, many of which are              phylogenetic analyses. Analyses of a dataset
closely related to nematode-trapping fungi and                   consisting of five gene regions (beta-tubulin, EF1A,
parasites of nematode eggs. Our results suggest that             RPB2, ITS and LSU) for 98 gnomoniaceous strains
the combined use of Orbiliales-specific PCR primers              (ca. 80 species) showed little correlation with
and culture-based techniques may enhance future                  classical generic concepts. Revised generic concepts
studies of nematode-trapping Orbiliales. Poster                  for Gnomonia, Plagiostoma, Cryptosporella,
                                                                 Pleuroceras, and Ophiognomonia are proposed based
Snetselaar, Karen*, Vasta, Lauren, Jennings, Joseph
                                                                 on the results of our analyses. One additional as yet
and McCann, Michael. Biology Department, Saint
                                                                 unnamed genus is also proposed. Eighty additional
Josephs University, Philadelphia, PA 19131, USA.
                                                                 species were placed in these genera using the ITS
ksnetsel@sju.edu. Location of Ustilago maydis
infection structures on maize silks. The corn smut               gene region. Morphological and biological tendencies
                                                                 are identified for each clade and compared with
fungus Ustilago maydis can only complete its life
                                                                 previous morphological generic concepts.
cycle by infecting living epidermal cells of its host
                                                                 Contributed Presentation
plant. Infection begins with formation of appressoria
on susceptible plant surfaces. Despite considerable              Spiegel, F.W.1*, Shadwick, J.D.1, Brown, M.W.1 and
efforts, appressoria have not been induced to form on            Hemmes, D.E.2 1Department of Biological Science,
artificial surfaces. In order to better understand the           University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701,
factors that induce appressorium formation, we                   USA, 2Biology Discipline, University of Hawaii,
examined and characterized numerous infection                    Hilo, HI 96720, USA. fspiegel@uark.edu.
structures on maize silks. Silks were examined 14 hrs            Protostelids of the Hawaiian Archipelago. During a
after inoculation with compatible fungal cells. An               series of trips from 1998 to 2007, the major habitats
initial survey indicated that more appressoria were              on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, Lanai,
found on silks that were about 180mm in length than              Oahu, and Kauai have been collected for protostelids,
on longer or shorter silks, so study focused on silks of         the morphologically simplest members of the slime
this length. While more appressoria were found in the            mold taxon, Eumycetozoa. Though the Hawaiian
bottom and middle third of the silk compared with                Islands are the most remote archipelago on Earth, this
the top third, further analysis indicated that the size          isolation has not proven to be a barrier to the
of the epidermal cell was more important than its                establishment of protostelids. All 33 described
location along the silk. Most appressoria formed over            species of microscopic protostelids have been
epidermal cells that were about 300 micrometers                  recorded on the island of Hawaii and at least one
long. In addition, out of more than 200 appressoria              other island. In addition, over twice that many
examined, more than 90% formed over the long                     possible undescribed species have been observed.
sidewalls of adjacent epidermal cells rather than                Some of these are relatively common and are in the
either the short endwalls or in the middle of cells. We          process of being isolated and described. The range of
speculate that the fungus preferentially forms                   habitats in the archipelago is extensive. Altitudes
appressoria between epidermal cells that are                     range from sea level to over 4000m, and rainfall
elongating. Poster                                               ranges from less than 10cm per year to over 1200cm
Sogonov, M.V.1, Castlebury, L.A.2*, Mejía, L.C.1,                per year. This results in wet, mesic, and dry forests,
Rossman, A.Y.2 and White, J.F.1 1Dept. of Plant                  grasslands, and scrub. In addition, there is both
                                                                 extensive human and natural, volcanic, disturbance.
Biology and Pathology, Cook College, Rutgers
                                                                 While protostelids are found in all habitats except the
University, New Brunswick, NJ 08902, UDA,
2                                                                highest elevation alpine scrub, they are most
  USDA ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology
                                                                 abundant in dry to mesic forests. The biota of each
Laboratory, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.


island differs in some respects from each of the                California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, 2Department
others, and some possible explanations for this will            of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of
be suggested. Contributed Presentation                          California, Berkeley, CA 94720,USA.
                                                                jason_stajich@berkeley.edu. Comparative genomics
Spriggs, Ekaterina1, Schlect, Joseph1, Barnard,
                                                                of fungal kingdom: a view from the chytrids. The
Kobus1 and Pryor, Barry M.2* 1Department of
Computer Science, University of Arizona, Tucson,                availability of genome sequences from most phyla of
                                                                fungi provides an opportunity to study shared and
AZ 85721, USA, 2Department of Plant Sciences,
                                                                unique genes and features of fungi. We have
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
                                                                developed computation pipelines to explore evolution
bmpryor@u.arizona.edu. Modeling complex 3-
                                                                of genes and gene families across fungi. Using the
dimensional structure in Alternaria and
                                                                recently available genome of the Chytrid
applications to morphometric analysis. Statistical
                                                                Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Zygomycete,
analysis of complex morphological structures
                                                                Basidiomycete, and Ascomycete genomes it is
represents one of the most challenging aspects of
comparative biology. This task is even more daunting            possible to infer loss and gain events of genes,
for structural analysis of lower organisms due to the           genomic features such as introns, and biosynthetic
                                                                pathways. We have found lineage specific expansions
added challenges of time-consuming microscopy,
                                                                and contractions of gene families that may correlate
image processing, and subsequent data analysis. This
                                                                with changes in life history or ecological niche of
project focuses on diversity in sporulation structures
                                                                sampled fungi. In addition, comparisons between
among small-spore catenulate species in the fungal
                                                                fungal and animal genomes allow inference of genes
genus Alternaria, which exhibit considerable
                                                                and processes specific to individual clades of fungi
morphological plasticity in reproductive structures
                                                                and to the fungi themselves. We have focused on
that is dependent upon cultural conditions of
substrate, temperature, light and humidity. Further             interesting patterns of genes involved in cell wall
                                                                biosynthesis across the fungi, saproprobic lifestyles
complicating taxonomic structure for this group of
                                                                of Onygenales fungi, and lignin and cellulose
fungi is the presence of numerous isolates with
                                                                degrading pathways in the Basidiomycetes.
intermediate characteristics that do not clearly
                                                                Symposium Presentation
segregate into recognized species. To develop a high-
throughput method for statistically supported                   Stefani, F.O.P.1*, Moncalvo, J-M.2 and Hamelin,
morphometric analysis of diversity in fungal                    R.C.3 1 Centre d’étude de la forêt, Université Laval,
reproductive structures, systems are being developed            Sainte-Foy, (QC), Canada, G1K 7P4, 2Centre for
to fit complex fungal morphological data from 2-D               Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal
microscopy into predictive 3-dimensional models.                Ontario Museum, 100 Queen's Park, Toronto,
Initial efforts are focused on computer modeling of             Ontario, Canada, M5S 2C6, 3Natural Resources
spore and hyphal stuctures using Bayesian inference             Canada, Canadian Forest service, 1055 du Peps,
to fit models to image data. A second effort is toward          Sainte-Foy, QC, G1V 4C7, Canada.
building a system for fitting data from 3D models to            frstefani@cfl.forestry.ca. Fine scale analysis of
a stochastic Lindenmeyer system (L-system) for                  ectomycorrhizal diversity from transgenic poplar
computer generated reconstructions of Alternaria                root-tips and cloned soil samples to assess impact
morphology, including a web interface for domain                on non-target organisms. Genetically engineered
specialists to create instantiations of various species         trees are currently developed to improve fiber
under various conditions. A third effort is to build a          quality, growth or tree resistance against insects and
visualization interface for large scale 3-dimensional           pathogens. Addressing the impacts of GMOs before
(holographic) facilities where domain specialists can           their deployment is an important step during the
optimally see the effects of various choices of                 research and development process as the genetic
structural parameters, optionally overlaid or                   constructs and the new traits expressed may lead to
connected to real data from 3D microscopy. Given                detrimental effects on non-target organisms. We
model fits, mycologists can then engage in large scale          compared fungal diversity in root-tips and soil in 3
quantitative morphometric and taxonomic studies,                untransformed and 3 GUS-transformed Populus
which will enable the subsequent linkage to other               tremula x P. alba grown in a plantation in Quebec,
complex data sets such as gene expression data,                 Canada. Four roots and 4 soil samples were sampled
metabolite profiles, and measurements of ecological             in the proximity of each tree. We amplified and
fitness. Contributed Presentation                               sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of
                                                                1152 root-tips and of 1152 clones from the organic
Stajich, Jason E.1*, Rosenblum, Erica B. 2, Taylor,
                                                                layer and the mineral layer. We identified 46
John W.1 and Eisen, Michael B.2 1Department of
                                                                ectomycorrhizal OTUs from the root-tips analysis, 23
Plant and Microbial Biology, University of


from the clones in the organic layer and 21 from the              form primary sporidia, and these give rise to
clones in the mineral layer. A Cortinarius sp.                    ballistospores. A few seconds prior to the launch of
represented 41.5% of the root-tips identified, 71% of             the ballistospore, a drop of fluid (called Buller’s
the clones sequenced from the organic layer whereas               drop) develops at its base. The drop enlarges until it
the mineral layer was largely dominated by                        approaches the volume of the spore and then spore
Acremonium sp. (77%). Significant differences                     and drop are catapulted into the air. Until recently,
between the 2 treatments were recorded from the                   the launch process eluded analysis, but spore motion
root-tips analyses and from the clones in the organic             has now been studied using ultra high speed video
layer. Contributed Presentation                                   microscopy. Images of this mechanism by T. caries
                                                                  were obtained at 50,000 frames per second and
Stephenson, Steven L.1*, Schnittler, Martin2 and
                                                                  demonstrate that spore discharge occurs when the
Novozhilov, Yuri K.3 1Department of Biological
                                                                  expanding Buller’s drop merges with fluid on the
Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville,
                                                                  spore surface. Although this coalescence may result
Arkansas 72701, USA, 2Botanical Institute and
Botanical Garden, Ernst Moritz Arndt University                   from the directed collapse of Buller’s drop onto the
Greifswald, Grimmer Str. 88, D-17487 Greifswald,                  spore, it may also involve the movement of the spore
                                                                  toward the drop. The release of surface tension at
Germany, 3V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the
                                                                  coalescence provides the energy and directional
Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof. Popov St. 2,
                                                                  momentum to propel the spore and drop into the air.
197376 St. Petersburg, Russia. slsteph@uark.edu.
                                                                  The estimated velocity of ballistospore discharge is
Global distribution patterns of myxomycetes. The
                                                                  0.95-1.20 meters per second. Understanding the
myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or
                                                                  biomechanics of spore discharge by this pathogenic
myxogastrids) are a group of eukaryotic
                                                                  smut is a vital part of efforts to develop effective
microorganisms usually present and sometimes
abundant in terrestrial ecosystems. Evidence from                 control strategies for pathogen management.
                                                                  Contributed Presentation
molecular studies suggests that the myxomycetes
have a significant evolutionary history. However, due             Suh, Sung-Oui1*, Nguyen, Nhu H.2 and Blackwell,
to the fragile nature of the fruiting body, fossil                Meredith.1 1Department of Biological Sciences,
records of the group are exceedingly rare. Although               Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803,
most myxomycetes are thought to have very large                   USA, 2Department of Plant and Microbiology,
distributional ranges and many species appear to be               University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
cosmopolitan or nearly so, results from recent studies            ssuh@lsu.edu. Yeasts near Candida albicans
have provided evidence that spatial distribution                  isolated from plant-associated insects. Ascomycete
patterns of these organisms can be successfully                   yeasts were isolated from the digestive tracts of
related to (1) differences in climate and/or vegetation           phytophagous beetles in 8 families, and other plant-
on a global scale and (2) the ecological differences              associated insects including earwigs, crickets, and
that exist for particular habitats on a local scale. A            roaches. Based on a comparison of DNA sequences
detailed examination of the global distribution of four           and other taxonomic characteristics, a total of 41
examples (Barbeyella minutissima, Ceratiomyxa                     isolates were identified as Candida orthopsilosis, C.
morchella, Leocarpus fragilis and Protophysarum                   pseudorhagii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C.
phloiogenum) demonstrates that these species have                 tropicalis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, and eight
recognizable distribution patterns in spite of the                novel Candida species. A phylogeny based on SSU
theoretical ability of their spores to bridge continents.         and LSU rDNA sequences indicated that most of the
(Funded by grant DEB-0316284 from the National                    new species and other yeasts isolated in this study
Science Foundation). Poster                                       were closely related to members of the C. albicans/L.
                                                                  elongisporus clade which includes many clinically
Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L.* and Money, Nicholas
                                                                  important yeasts, such as C. albicans and C.
P. Botany Department, Miami University, 316
                                                                  dubliniensis. None of ~1000 yeast isolates associated
Pearson Hall, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA.
                                                                  with mycophagous insects that we examined was
stolzejl@muohio.edu. Ballistospore discharge in
                                                                  related to the C. albicans clade. The results showed
Tilletia caries. Tilletia is a genus of smut fungi
                                                                  that the habitats and diets of host insects are closely
(Ustilaginomycetes) that includes T. caries and T.
foetida, that cause common bunt (or stinking smut) of             correlated with the gut yeast distribution in insect
wheat. These fungi invade wheat seedlings and                     hosts. Furthermore, certain insects may be vectors of
                                                                  certain clinically important yeasts. Contributed
sporulate within the mature ovary walls to form the
bunt balls. Teliospores are released and can spread
when the delicate bunt balls rupture upon harvesting              Taerum, Stephen J.1*, Klepzig, Kier D.2, Six, Diana
of the wheat. When the teliospores germinate they                 L.3, Hofstetter, Rich W.4 and Ayres, Matt P.1


 Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth                    amplifying fungi from unknown clades. Recent
College, Hanover, NH 03755, USA, 2Southern                       careful work on the main barcoding region,
Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Pineville,                mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1), shows
LA 71360, USA, 3Department of Ecosystem and                      that the priming regions are too variable to be
Conservation Sciences, University of Montana,                    practical (Seifert et al. 2007 PNAS 104:3901). This
Missoula, MT 59812, USA, 4School of Forestry,                    work, and that of others, also shows that CO1 harbors
Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011,                many large introns, which complicate barcoding. A
USA. Stephen.Taerum@dartmouth.edu. Abiotic                       molecule different than CO1 is needed for fungi.
factors that influence the co-occurrence of fast-                Recent studies have successfully barcoded fungi from
and slow-growing genotypes of Ophiostoma                         environmental samples and recovered species and
associated with southern pine beetles                            clades new to science (e.g., Schadt et al. 2003.
(Dendroctonus frontalis). A major goal in life                   Science 301:1359; Suh et al. 2004. Int. J. Syst. Evol.
history theory is to understand why organisms vary in            Microbiol. 54:2409). These studies have employed
their growth rates. Growth rate is a major fitness               regions of nuclear rDNA. At a recent meeting on
component because of its generally strong effects on             fungal barcoding, it was proposed that the internal
survival and reproduction. Despite this, we have a               transcribed spacer (nuc rDNA ITS) be used for
limited understanding of the factors that maintain               fungal barcoding. Symposium Presentation
genetic variation in growth rates in nature. Fungi are           Thiery, Odile* and Redecker, Dirk. Institute of
of particular interest because they have been
                                                                 Botany, University of Basel, Hebelstr.1, CH-4056
surprisingly neglected in life history theory, despite
                                                                 Basel, Switzerland. Odile.Thiery@unibas.ch.
their ubiquity, diversity of ecological roles, and their
                                                                 Development of mitochondrial genes as molecular
frequent functions as ecological engineers.
                                                                 markers in the Glomeromycota. The only
Preliminary studies suggest that species within                  molecular markers available covering all families of
Ophiostoma have very high genetic variation in
                                                                 arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF,
growth rates. We are examining how different abiotic
                                                                 Glomeromycota) are the nuclear-encoded ribosomal
factors affect the growth rates of blue stain fungi
                                                                 genes. However, these genes show numerous variants
(Ophiostoma spp.) associated with southern pine
                                                                 within a single fungal isolate. The mitochondrial
beetles (Dendroctonus frontalis). Using growth
                                                                 large subunit rDNA (mtLSU) has been shown to be
assays, we are testing if Ophiostoma strains vary in
                                                                 homogeneous within isolates of Glomus, but the
their growth rates because selection for high fitness
                                                                 sequence data were limited to G. intraradices and G.
in favorable abiotic conditions yields genotypes with
                                                                 proliferum. By using previously-designed and new
relatively low fitness in unfavorable environments.              specific primers, we obtained mtLSU sequences from
We are testing how the strains grow under the
                                                                 other taxa of the Glomeromycota. Although clearly
following abiotic conditions: 1) unfavorable
                                                                 showing a phylogenetic relationship, partial mtLSU
temperatures; 2) low nutrient substrates; and 3)
                                                                 sequences of Scutellospora verrucosa differ from
unfavorable water potentials. This study will
                                                                 Glomus in their intron content and are distinct in their
demonstrate if selection maintains variable growth
                                                                 exon sequence. Additional mtLSU sequences from
rates in Ophiostoma because optimal growth
                                                                 the Gigasporaceae and other families are
strategies vary among heterogeneous environments.
                                                                 investigated. Using these data, the variable regions
Contributed Presentation
                                                                 might help in distinguishing genotypes and the more
Taylor, John W. Department of Plant and Microbial                conserved regions will be used to elucidate the
Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA                  phylogeny of the Glomeromycota. Poster
94720-3102, USA. jtaylor@nature.berkeley.edu.
                                                                 Thompson, Lisa*, Goldmann, Lauren, Wright,
Fungal barcoding. The study of fungi stands to gain
                                                                 Angela and Weir, Alex. Department of
a great deal from barcoding, the use of variable DNA
                                                                 Environmental & Forest Biology, SUNY College of
regions to identify individuals to species. Barcoding
                                                                 Environmental Science & Forestry, 241 Illick Hall, 1
will identify fungi in collections and also in nature
                                                                 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.
where, due to their size, microscopic fungi are
                                                                 lithomps@syr.edu. Laboulbeniales from Costa
routinely overlooked. Barcoding seems likely to
                                                                 Rica. There has been much recent interest in
allow ecologists to account for the microscopic                  documenting the mycota of Costa Rica, with
fungal community as easily as they now account for               particular emphasis on the macrofungi, and
macrobes. To be useful for microscopic fungi,
                                                                 lichenized and non-lichenized ascomycetes
primers used for PCR amplification associated with
                                                                 associated with wood. The diversity of fungi
barcoding from the environment must amplify fungi
                                                                 associated with insects, however, has received little
from all known clades and have a high likelihood of
                                                                 attention to date. As one of the focal collection areas


for our NSF-PEET Grant investigating the phylogeny              differences in transcript abundance during a sexual
of Laboulbeniales, we have unveiled a surprising                development time course, from vegetative hyphae
richness of Laboulbeniales taxa within this region. To          (control) to mature perithecia with asci and
date only limited sampling has taken place in                   multiseptate ascospores. For approximately ten
Puentarenas Province and at Monteverde, yet, more               percent of the genes, transcripts were present during
than 50 species of Laboulbeniales have been                     one of the five sexual development stages, yet were
recorded. This represents a significant addition to the         absent from vegetative hyphae and several other
approximately 20 known species recorded by                      vegetative growth conditions. While this distribution
Thaxter, and more recently by the late R.K.                     does not prove that the genes corresponding to these
Benjamin. Of the 50 newly recorded taxa                         probesets are unique to sexual development (some
approximately half are thought to represent                     genes may be expressed in vegetative growth
undescribed species. We are continuing to examine               conditions not yet studied), it does provide a distinct
our collections and are confident that much more                group of genes associated with development on
remains to be discovered about the Laboulbeniales of            which to focus further studies. At 72 hours following
this region. Poster                                             induction of sexual development, the timepoint at
                                                                which transcripts for meiotic processes and ascus and
Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos, Zuluaga-Montero,
                                                                ascospore differentiation are likely to be first
Anabella, Rodriguez, Jose A. and Bayman, Paul.*
                                                                detected, the highest number of uniquely-expressed
Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Puerto
                                                                genes is present. This is the first whole-genome
Rico - Rio Piedras, PO Box 23360, San Juan PR
                                                                analysis of expression during sexual development in
00931. pbayman@uprrp.edu. Variation in fungal
                                                                a filamentous ascomycete. Symposium Presentation
communities of sea fans (Gorgonia ventalina).
Diseases are threatening many species of corals in the          Trail, F.1,2*, Hallen, H. E.1 and Cavinder, B.3
Caribbean. One of the best-known diseases of corals               Department of Plant Biology, 2Department of Plant
is aspergillosis of sea fans, caused by Aspergillus             Pathology, and 3Genetics Program, Michigan State
sydowii. However, the source of inoculum and the                University, East Lansing, MI, USA. trail@msu.edu.
mycoflora of healthy sea fans are largely unknown; it           Update on the genetics and physiology of the
is not clear if the presence of the pathogen is                 mechanism of forcible ascospore discharge. With
sufficient to cause aspergillosis or how the microbial          an acceleration of 8,500,000 m s-2 within the ascus,
community changes when a colony becomes                         the ascospores of Gibberella zeae (anamorph
diseased. We isolated fungi from sea fans (Gorgonia             Fusarium graminearum) hold the biological record
ventalina) with aspergillosis, healthy sea fans and sea         (Trail et al., 2005). However, the minute size of the
water in Puerto Rico from 2003-2007. Fungi were                 spores compared to most other far-flung propagules
identified by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal ITS              goes hand in hand with prodigious acceleration, and
region. Different methods of isolation of fungi were            there do not appear to be any unusual structures
compared. For A. flavus, one of the most common                 driving the spore release. We have begun structural
species, aflatoxin production in vitro was determined           and genetic dissection of the ascus to determine the
by HPLC. We found variation in fungal communities               components that drive its unusual function. We will
of sea fans at several different levels: differences            present an update of the genetic and physiological
between healthy and infected tissues, differences               components we have identified that contribute
between sea fans and seawater, differences between              directly to spore release. Poster
sampling dates, differences in fungi isolated from
                                                                Trusty, Paul* and Cripps, Cathy L. Plant Sciences
different sizes of tissue pieces, and differences in            and Plant Pathology, Montana State University,
aflatoxin production among isolates. In many cases
                                                                Bozeman, MT 59717, USA. pauletrusty@yahoo.com.
these differences were significant. This variability
                                                                Ectomycorrhizal fungi of whitebark pine seedlings
complicates efforts to understand the disease, and
                                                                on burned and adjacent unburned forests in
suggests that several opportunistic pathogens may be
                                                                regard to restoration strategies. Whitebark pine
responsible. Poster
                                                                (Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species in the
Trail, Frances1, 2* and Hallen, Heather E.1                     Northern Rocky Mountains critical to watersheds and
  Department of Plant Biology and 2Department of                maintenance of wildlife diversity at high elevations.
Plant Pathology, Michigan State University, East                Blister rust, mountain pine beetles, and fire
Lansing, MI 48824-1312, USA. trail@msu.edu.                     suppression have compounded the decline of
Identification of genes involved in sexual                      whitebark pine forests throughout its range. Serious
development in Gibberella zeae (anamorph                        efforts are underway to restore these forests using
Fusarium graminearum) by expression analysis.                   natural and prescribed fires as a management tool to
We have used Affymetrix GeneChips to track                      eliminate competitors and stimulate whitebark pine


seedling regeneration. An important restoration                   genomes of strains of Paxillus involutus. The
component is post-fire plantings of rust resistant                analyses included Nau, that is not compatible with
whitebark pine seedlings. This study is evaluating the            birch and poplar, and the two compatible strains Maj
mycorrhizal colonization of rust resistant nursery                and ATCC200175. The array contained reporters for
seedlings in the Fridley Burn, (Gallatin County, MT)              1075 putative unique genes in P. involutus, derived
in comparison to those regenerating naturally in the              from a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs).
burn and on adjacent unburned forest. Morphotyping                On the genomic level, Nau and Maj were very
and ITS analysis of ectomycorrhizal roots revealed                similar. Only 16 out of 1,075 genes analyzed by
that 1) all seedlings were colonized with fungi, 2) the           microarray-based hybridizations had signals
severe burn reduced diversity and caused a shift in               indicating differences in gene copy numbers. In
fungi (burned: Pseudotomentella, Amphinema,                       contrast, 66 out of the 1,075 genes were differentially
Wilcoxina, Thelephoroids: unburned: Piloderma,                    expressed in Maj compared to Nau after contact with
Cenococcum, Rhizopogon spp; both: Rhizopogon),                    birch roots. Thirty-seven of these symbiosis-
and 3) exotic nursery fungi persist after 5 years. This           regulated genes were also differentially expressed in
study will help determine if appropriate mycorrhizal              the ATCC strain. Comparative analysis of DNA
fungi are available on severe burns for effective                 sequences of the symbiosis-regulated genes showed
mycorrhization of whitebark pine seedlings planted                that two of them have evolved at an enhanced rate in
after a severe fire for restoration purposes. Poster              Nau due to relaxed or positive selection. Symposium
Tuggle, Alicia A., Melhart, Christy A., Slay, Michael
E. and Stephenson, Steven L.* Department of                       Untoo, Showkat Ahmad, Singh, Rama S.*, Singh,
Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas,                      Narinder and Mann, S.K. Department of Plant
Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA. slsteph@uark.edu.                    Pathology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-
Cave crickets as vectors for dictyostelids in caves.              141004, India. ramassingh@rediffmail.com. Efficacy
A study was carried out to determine if dictyostelid              of single and combined formulations of
cellular slime molds (dictyostelids), which are known             Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas
to occur in cave habitats, were associated with a                 fluorescens against foliar blight of wheat.
species of cave cricket (Ceuthophilus gracilipes) in              Trichoderma harzianum (Th38) and Pseudomonas
Pigeon Roost Cave in Benton County, Arkansas.                     fluorescens (Pf2) have been reported as potential
Cave crickets were captured alive and rinsed in a                 biocontrol agents against various soil born plant
water/wetting agent solution in a small sterile plastic           pathogens. These antagonists are present in the
tube. The rinsed, live crickets were then placed in a             Biocontrol Lab, Department of Plant Pathology,
container to collect any fecal matter they might                  Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India).
deposit. The tubes with the water/wetting agent                   Both the isolates were compatible to each other. The
solution as well as the fecal matter left in the                  talc based formulations were developed singly and in
container were plated out on hay-infusion agar and                combinations of the 2 bioagents and evaluated
these plates examined for colonies of dictyostelids.              against foliar blight of wheat (Drechslera / Alternaria
Four species of dictyostelids were recovered from the             spp.) on two varieties i.e. HD 2329 and PBW 343 in
rinse wash and/or the fecal matter, which suggests                field experiment. The Treatments were given as seed
that the cave crickets can serve as vectors to transport          treatment @ 6.0g formulation / Kg seeds (ST), and
dictyostelid spores within the cave habitat. Since the            combination of ST + one / two foliar spray (FS) @ 6g
crickets can forage outside the cave, it is possible that         / litre. The seed germination and disease intensity
they also introduce spores to cave habitats from                  were recorded. The seed germination was
outside sources. Poster                                           significantly higher due to treatments of bioagents as
                                                                  compared to control and fungicide treatment. Seed
Tunlid, Anders. Department of Microbial Ecology,
                                                                  germination was 66.3 – 77.5; 66.9 – 73.4 and 70.9 –
Lund University, SE 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
                                                                  73.0 % due to seed treatments of Th38, Pf2 and
anders.tunlid@mbioekol.lu.se. Evolutionary
                                                                  Th38+Pf2, respectively, whereas 68.7 and 56.2 %
genomics of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus
                                                                  seed germination was observed with treatment of
involutus. It is well known that ectomycorrhizal
                                                                  Raxil and control, respectively. The incidence of
(ECM) fungi can differ markedly in their ability to
form mycorrhizae and to promote the growth of the                 foliar blight also decreased significantly due to
host plant. Generally such phenotypic differences                 treatments of bioagents. On HD 2329, the disease
                                                                  intensity was 29.6; 28.3 and 27.1 % due to ST; ST +
could be the result of variations in gene content,
                                                                  1 spray and ST + 2 sprays of T. harzianum,
quantitative differences in gene expression, and
                                                                  respectively. Similar treatments of P. fluorescens
structural differences in gene products. We have used
                                                                  gave 29.4; 25.4 and 25.2 % foliar blight intensity.
cDNA microarrays to compare the trancriptome and


However, the ST; ST + 1 spray and ST + 2 sprays                  Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Illinois
with combined formulation of T. harzianum + P.                  Univerisity, Charleston, IL 61920, USA, 2Illinois
fluorescens gave 27.9; 25.2 and 27.1 % foliar blight            Natural History Survey, University of Illinois,
intensity. Disease intensity of 30.4 and 41.5 % was             Champaign, IL 61820-6970, USA.
observed due to seed treatment of Raxil and control,            fungusfairy@hotmail.com. Communities of wood
respectively. The similar trend of data was recorded            decay in old growth prairie groves. This study is
on PBW 343. The ST; ST + 1 spray and ST + 2                     investigating communities of wood-decaying
sprays gave disease intensity of 36.9; 34.4 and 33.7            macrofungi associated with Quercus rubra and Acer
% due to T. harzianum; 34.2; 32.3 and 27.5 % due to             saccharum tree windfall in Brownfield (26.1 ha) and
P. fluorescens and 35.0, 32.7 and 29.4 % with                   Trelease Woods (24.5 ha), Champaign Co., Illinois.
combined formulation of T. harzianum + P.                       These woods are remnants of a larger, pre-settlement
fluorescens, respectively, compared to 33.3 and 43.8            prairie grove and are now encircled by houses,
% due to treatment of Raxil and control, respectively.          fragmented forests, prairie and agricultural land.
Overall, the treatments of combined formulation of T.           Although initially a virgin, deciduous upland forest
harzianum + P. fluorescens were the best with                   dominated by oak, ash and maple with a high, closed
maximum plant stands as well as minimum foliar                  canopy, sugar maple is rapidly becoming the
blight intensity. Poster                                        dominant tree species. Beginning in November 1994,
                                                                fallen trees in both woods have been tagged with an
URen, Jana M.1*, Gallery, Rachel2, Dalling, James
                                                                ID number, date of windfall, dbh and location
W.2 and Arnold, A. Elizabeth.1 1Division of Plant
                                                                relative to a network of marked grids. Data is being
Pathology and Microbiology, Department of Plant
                                                                collected on 40 Quercus rubra and Acer saccharum
Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721,
                                                                logs in decay stage II and decay stage III. The
USA, 2Department of Plant Biology, University of
Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.               following objectives are being addressed: I) Do
                                                                species diversity and richness on decay stage II and
juren@email.arizona.edu. Diversity and origins of
                                                                decay stage III logs differ between study sites? II) Do
seed-associated fungi in tropical forests. In intact
                                                                fungal communities differ between tree species? III)
tropical forests, pioneer trees establish by seed
                                                                Will species diversity be lost from the stand as oak is
germination in canopy gaps, but gap formation is
                                                                replaced by sugar maple? IV) Which environmental
spatially and temporally unpredictable. Some
                                                                and abiotic variables can best explain the species
pioneers increase recruitment success through soil
                                                                composition and richness of wood-decaying fungi on
seed banks, but soil-borne microbes can severely
                                                                logs in decay stage II and III? and V) Compare the
limit seed survival over time. Recent studies
examining seeds of the neotropical pioneer Cecropia             distribution of fungal species within and on the logs.
                                                                Contributed Presentation
in Panama and Costa Rica recovered diverse
assemblages of Ascomycota similar to endophyte                  Virella Perez, Carlos R.* and Cafaro, Matias J.
communities in the same forests. We examined soil-              Department of Biology, University of Puerto Rico,
incubated seeds of C. insignis in Panama to address             Mayaguez Campus, Mayaguez, PR 00681.
the hypothesis that seeds harbor vertically transmitted         cr.virella@gmail.com. Mycelial fungi associated
symbionts (endophytes) that enhance survival in soil.           with the guts of millipedes found in Puerto Rico.
In contrast to expectations based on vertical                   Millipedes are an ecologically important group of
transmission, diversity of seed-associated fungi was            arthropods. They are responsible for 5-10% of leaf
high. Dominant fungi differed among and within seed             litter degradation annually. However, in the tropics
lots. When incubated together, seeds from different             they may consume up to 25% of the litter, making it
origins (Panama, Costa Rica) had highly similar                 available for other organisms for further processing.
fungal communities. Little genotypic overlap was                The intestinal microflora of the millipede may play
observed between seed-associated and foliar                     an important role in this process. We identified the
endophytic fungi; however, phylogenetic analyses                fungal components of the intestinal microflora of
indicated a close evolutionary relationship between             three widespread millipede species of southwestern
these guilds. Our data suggest a shared evolutionary            Puerto Rico; Trigoniulus lombriurius, Spiroptreptus
history for endophytes and seed-associated fungi, and           soronus and Anadenobolus monilicornis. Digestive
indicate that if fungal symbionts enhance the survival          tracts were obtained by dissection using fine scissors
of Cecropia seeds in soil, they are likely acquired –           and forceps. Midguts and hindguts were dissected
like foliar endophytes – by horizontal transmission             separately and their contents inoculated in Potato
from the surrounding environment. Poster                        Dextrose Agar and Yeast Malt Agar. Colonies were
                                                                counted and identified. Aspergillus niger and other
Vernier, Kimberly1*, Hustad, Vincent1, Methven,
                                                                Aspergillus species were the most abundant
Andrew1, Meiners, Scott1 and Miller, Andrew2.


organisms comprising 30% and 14% of all isolated                 is difficult given the lack of physical evidence of
colonies, respectively. Trichoderma hamatum,                     sexual life cycles in many fungal lineages, including
Paecillomyces lilacinus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus              some serious pathogens. Since meiosis is a cellular
sp. and some yeast species among others were also                process crucial for sexual reproduction, an
found to be living inside the digestive tract of these           investigation of the presence and evolutionary
millipede species. The role of these fungi inside the            histories of meiotic genes will illuminate the
digestive tract is not well understood but they can be           evolution of sex in fungi. Available data from more
essential to the process of recycling nutrients into the         than 40 fungal genome projects and a robust
environment. Poster                                              framework phylogeny of fungi from the AFTOL
                                                                 project allow the study of meiotic gene evolution
Wakefield, William S.*, Powell, Martha J., Letcher,
                                                                 from a wide diversity of fungi. Those fungi from
Peter M. and Brooks, Micheal C. University of
                                                                 which completed genomes are available represent
Alabama, Dept. of Biological Sciences, 411
                                                                 comparatively well-studied systems and comprise
Hackberry Ln., Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.
wswakefield@gmail.com. Phylogenetic and                          various life-styles, including some putatively
monographic research on spizellomycetalean                       asexuals. An investigation of fungal meiosis, a
                                                                 process requiring numerous genes and gene families,
chytrids (Chytridiomycota). The Phylum
                                                                 may also be helpful in resolving some phylogenetic
Chytridiomycota is commonly considered aquatic
                                                                 puzzles and assisting genetic studies of meiosis in
fungi because they reproduce with zoospores.
                                                                 fungi other than yeasts. We have conducted a
However, despite their adaptations to dispersal in
                                                                 phyloinformatic analysis of key meiosis genes across
water, chytrids are common in soil. The University of
                                                                 30 fungal genomes representing major fungal
Alabama and University of Maine are training three
                                                                 lineages. Our initial results show that homologs of
graduate students and are working together to collect
and culture spizellomycetalean chytrids from soils               the meiosis specific genes Mnd1, Hop2 and Dmc1
                                                                 (encoding proteins that act in the same meiotic
representing a broad geographic range. As a
                                                                 pathway) were independently lost from Ustilago
beginning to the revision of the order
                                                                 maydis, Candida guilliermondii and Neurospora-
Spizellomycetales, we used over 70 cultures in
                                                                 related fungi. In contrast, the microsporidian
molecular and ultrastructural analyses to evaluate
                                                                 Encephalitozoon cuniculi has homologs of Hop2 and
backbone support for groups in the
                                                                 Mnd1 but not Dmc1. To extend our survey beyond
Spizellomycetales. Maximum parsimony and
                                                                 the completed fungal genomes, we have designed
Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inferences are
                                                                 degenerate PCR primers for ten meiosis specific
used to analyze separate and combined sequences of
ribosomal genes. Phylogenetically informative                    genes: Rad51, Dmc1, Spo11, Hop2, Mnd1, Msh4,
                                                                 Msh5, Rec8, Rad21, Rad54 and Rdh54. We are
zoospore ultrastructural characters are also explored.
                                                                 investigating the presence of these genes among
Results support the monophyly of genera analyzed
                                                                 twenty ascomycetes; these selected taxa include
thus far, except for the genus Spizellomyces.
                                                                 pathogens, endophytes, some lichen-forming fungi,
Establishing well-supported sub-clades of
                                                                 and species not known to have a sexual life cycle.
spizellomycetalean chytrids allows the University of
                                                                 Results from these ongoing analyses will be
Maine to concentrate on Powellomyces sub-clade
                                                                 presented. Contributed presentation
cultures and the University of Alabama to
concentrate on the core Spizellomyces and                        White, Merlin1*, Siri, Augusto2, Ferrington, Leonard3
Rhizophlyctis sub-clades. The high degree of genetic             and Strongman, Doug.4 1Boise State University,
divergence in this group demonstrates that new                   Department of Biology, Boise, ID 83725-1515, USA,
genera and new orders will have to be erected. It is               CEPAVE (Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de
clear that broad geographic sampling is needed to                vectores) (CONICET- UNLP), La Plata,
fully reveal the genetic diversity found within the              ARGENTINA, 3University of Minnesota,
Spizellomycetales. Poster                                        Department of Entomology, St. Paul, MN 55108,
                                                                 USA, 4Saint Mary’s University, Department of
Wang, Zheng*, Savelkoul, Elizabeth and Logsdon,
                                                                 Biology, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3C3, Canada.
John M. Jr. Department of Biology & Roy J. Carver
                                                                 merlinwhite@boisestate.edu. New records of
Center for Comparative Genomics, University of
Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. zheng-                           Austrosmittium (Harpellales) in North and South
wang@uiowa.edu. Using a meiotic gene inventory                   America. In 1990 four species of the new genus
                                                                 Austrosmittium Lichtwardt and Williams
to study the evolution of sex in fungi. The diversity
                                                                 (Harpellales) were described from the hindguts of
of reproductive modes is a central theme in the
                                                                 larval midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) in two papers
evolutionary history of fungi. However, a
                                                                 by the same authors. Harpellales is the only order of
comprehensive study of the evolution of sex in fungi


fungi with biconical zygospores. The biconical                   University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701,
zygospores, documented for three of four of the                  USA. kwinset@uark.edu. Morphological variation
Austrosmittium species, were medially swollen and                within one species of cosmopolitan myxomycete.
quite distinctive. The unusual nature of the sexual              Intraspecific variation is common in cosmopolitan
spore and the apparently narrow distribution led to              species of myxomycetes. However, there is little
the general notion that Austrosmittium may be                    information on the limits of this variation, and no
restricted to Australia and New Zealand. Over the last           study of a cosmopolitan myxomycete has included a
several years, amongst various collections and                   consideration of the growth of each specimen under
surveys of gut fungi, we now have gathered clear                 standard conditions. It is hypothesized that the
evidence (particularly with medially swollen                     variation among specimens may be the result of
biconical zygospores) that Austrosmittium also occurs            phenotypic plasticity, but few previous studies have
in both North and South America, including                       attempted to provide data to answer this question. In
collections from Canada, USA and Argentina. We                   order to understand the intraspecific variation of
consolidate and report our accumulated data on                   Didymium squamulosum, a cosmopolitan species,
Austrosmittium in the new world to displace earlier              molecular analysis of a mitochondrial marker for
notions that it may be restricted in distribution and to         isolates representing specimens from worldwide
encourage further collections which will undoubtedly             collecting sites was carried out. A morphological
lead to new species descriptions from the Americas               analysis revealed appreciable variation in micro and
and possibly worldwide. Poster                                   macro characters and developmental features.
                                                                 Characters used in the analysis were measured or
Williams, Calvin L. and Silliker, Margaret E.*
                                                                 determined from both herbarium specimens and agar
Department of Biology, DePaul University, 2325 N.
                                                                 cultures of those same specimens. Characteristics
Clifton Avenue, Chicago, IL 60614, USA.
msillike@depaul.edu. RNA editing of Didymium                     measured from culture including time to germination,
                                                                 color of plasmodium and time until fruiting varied
iridis large and small mitochondrial rRNA genes.
                                                                 among specimens. Also, a preliminary comparison of
Didymium iridis is a member of the Myxogastria
                                                                 features showed variation between the herbarium
(plasmodial slime molds). Mitochondrial rRNA
                                                                 specimen collected in the field or from moist
genes have been used to understand evolutionary
                                                                 chamber culture and the fruiting bodies from agar
relationships, however, the DNA sequence of these
                                                                 culture of the same isolate. Contributed Presentation
genes, in D. iridis and other myxomycetes, are edited
so that the functional rRNA molecules differ from                CANCELED Winsett, Katherine E.1*, Stephenson,
their genomic sequence. In this study we determined              Steven L.1, Cavender, James2 and Cavender, Nicole.3
the editing pattern for most of the large (LSU) and                Department of Biological Sciences, SCEN 632,
small (SSU) mitochondrial rRNA genes and                         University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701,
compared the editing pattern to Physarum                         USA, 2Department of Environmental and Plant
polycephalum, a related Myxogastria. cDNA                        Biology, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701, USA,
products generated by RT-PCR were cloned and                       Restoration Ecology, The Wilds, Cumberland, OH
sequenced. Clustal W was used to align edited and                43732, USA. kwinset@uark.edu. Eumycetozoa of
unedited D. iridis sequences and to make                         South Africa. The first survey for myxomycetes in
comparisons to P. polycephalum. In D. iridis, C                  South Africa since the first decades of the twentieth
insertions were the major single nucleotide insertions,          century was undertaken during October and
consisting of 45 insertions in the LSU and 32                    November of 2006. The major ecosystems of the
insertions in the SSU, over 2601 and 1859 base pairs,            country including indigenous forest, savanna or
respectively. Comparison of RNA editing insertion                bushveld, grassland, and fynbos were sampled. The
sites between D. iridis and P. polycephalum revealed             survey was the first to involve collecting material for
a similar pattern of editing, though no editing sites            moist chamber cultures, which should, based on the
were conserved in the LSU between the two                        results obtained in surveys elsewhere, result in
organisms. By contrast, a large majority of the SSU              significant additions to the list of species known for
insertion sites were shared. The majority of C                   the country. Notably, collections from the fynbos
insertions followed purine-pyrimidine nucleotides.               represent material unique to a region in South Africa,
This feature could signal the RNA editing machinery.             since this biome is not found anywhere else in the
The higher degree of conservation of editing sites in            world. The data generated from this survey are a part
SSU genes could be due to greater constraints on a               of the NSF-funded Planetary Biodiversity Inventory
smaller molecule. Poster                                         (PBI) effort for eumycetozoans and represent one of
                                                                 only a few extensive sets of data available for the
Winsett, Katherine E.* and Stephenson, Steven L.
                                                                 African continent. Poster
Department of Biological Sciences, SCEN 632,


Winsett, Katherine E.1*, Stephenson, Steven L.1 and             comparisons. Initial results indicate that the
Packard, Jane M.2 1Department of Biological                     application of this many-locus approach to a broad
Sciences, SCEN 632, University of Arkansas,                     set of taxa will lead to strong phylogenetic inferences
Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA, 2Department of                     useful for the study of the genus. Contributed
Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M                      Presentation
University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.                     Woolfolk, Sandra W.* and Baird, Richard E.
kwinset@uark.edu. Slime molds of the Big Thicket
                                                                Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology,
National Preserve, Taxonomic Working Group of
                                                                Mississippi State University, MS 39762, USA.
the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI). An
                                                                sww3@entomology.msstate.edu. Fungi associated
All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (ATBI) project of
                                                                with red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta
the type originally undertaken in the Great Smoky
                                                                Buren and mounds in Mississippi. A study is being
Mountains National Park, is now ongoing in the Big
                                                                conducted in Mississippi to determine fungi
Thicket National Preserve (BTNP) in eastern Texas.
                                                                associated with red imported fire ants (RIFA) and
A Taxonomic Working Group for eumycetozoans                     their mounds. Active mounds containing RIFA,
(slime molds) has been organized to collect and                 mound soils and plant debris were collected from
report the slime molds of this park unit. BTNP
                                                                Hinds, Madison, and Leake Counties along Natchez
represents the remnants of a once vast and diverse
                                                                Trace Parkway, Mississippi in March, July, and
ecological region that is now fragmented by
                                                                November 2004. The three counties were selected
commercial land use. The types of ecological
                                                                because they have been confirmed to be occupied by
communities present include indigenous forests of
                                                                RIFA. Five mounds were collected per time per
hardwoods, pine savannas, swamps and bogs. The
                                                                sampling location. Once transported to the
vegetation of the Big Thicket is an association of
                                                                laboratory, samples were processed and isolated onto
species from the surrounding land types, including              Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plus yeast (SDAY)
prairie and savanna species from the west and
                                                                amended with streptomycin sulfate and
tropical or coastal species from the south. This survey
                                                                chlortetracycline. Approximately 1500 isolates of
is also part of an effort to catalog the slime molds of
                                                                fungi were obtained. Isolated fungi were initially
the United States for the NSF-funded Planetary
                                                                grouped based on morphological features. Two
Biodiversity Inventory of eumycetozoans through the
                                                                representative isolates from each group were selected
use of units in the National Park System as collecting
                                                                and molecular identification is currently being
sites. Poster
                                                                performed using molecular technique. The initial
Witiak, Sarah Melissa1*, Samson, R.A.2, Varga, J.2,             molecular procedures (DNA extraction, polymerase
Rokas, A.3 and Geiser, D.M.1 1Department of Plant               chain reactions, and DNA purification) have been
Pathology, Penn State University, University Park,              completed. The DNA sequencing procedure is in
PA 16802, USA, 2Centraalbureau voor                             progress to obtain all fungal sequence data. Fungal
Schimmelcultures, Utrecht 3058, The Netherlands,                taxa that have been shown as potential
  Broad Institute, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge,               entomopathogens in other insects will be tested as
MA 02141, USA. dgeiser@psu.edu. A many-locus                    potential microbial control agents against RIFA.
phylogeny of the genus Aspergillus. The extensive               Poster
biological diversity of the genus Aspergillus is
                                                                Wu, Wenying1, 2*, Hotton, Carol L.2 and Labandeira,
reflected in its high degree of DNA sequence
                                                                Conrad C.2 1Spezielle Botanik und Mykologie,
diversity. Inferring a comprehensive phylogeny for
                                                                Fachbereich Biologie, Philipps-Universität, Marburg,
the genus is important for many reasons, particularly           D-35032, Germany, 2National Museum of Natural
for taxonomy, comparative genomics, and for species
                                                                History, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012,
discovery. Phylogenetic analyses using one or a few
                                                                MRC121, Washington DC 20013, USA.
loci generally resolve relationships at the sectional
                                                                chwenyingwu@gmail.com. Fungal fossils and
level, but fail to provide strong inferences in
                                                                plant-fungi interactions from a 300 million-year-
backbone nodes, due in part to the high degree of
                                                                old coal-ball deposit. We present our study on
sequence variation between subgenera and sections.
                                                                fungal fossils and their associated plants from a 300
Here we utilized the available complete genome
                                                                million-year-old Late Pennsylvanian coal-ball deposit
sequences to design primers that amplify across most            collected in the Calhoun Coal of Berryville, Illinois.
of the genus, providing new loci useful for                     The dominant plants are species of the extinct tree-
phylogenetics in the genus. Phylogenetic analyses
                                                                fern Psaronius. Both symbiotic and parasitic fungal
using eight of these new loci in combination with
                                                                structures have been found endophytically in the root
others already available produced the same tree
                                                                and rhachis, respectively. Spores and vesicular and
topology as inferred by complete genome
                                                                arbuscular mycorrhizae with intracellular and


intercellular hyphal structures frequently appear in             including laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese
root tissues. The fungus in the rhachis cells features           peroxidase for the degradation of lignin. They also
entire reproductive and vegetative life stages,                  degrade many recalcitrant compounds such as dyes,
including spore germination, formation of coiled                 explosives and many pesticides. We have isolated a
hyphae, and hyphal termination at a vesicle. This                white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus from Korea, and
condition resembles the structure of extant                      examined its degrading activity against several
mycorrhizal fungi. In one endophytic association                 HMCs. It showed very good degrading activity
between an insect galler and its Psaronius plant host,           against bisphenol A and phthalates even though it
there was fungal colonization in the area among the              showed very low laccase activity. We have cloned
insect coprolites (fossilized fecal pellets) and galled          laccase cDNAs from Phlebia tremellosa and
tissue, indicating a diffuse tritrophic relationship. We         Trametes versicolor, and introduced the cDNA to I.
tentatively identify species of fossil fungi, using              lacteus through genetic transformation. The insertion
morphological characters from light microscopy and               of the laccase cDNA has been confirmed by Southern
SEM. We also utilized X-ray SEM with an energy                   hybridization, and laccase activity was also
dispersive spectroscopy system to elucidate the                  determined using a chromogenic substrate. The
nature of fossil preservation. This investigation is an          degradation of HMCs by the transformants has been
effort to further understand the currently poorly                compared with the wild type, and the removal of
known paleomycological world. Poster                             estrogenic activity of the HMCs has also been
Yafetto, Levi1*, Davis, Diana J.2 and Money,                     analyzed using the yeast (two hybrid) reporter
                                                                 system. Contributed Presentation
Nicholas P.1 1Department of Botany, Miami
University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA, 2Department of                Zanzot, James W.1*, de Beer, Z. Wilhelm2, Eckhardt,
Chemistry and Physical Science, College of Mount                 Lori G.1 and Wingfield, Michael J.2 1School of
St. Joseph, Cincinnati, OH 45233, USA.                           Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University,
yafettl@muohio.edu. Mechanics of rhizomorph                      AL, USA, 2Department of Microbiology and Plant
development in Armillaria mellea. The                            Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology
extraordinary destructive abilities of some wood                 Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South
decay fungi and pathogens lies in their ability to form          Africa. zanzojw@auburn.edu. A new Ophiostoma
root-like organs called rhizomorphs. Rhizomorphs                 species in the O. pluriannulatum complex from
are complex structures that conduct water, nutrients,            loblolly pine roots. Various Ophiostomatoid fungi
and oxygen over long distances, allowing fungi to                have been implicated as contributing factors to the
spread through hard-packed soils between food                    decline of pines in the southeastern USA. During a
sources. The pathogen Armillaria mellea forms                    survey for these fungi in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)
rhizomorphs in culture and serves as an excellent                roots at Fort Benning, GA, we encountered a species
model for developmental studies. This poster presents            of Ophiostoma with a Sporothrix anamorph,
information on (i) the stimulation of rhizomorph                 morphologically similar to O. pluriannulatum. This
extension in A. mellea by increasing medium gel                  species has not been reported from pine roots in this
strength; (ii) features of rhizomorph anatomy that               region. Moreover, a closely related congener, O.
support their invasive behavior; (iii) data on osmolyte          subannulatum, is reported to infect conifer roots, and
accumulation, and (iv) novel measurements of the                 we sought to identify this fungus based on
forces exerted by rhizomorph tips. These experiments             morphology, as well as ITS and beta-tubulin
reveal similarities and differences between the                  sequence comparisons. Isolates observed were
development of rhizomorphs and their constituent                 grossly similar to those of O. pluriannulatum, with
hyphae that begin to explain the effectiveness of                unusually long perithecial necks, but different in
rhizomorphs as exploratory organs. Poster                        culture morphology. Sequences of the ITS rDNA
                                                                 were identical to those of O. pluriannulatum, and
Yeo, Sumin, Kim,Yunjung, Song, Hong-Gyu and
                                                                 similar to O.multiannulatum and O. subannulatum.
Choi, Hyoung T.* Division of Life Sciences and
                                                                 Sequence data from the beta-tubulin gene region
Research Institute of Life Sciences, Kangwon
                                                                 revealed the absence of intron 4 and presence of
National University, chunchon 200-701, S. Korea.
                                                                 intron 5, similar to the latter two species, but distinct
htchoi@kangwon.ac.kr. Degradation of hormone
mimicking chemicals by genetically transformed                   from O. pluriannulatum, which has intron 4 and not
Irpex lacteus. As disposable plastic ware use                    intron 5. Phylogenetic analyses of beta-tubulin
                                                                 sequences showed that all of our isolates group
increases, so does the risk posed by human exposure
                                                                 together in a clade distinct from O. multiannulatum
to hormone mimicking chemicals (HMCs) which are
                                                                 and O. subannulatum. Given the arrangement of
generated during the treatment of the plastic waste.
                                                                 introns, we believe that our isolates represent a novel
White-rot basidiomycetes have the enzymes


species. This new fungus is currently being                    solanaceous crops. To facilitate this goal, we utilized
described, and its pathogenicity, biology and ecology          membrane-based macroarray technology including at
are also being studied. Poster                                 least three specific oligonucleotides per pathogen.
                                                               Based on the internal transcribed spacer sequences of
Zanzot, James W.1*, de Beer, Z. Wilhelm2, Eckhardt,
                                                               the rRNA genes, a total of 141 oligonucleotides (17-
Lori G.1 and Wingfield, Michael J.2 1School of
Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University,             27 bases long) specific for 30 pathogens were
                                                               designed and spotted on a nylon membrane,
AL, USA, 2Department of Microbiology and Plant
                                                               including Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium wilt),
Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology
                                                               Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white rot), Rhizoctonia
Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South
                                                               solani (Rhizoctonia canker), Phytophthora infestans
Africa. zanzojw@auburn.edu. A PCR-RFLP based
                                                               (late blight), and Synchytrium endobioticum (potato
test to distinguish Leptographium serpens and
                                                               wart). The specificity and sensitivity of the array was
Leptographium huntii isolated from roots of
                                                               tested against 22 pathogens in pure culture as well as
declining pines in the southeastern US.
Leptographium species (Ascomycota:                             infected field and greenhouse samples. Our results
Ophiostomatales) are commonly isolated from the                indicate that the oligonucleotide-based macroarray
                                                               detection system is a reliable and effective method
roots of declining pines and root feeding scolytids in
                                                               for pathogen detection/identification even when
the southeastern United States. Among the species
                                                               multiple pathogens are present on a field sample.
most often recovered are Leptographium serpens and
                                                               Contributed Presentation
L. huntii (teleomorph = Grosmannia). These species
can be difficult to distinguish, as they both produce          Zhou, Fang* and Weir, Alex. Environmental and
serpentine hyphae, and their conidiophore                      Forest Biology, State University of New York,
morphology is highly variable in freshly isolated              College of Environmental Science and Forestry,
cultures. To aid in rapid identification of L. serpens         Syracuse, NY 13210, USA. fzhou01@syr.edu. Light-
and L. huntii, we used sequence data from the beta-            and transmission electron microscope studies on
tubulin gene region to develop an RFLP-based                   the penetration of Hesperomyces virescens
diagnostic test. This gene region was chosen because           (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) parasitic on
other more frequently sequenced regions (e.g. rDNA)            Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).
do not amplify consistently in Leptographium.                  The interaction between Hesperomyces virescens
Following optimization of genomic DNA preparation              (Laboulbeniales) and the lady beetle Harmonia
and PCR amplification, sequence data from                      axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) was studied
representative isolates of L. serpens, L. huntii and           using light (LM) and transmission electron
other Leptographium spp. commonly isolated from                microscopy (TEM). Thin sections through
pine roots in the region were analyzed using the web           developing spore stages revealed the presence of a
application Webcutter 2.0. The restriction                     very narrow penetration peg originating at the foot of
endonucleases PstI, SacI, and BsaAI were selected              the Hesperomyces thallus and extending through the
for their predicted amplicon digestion patterns, and           outer layers of the cuticle of the insect. Beneath this,
relative cost. This test will provide diagnosticians           in the hemocoel of the host, a small bulb-like
with a rapid and inexpensive method for identifying            haustorium was formed from which rhizoid-like
these morphologically similar members of an                    fungal hyphae developed. In some sections presence
intransigent genus. Contributed Presentation                   of those rhizoids was observed throughout a large
                                                               area of the hemocoel. Here we compare the
Zhang, Ning1*, McCarthy, M. L.2 and Smart, C. D.1
  Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University,           penetration apparatus observed to those known in a
                                                               range of entomopathogenic and plant parasitic fungi.
Geneva, NY 14456, USA, 2Department of Biological
Sciences, Hobart and William Smith Colleges,
Geneva, NY 14456, USA. nz35@cornell.edu. A
macroarray system for the detection of multiple
fungal and oomycete pathogens of solanaceous
crops from field samples. Rapid and accurate
detection and identification of pathogens is critical
for plant disease management. Recently, DNA array
technology has been successfully applied for
simultaneous detection of multiple microorganisms
from various habitats. The goal of this project was to
develop a multiplex detection/identification system
for all major fungal and oomycete pathogens of


                                    MEETING PARTICIPANTS

Carmen Acevedo-Rios, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras Campus, Biological Sciences, ctacevedo@uprrp.edu
Gerry Adams, Michigan State University, Plant Pathology & Plant Biology, gadams@msu.edu
Cathie Aime, LSU AgCenter, Plant Pathology and Crop Physiology, maime@agcenter.lsu.edu
Andrew Alspaugh, Duke University, School of Medicine, andrew.alspaugh@duke.edu
Sandy Anagnostakis, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Pathology and
Ecology, Sandra.Anagnostakis@po.state.ct.us
Gary Andersen, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Department of Ecology, glandersen@lbl.gov
Betsy Arnold, University of Arizona, Plant Sciences/Plant Pathology and Microbiology, arnold@ag.arizona.edu
Toni Atkinson, Illinois Natural History Survey, Section for Biodiversity, toni@botany.otago.ac.nz
Pete Avis, The Field Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany, pavis@fieldmuseum.org
Charles Bacon, USDA, ARS, Russell Research Center, charles.bacon@ars.usda.gov
Deana Baucom, New Mexico State University, Entomology, Plant Pathology, and Weed Science,
Eddie Beard, Clemson University, Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences, cbrd@clemson.edu
Kevin Beiler, The University of British Columbia, Department of Forest Sciences, KJBeiler@interchange.ubc.ca
Mary Berbee, University of British Columbia, Botany, berbee@interchange.ubc.ca
Jean Berube, Canadian Forest Service, jberube@cfl.forestry.ca
Manfred Binder, Clark University, Biology Department, mbinder@clarku.edu
Meredith Blackwell, Louisiana State University, Biological Sciences, mblackwell@lsu.edu
Boris Boerstler, University of Basel, Institute of Botany, boris.boerstler@unibas.ch
Mesfin Bogale, Forestry & Agricultural Biotech. Inst., Univ. of Pretoria, Department of Genetics,
Gregory Bonito, Duke University. Biology, gmb2@duke.edu
Sara Branco, University of Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, Committee on Evolutionary Biology,
Micheal Brooks, The University of Alabama, Biological Sciences, brook038@bama.ua.edu
Matthew W. Brown, University of Arkansas, Biological Sciences, mwbrown@uark.edu
Kathryn Bushley, Cornell University, Department of Plant Pathology, kbushley@yahoo.com
Matias J. Cafaro, University of Puerto Rico - Mayaguez, Biology, mjcafaro@uprm.edu
Guohong Cai, Cornell University, Plant Pathology, gc228@cornell.edu
Jinx Campbell, Gulf Coast Research Lab, University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Coastal Sciences,
Sharon A. Cantrell, Universidad del Turabo, Biology, scantrel@suagm.edu
Julieta Carranza, University of Costa Rica, School of Biology, julietac@biologia.ucr.ac.cr
Lori Carris, Washington State University, Plant Pathology, carris@wsu.edu
Michael Castellano, USDA, Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, mcastellano@fs.fed.us
Lisa Castlebury, USDA ARS, Systematic Mycology Laboratory, lisa.castlebury@ars.usda.gov
Gail Celio, University of Minnesota, CBS Imaging Center, celio001@umn.edu
Preeti Chaudhary, Illinois Natural History Survey, Section for Biodiversity, pchaudh2@uiuc.edu
Priscila Chaverri, Howard University, Department of Biology, pchaverri@howard.edu
Hyoung Choi, Kangwon National University, Biochemistry, htchoi@kangwon.ac.kr
Joaquin Cifuentes, Facultad de Ciencias UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, jcb@hp.fciencias.unam.mx
Erica Cline, University of Washington Tacoma, Environmental Science, ecline@u.washington.edu
Anjel Craig, University of Southern Mississippi, Biological Science, anjel.craig@gmail.com
Cathy Cripps, Montana State University, Plant Sciences & Plant Pathology, ccripps@montana.edu
Jo Anne Crouch, Rutgers University, Plant Biology & Pathology, jcrouch@eden.rutgers.edu
Pedro Crous, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Evolutionary Phytopathology, crous@cbs.knaw.nl
Christina Cuomo, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, cuomo@broad.mit.edu
Becky Curland, Univeristy of Wisconsin- La Crosse, Biology, curland.rebe@students.uwlax.edu
Marie Davey, University of Alberta, Biological Sciences, mdavey@ualberta.ca
Naveed Davoodian, UW-L/College of the Atlantic, naveeddavoodian@yahoo.com
Ralph Dean, North Carolina State University, Plant Pathology, ralph_dean@ncsu.edu
Bryn Dentinger, University of Minnesota, Dept. of Plant Biology, dent0015@umn.edu


Dennis E. Desjardin, San Francisco State University, Dept. of Biology, ded@sfsu.edu
Damon Dewsbury, University of Toronto, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, damondewsy@yahoo.com
José Dianese, Universidade De Brasília, Departamento de Fitopatologia, jcarmine@unb.br
Maryna Didukh, Royal Ontario Museum, Department of Natural History, maryna.didukh@gmail.com
Greg W. Douhan, University of California, Plant Pathology and Microbiology, gdouhan@ucr.edu
LeAnn Douhan, UC Riverside, Plant Pathology, leannd@ucr.edu
Craig Dunek, University of Wisconsin LaCrosse, Biology, dunek.crai@students.uwlax.edu
Paul Dunn, USDA Forest Service, PNW Research Station, pdunn@fs.fed.us
Dan Durall, University of British Columbia, Biology and Physical Geography, daniel.durall@ubc.ca
Lori Eckhardt, Auburn University, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, eckhalg@auburn.edu
Sally Edwards, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Department of Biological Sciences, smedwar@uark.edu
Sydney Everhart, University of Central Missouri, Department of Biology, everhart@ucmo.edu
Toby Feibelman, tfeibelman@comcast.net
Michael Fitzsimons, University of Chicago, Ecology & Evolution, fitz@uchicago.edu
Lafayette Frederick, Howard University, Biology, lfrederick@howard.edu
Tara Fulgenzi, Humboldt State University, Botany, Mermaidiva@aol.com
Ricardo Garcìa-Sandoval, Clark University, Biology Department, rgarciasandoval@clarku.edu
Ester Gaya, Duke University, Biology Department, eb62@duke.edu
David Geiser, Penn State University, Plant Pathology, dgeiser@psu.edu
Cara Gibson, University of Arizona, Entomology, cgibson@ag.arizona.edu
Louise Glass, University of California-Berkeley, Plant and Microbial Biology, Lglass@nature.berkeley.edu
Lauren Goldmann, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Environmental Forest Biol.,
Maria Gonzalez, UNAM, Department of Botany, mcgv@ibiologia.unam.mx
Matthew Greif, The Field Museum of Natural History, Dept. of Botany, mgreif@fieldmuseum.org
Stephanie Gross, Louisiana State University, Biological Sciences, sgross2@lsu.edu
Laia Guardia Valle, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat Botanica Dept., laia.guardia@uab.cat
Cecile Gueidan, Duke University, Biology Dept., cg19@duke.edu
Heather Hallen, Michigan State University, Plant Biology, hallenhe@msu.edu
Roy Halling, The New York Botanical Garden, rhalling@nybg.org
Dick Hanlin, University of Georgia, Museum of Natural History Annex, rhanlin@uga.edu
Lauraine Hawkins, Penn State Mont Alto, lkh1@psu.edu
David Hawksworth, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Milford House, d.hawksworth@nhm.ac.uk
Don Hemmes, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Biology, hemmes@hawaii.edu
Daniel Henk, Imperial College, Infectious Disease Epidemiology, d.a.henk@gmail.com
Terry Henkel, Humboldt State University, Biological Sciences, twh5@humboldt.edu
Jonatan Hernandez Roa, University of Puerto Rico - Mayaguez, Biology, jonatan.her@gmail.com
Jose Herrera, Truman State University, Biology, jherrera@truman.edu
Cedar Hesse, Oregon State University, Botany & Plant Pathology, hessec@onid.orst.edu
Lindsay Higgins, University of Utah, Department of Biology, higgins@biology.utah.edu
Kathie Hodge, Cornell University, Plant Pathology, kh11@cornell.edu
Bruce Horn, ARS-USDA, bhorn@nprl.usda.gov
Tom Horton, SUNY-ESF, Environmental and Forest Biology, trhorton@esf.edu
Karen Hughes, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, khughes@utk.edu
Sabine Huhndorf, The Field Museum, Botany, shuhndorf@fmnh.org
Vince Hustad, Eastern Illinois University, Biological Sciences, vphustad@eiu.edu
Kevin D. Hyde, University of Hong Kong, School of Biological Sciences, kdhyde@hkucc.hku.hk
Patrik Inderbitzin, UC Davis, Kearney Agricultural Center, Plant Pathology, prin@uckac.edu
Jason Jackson, Duke University, Ecology, jaj2@duke.edu
Beth Jarvis, University of Wisconsin La Crosse, Biology, jarvis.elis@uwlax.edu
Thomas S. Jenkinson, University of Minnesota, Plant Biology, tsjenkin@sfsu.edu
Jim Johnson, Central Washington University, Biological Sciences, jjohnson@cwu.edu
Suzanne Joneson, Duke University, Biology Department, slj2@duke.edu
Ari Jumpponen, Kansas State University, Division of Biology, ari@ksu.edu
Takao Kasuga, UC Berkeley, Plant & Microbial Biology, kasugat@berkeley.edu
Patrick Keeling, University of British Columbia, Department of Botany, pkeeling@interchange.ubc.ca


Matt Keirle, University of Chicago, Committee on Evolutionary Biology, mkeirle@uchicago.edu
Harold W. Keller, University of Central Missouri, Department of Biology, keller@ucmo.edu
Allison Kennedy, University of Southern Mississippi, Coastal Sciences,
Julia Kerrigan, Clemson University, ESPS, jkerrig@clemson.edu
Hyo Jin Kim, Seoul National University, Department of Biological Science, yojiny999@snu.ac.kr
Jitra Kokaew, Kasetsart University, Department of Plant Pathology, jeabjitra@yahoo.com
Brad Kropp, Utah State University, Biology, rkropp@biology.usu.edu
Clete Kurtzman, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Microbial Genomics
and Bioprocessing Research Unit, kurtzman@ncaur.usda.gov
Helen Lau, Central Washington University, Biological Sciences, lauh@cwu.edu
Carrie Lauer, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, Biology, lauer.carr@students.uwlax.edu
Maria Lee, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Microbiology, lee.mari@students.uwlax.edu
Keunsub Lee, University of Minnesota, Plant Biological Sciences, leex1708@umn.edu
Pete Letcher, The University of Alabama, Dept. of Biological Sciences, letch006@bama.ua.edu
Patricia Lewis, Gulf States Mycological Society, plewis@jas.net
David P. Lewis, Gulf States Mycological Society, plewis@jas.net
Bob Lichtwardt, University of Kansas, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, licht@ku.edu
Daniel Lindner, USDA-Forest Service, Center for Forest Mycology Research, dlindner@wisc.edu
Jennifer Luangsa-ard, BIOTEC, Thailand, jajen@biotec.or.th
Justine Lyons, University of Georgia, Marine Sciences, jlyons@uga.edu
Leka Manoch, Kasetsart University, Department of Plant Pathology, leka@ku.ac.th
Juan Luis Mata, University of South Alabama, Dept. of Biological Sciences, jmata@usouthal.edu
Brandon Matheny, Clark University, Biology, pmatheny@clarku.edu
Mike McCann, Saint Joseph's University, Biology, mmccann@sju.edu
Tami McDonald, Duke University, Biology, trm5@duke.edu
John McKemy, USDA APHIS, John.McKemy@aphis.usda.gov
David McLaughlin, University of Minnesota, Dept. of Plant Biology, davem@umn.edu
Esther McLaughlin, Augsburg College, Dept. of Biology, pterula@yahoo.com
Terri McLenon-Porter, University of Toronto, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, terri.mclenon@utoronto.ca
Roger Menard, US Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, rmenard@fs.fed.us
Andy Methven, Eastern Illinois University, Biological Sciences, asmethven@eiu.edu
Andy Miller, Illinois Natural History Survey, Section for Biodiversity, amiller@inhs.uiuc.edu
Charles Mims, University of Georgia, Plant Pathology, cwmims@uga.edu
David Minter, CABI, d.minter@cabi.org
Ingo Morgenstern, Clark University, Biology, imorgenstern@clarku.edu
Greg Mueller, The Field Museum, Botany, gmueller@fieldmuseum.org
George Mugambi, The Field Museum, Botany, gmugam1@uic.edu
Faye Murrin, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Biology, fmurrin@mun.ca
Don Natvig, University of New Mexico, Department of Biology, dnatvig@unm.edu
George Ndiritu, University of Arkansas, Biological Sciences, gnderit@uark.edu
Paul Nelson, University of Illinois, Plant Biology, pgnelson307@gmail.com
Maria-Alice Neves, The New York Botanical Garden, mneves@nybg.org
Nhu Nguyen, UC Berkeley, Plant and Microbial Biology, Xerantheum@gmail.edu
Bill Nierman, J. Craig Venter Institute, Infectious Disease, wnierman@jcvi.org
Lorelei Norvell, PNW Mycology Service & Mycotaxon, llnorvell@pnw-ms.com
Jason Oliver, University of Maine, Biological Sciences, jason.oliver@umit.maine.edu
Bernadette O'Reilly, Duke University, Biology, bernadette.oreilly@duke.edu
Todd Osmundson, Columbia University/New York Botanical Garden, two2102@columbia.edu
Clark L. Ovrebo, University of Central Oklahoma, Biology, covrebo@ucok.edu
Mahajabeen Padamsee, University of Minnesota, Plant Biological Sciences, pada0003@umn.edu
Edwin Palencia, University of Georgia, Plant Pathology, edwin.palencia@ars.usda.gov
Jon Palmer, UW-Madison, Plant Pathology, palmer3@wisc.edu
Teresa Pawlowska, Cornell University, tep8@cornell.edu
Jose M. Perez-Martinez, University of Florida-TREC, Plant Pathology, jperezma@ufl.edu
Brian Perry, San Francisco State University, Department of Biology, brian_perry@post.harvard.edu


Ron Petersen, University of Tennessee, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, repete@utk.edu
Kris Peterson, Harvard University, kpeterson@oeb.harvard.edu
Don Pfister, Harvard University, Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Farlow Herbarium,
Cathleen Pfister, Harvard University, Botany Libraries, cpfister@oeb.harvard.edu
Kathryn Picard, The University of Alabama, Biological Sciences, kathryn.picard@gmail.com
G.K. Podila, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Biological Sciences, podilag@uah.edu
Andrea Porras-Alfaro, University of New Mexico, Biology, aporras@unm.edu
Martha Powell, The University of Alabama, Biological Sciences, mpowell@biology.as.ua.edu
Pam Promputtha, Illinois Natural History Survey, Section for Biodiversity, ppam118@yahoo.com
Grechen Pruett, University of Missouri, Division of Plant Sciences, gebc07@mizzou.edu
Barry Pryor, University of Arizona, Plant Sciences, bmpryor@u.arizona.edu
Huzefa Raja, University of Illinois, Plant Biology, raja@uiuc.edu
Dirk Redecker, University of Basel, Institute of Botany, dirk.redecker@unibas.ch
Scott Redhead, Canadian National Mycological Herbarium, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, redheads@agr.gc.ca
Steve Rehner, USDA-ARS, Insect Biocontrol Laboratory, Stephen.Rehner@ars.usda.gov
Hannah Reynolds, Duke University, Biology, htr@duke.edu
Karol Rivera, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Biodiversity, krive081@uottawa.ca
Felix E. Rivera-Mariani, University of Puerto Rico-Medical Science Campus, Department of
Microbiology and Medical Zoology, frivera@rcm.upr.edu
Leena Rizvi, University of Toronto, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, leenatoronto@hotmail.com
Barbara Robbertse, Oregon State University, Botany & Plant Pathology,robberba@science.oregonstate.edu
Vincent Robert, CBS Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, robert@cbs.knaw.nl
Carlos Rojas, University of Arkansas, Department of Biological Sciences, crojas@uark.edu
Adam W. Rollins, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Biological Sciences, arollin@uark.edu
Andrea Romero, Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental,
Marie Romero, New Mexico State University, Entomology, Plant Pathology, and Weed
Science, mromero@nmsu.edu
Amy Rossman, USDA-ARS, Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory, amy.rossman@ars.usda.gov
Martin Ryberg, Göteborg University, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, martin.ryberg@dpes.gu.se
Conrad Schoch, Oregon State University, Botany & Plant Pathology, schochc@science.oregonstate.edu
Carol Shearer, University of Illinois, Plant Biology, carolshe@uiuc.edu
Margaret Silliker, DePaul University, Biology, msillike@depaul.edu
Rabern Simmons, University of Maine, Biological Sciences, david.r.simmons@umit.maine.edu
Nicholas Simpson, Kansas State University, Division of Biology, fungi@ksu.edu
Diana Six, University of Montana, Ecosystem Sciences, diana.six@cfc.umt.edu
Matt Smith, UC Davis, Department of Nematology, mesmith@ucdavis.edu
Karen Snetselaar, St. Joseph's University, Biology, ksnetsel@sju.edu
Joey Spatafora, Oregon State University, Botany & Plant Pathology, spatafoj@science.oregonstate.edu
Fred Spiegel, University of Arkansas, Biological Sciences, fspiegel@uark.edu
Jason Stajich, University of California, Berkeley, Plant and Microbial Biology, jason_stajich@berkeley.edu
Franck Stefani, Université Laval, Centre d'étude de la forêt (C.E.F.), frstefani@cfl.forestry.ca
Steve Stephenson, University of Arkansas, Biological Sciences, slsteph@uark.edu
Carol Stiles, University of Florida IFAS, Plant Pathology, cstiles@ufl.edu
Jessica L. Stolze-Rybczynski, Miami University, Department of Botany, stolzejl@muohio.edu
Jeff Stone, Oregon State University, Botany and Plant Pathology, stonej@science.oregonstate.edu
Betty Strack, The Field Museum, Botany, bstrack@fieldmuseum.org
Sung-Oui Suh, Louisiana State University, Biological Sciences, ssuh@lsu.edu
Andrew Swanson, Manatee Community College, Natural Sciences, swansoa@mccfl.edu
Stephen Taerum, Dartmouth College, Biological Sciences, Stephen.Taerum@dartmouth.edu
Brandon Taylor, DHH/OPH, Center for Environmental Health, BrTaylor@dhh.la.gov
Jo Taylor, Stephen F. Austin State University, Biology, jtaylor@sfasu.edu
John Taylor, University of California at Berkeley, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology,
Odile Thiery, University of Basel, Institute of Botany, Odile.Thiery@unibas.ch


Lisa Thompson, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Environmental Forest
Biol., lithomps@syr.edu
Al Torzilli, George Mason University, Environmental Science & Policy, atorzill@gmu.edu
Frances Trail, Michigan State University, Plant Biology, trail@msu.edu
Paul Trusty, Montana State University, Plant Sciences, pauletrusty@yahoo.com
Alicia Tuggle, University of Arkansas, Biological Sciences, atuggle@uark.edu
Anders Tunlid, Lund University, Microbial Ecology, anders.tunlid@mbioekol.lu.se
Jana U'Ren, University of Arizona, Division of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, juren@email.arizona.edu
Kim Vernier, Eastern Illinois University, Biological Sciences, fungusfairy@hotmail.com
Rytas Vilgalys, Duke University, Biology, fungi@duke.edu
Carlos Virella Perez, University of Puerto Rico - Mayaguez, Biology, cr.virella@gmail.com
Tom Volk, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Biology, volk.thom@uwlax.edu
Scott Wakefield, University of Alabama, Biological Sciences, wswakefield@gmail.com
Zheng Wang, The University of Iowa, Biological Sciences, zheng-wang@uiowa.edu
Alex Weir, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Environmental Forest Biol, alexw@esf.edu
Merlin White, Boise State University, Biology, merlinwhite@boisestate.edu
Mike Wingfield, FABI, University of Pretoria, mike.wingfield@fabi.up.ac.za
Kate Winsett, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Biological Sciences, kwinset@uark.edu
Sandra Woolfolk, Mississippi State University, Entomology & Plant Pathology, sww3@entomology.msstate.edu
Wenying Wu, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Department of
Paleobiology, chwenyingwu@gmail.com
Levi Yafetto, Miami University, Department of Botany, yafettl@muohio.edu
Djibo Zanzot, Auburn University, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, zanzojw@auburn.edu
Ning Zhang, Cornell University, Plant Pathology, nz35@cornell.edu
Fang Zhou, SUNY-ESF, fzhou01@syr.edu
Jim Zhou, ATCC, jzhou@atcc.org


                                              INDEX OF AUTHORS

A                                                         Bogale, Mesfin · 23, 34, 45, 52, 84
Acevedo, Carmen T. · 35, 47                               Bonito, Gregory · 40, 52
Adams, Gerard C. · 26, 47, 56                             Branco, Sara · 21, 53
Aime, M. Catherine · 39, 43, 45, 47, 71, 85               Brantley, Elizabeth · 37, 71
Alexander, Mark · 26, 47                                  Brodie, Eoin L. · 24, 61
Alspaugh, Andrew · 38, 48                                 Brooks, Micheal C. · 17, 43, 53, 108
Alvarado, Lucia · 20, 59                                  Brown, Matthew, W. · 27, 37, 42, 53, 83, 101
Andersen, Gary L. · 24, 61                                Bruhn, Johann · 22, 94
Armaleo, Daniele · 19, 20, 77, 86, 90                     Bushley, Kathryn E. · 19, 54
Armstrong-James, Darius · 38, 65                          Buyck, Bart · 43, 85
Arnold, A. Elizabeth · 24, 27, 48, 72, 74, 107            C
Ashkannejhad, Sara M. · 35, 73                            Cabanela, Marivic V. · 37, 54
Atkinson, Toni J. · 24, 48                                Cafaro, Matias J. · 18, 34, 35, 69, 72, 107
Avis, Peter G. · 45, 49                                   Cai, Guohong · 45, 54
Ayres, Matt P. · 22, 103                                  Camacho, Francisco J. · 36, 95
B                                                         Campbell, Jinx · 34, 35, 55, 80
Bacon, Charles W. · 19, 92                                Cantrell, Sharon A. · 38, 55
Baird, Richard E. · 26, 34, 47, 110                       Carmack, Glenda, J. · 36, 79
Banik, Mark T. · 26, 84                                   Carmaran, Cecilia C. · 29, 55
Barnard, Kobus · 40, 102                                  Carris, Lori M. · 30, 56
Baucom, Deana · 40, 49                                    Castellano, Michael A. · 30, 56
Bayman, Paul · 17, 105                                    Castlebury, Lisa A. · 30, 36, 56, 101
Beard, Charles E. · 29, 49                                Catal, Mursel · 26, 56
Bechara, Mark A. · 31, 49                                 Cavender, James · 42, 109
Beiler, Kevin J. · 26, 50                                 Cavender, Nicole · 42, 109
Belmont, Susan F. · 37, 77                                Cavinder, B. · 18, 105
Berbee, Mary L. · 23, 50                                  Celio, Gail J. · 31, 77
Berube, Jean A. · 25, 50                                  Chalkley, David · 26, 57
Biffi, Daniela · 42, 98                                   Chandler, Julie M. · 18, 82
Bignell, Elaine · 38, 65                                  Chatfield, J.M. · 18, 76
Binder, Manfred · 25, 45, 51, 90                          Choi, Hyoung T. · 23, 111
Birren, Bruce · 20, 59                                    Churchill, Perry F. · 36, 82
Blackwell, Meredith · 16, 35, 40, 51, 69, 103             Cifuentes, J.B. · 32, 57
Blackwell, Will H. · 17, 53                               Cline, Erica T. · 41, 57
Blair, J.M. · 30, 78                                      Coley, Phyllis D. · 27, 72
Blinkova, Olga · 40, 51                                   Cooper, Chester R. · 18, 82
Boerstler, Boris · 23, 51                                 Courtecuisse, Regis · 36, 95

                                                                                     AUTHOR INDEX

Crane, J. Leland · 32, 76                          Enriquez, Diana · 35, 69
Creamer, Rebecca · 40, 49                          Everhart, Sydney E. · 21, 28, 36, 64, 65, 79
Cripps, Cathy L. · 27, 30, 57, 105                 Exeter, Ronald L. · 28, 65
Crouch, Jo Anne · 23, 30, 58                       F
Crous, Pedro W. · 29, 44, 58, 59                   Fedorova, Natalie · 38, 65
Cuomo, Christina · 20, 59                          Feldman, Tracy · 40, 51
Curland, Rebecca · 26, 59                          Ferreira, Renato B. · 32, 66
Currah, Randolph S. · 16, 60                       Ferrer, A. · 17, 22, 66, 95
D                                                  Ferrington, Leonard · 33, 108
Dalling, James W. · 27, 107                        Fischer, A. · 27, 66
Davey, Marie L. · 16, 60                           Fisher, Alison · 41, 63
Davis, Diana J. · 31, 111                          Fitzsimons, Michael S. · 26, 67
de Beer, Z. Wilhelm · 23, 33, 111, 112             Fournier, J. · 42, 75
de Hoog, G.S. · 25, 70                             Fox, Thomas R. · 39, 87
Dean, R. A. · 38, 60                               Fry, William E. · 45, 54
Degagne, Rebecca S. · 40, 60                       Fulgenzi, T.D. · 25, 67
Dentinger, Bryn T. M. · 25, 32, 61, 77
DeSantis, Todd Z. · 24, 61                         G
Desjardin, Dennis E. · 36, 43, 85, 93              Galagan, James · 20, 59
Dethoup, T. · 28, 85                               Galante, Tera E. · 35, 73
Detter, C. · 38, 93                                Gallery, Rachel · 27, 107
Dewsbury, Damon R. · 19, 61                        Garcia-Sandoval, Ricardo · 26, 67
Dianese, José Carmine · 29, 32, 62, 66, 92         Gaya, Ester · 29, 68
Didukh, Maryna · 23, 62                            Geiser, D.M. · 39, 110
Dietrich, Fred · 20, 77                            Gibson, Cara M. · 34, 68
DiMarco, Michael J. · 19, 63                       Gillevet, Patrick, M. · 17, 68
Douhan, Greg W. · 29, 41, 63                       Glass, Louise · 38, 78
Douhan, LeAnn I. · 29, 63                          Goldmann, Lauren · 28, 69, 104
Dunek, Craig · 16, 64                              Gonzalez, Maria C. · 35, 69
Dunham, Susie M. · 21, 72                          Gorbushina, A. · 25, 70
Duplessis, S. · 38, 93                             Grabherr, Manfred · 20, 59
Durall, Daniel M. · 26, 50                         Greenwald, Charles · 38, 78
E                                                  Grigoriev, I.V. · 38, 93
Eamvijarn, A. · 28, 85                             Groenewald, Johannes Z. · 29, 59
Ebbole, Dan · 38, 78                               Gross, Stephanie · 16, 69
Eckhardt, Lori G. · 23, 33, 111, 112               Guardia Valle, Laia · 18, 69
Edwards, Sally M. · 42, 64                         Gueidan, C. · 25, 70
Eisen, Michael B. · 20, 102                        Guenther, John C. · 45, 70
Ely, Joseph S. · 21, 28, 64, 65                    H


Hallen, Heather E. · 18, 20, 45, 70, 105                      Jackson, Jason · 21, 76
Halling, Roy E. · 25, 30, 32, 67, 70, 90, 91                  Jacobsson, Stig · 39, 99
Hamelin, R.C. · 22, 102                                       Jaffee, Bruce A. · 20, 100
Hawkins, Lauraine · 37, 71                                    James, Timothy · 20, 59
Hawksworth, David L. · 32, 44, 71, 76                         Jarvis, Elisabeth · 27, 77
Haynes, Ken · 38, 65                                          Jastrow, Julie D. · 26, 67
Heinemann, Paul · 31, 49                                      Jeamjitt, O. · 28, 85
Hemmes, D.E. · 37, 101                                        Jeewon, Rajesh · 37, 42, 54, 75
Henk, Daniel A. · 45, 71                                      Jenkinson, Thomas S. · 31, 77
Henkel, Terry W. · 25, 29, 39, 40, 47, 60, 61, 67, 71         Jennings, Joseph · 41, 101
Hernandez Roa, Jonatan · 35, 72                               Johnson, James E. · 27, 37, 77, 81
Herrera, Jose · 17, 21, 72, 94                                Johnston, Peter R. · 30, 58
Hesse, Cedar N. · 21, 72                                      Jones, K.L. · 30, 78
Hibbett, David S. · 19, 26, 45, 51, 67, 88                    Joneson, Suzanne · 20, 77
Higgins, K. Lindsay · 27, 72                                  Jumpponen, Ari · 30, 78, 100
Hillman, Bradley I. · 23, 30, 45, 54, 58                      Jung, Hack Sung · 25, 80
Hodge, Kathie T. · 43, 73                                     K
Hofstetter, Rich W. · 22, 103                                 Kariuki, George M. · 39, 78
Hong, Soon Gyu · 25, 80                                       Kasuga, Takao · 38, 78
Horak, Egon · 30, 43, 57, 85                                  Kaur, Ramandeep · 41, 79
Horn, Bruce W. · 33, 73                                       Keeling, Patrick · 31
Horner, Hollis · 39, 97                                       Keller, Harold W. · 21, 28, 36, 64, 65, 79
Horton, Thomas R. · 35, 73                                    Keller, Nancy P. · 23, 92
Hosaka, Kentaro · 16, 88                                      Kennedy, Allison · 35, 80
Hotton, Carol L. · 31, 110                                    Kilgore, Courtney M. · 36, 79
Huang, Bo · 43, 73                                            Kim, Hyo Jin · 25, 80
Hughes, Karen W. · 24, 28, 32, 74, 91                         Kim, Kyung Mo · 25, 80
Humber, Richard A. · 43, 73                                   Kim, Yunjung · 23, 111
Huryn, Karyn · 29, 41, 63                                     Kirk, Willie · 26, 56
Hustad, Vincent P. · 17, 22, 74, 107                          Klepzig, Kier D. · 22, 103
Hyde, Kevin D. · 18, 37, 42, 54, 75, 94                       Klich, Maren · 19, 92
Hywel-Jones, Nigel · 36, 43, 84, 88                           Klironomos, J.N. · 27, 66
I                                                             Kodira, Chinnappa · 20, 59
Inácio, Carlos A. · 32, 66                                    Kohler, A. · 38, 93
Inderbitzin, Patrik · 40, 75                                  Kokaew, J. · 34, 80
Isikhuemhen, O. S. · 18, 75, 76                               Kristiansson, Erik · 39, 99
Iturriaga, Teresa · 32, 76                                    Kropp, Bradley R. · 43, 81
Izzo, Antonio D. · 41, 76                                     Kursar, Thomas · 27, 72
J                                                             Kurtzman, Cletus P. · 24, 81

                                                                                            AUTHOR INDEX

L                                                          McCarthy, M. L. · 45, 112
Labandeira, Conrad C. · 31, 110                            McDonagh, Andrew · 38, 65
Landolt, John C. · 27, 98                                  McDonald, Tami R. · 19, 86
Larsson, Karl-Henrik · 45, 51                              McLaughlin, David J. · 25, 28, 32, 61, 77, 91
Larsson, Ellen · 39, 45, 51, 99                            McLenon-Porter, Teresita · 21, 86
Lau, Helen · 27, 81                                        Meiners, Scott · 22, 107
Lauer, Carrie K. · 18, 81                                  Mejía, L.C. · 36, 101
Lawrence, A. · 42, 83                                      Melhart, Christy A. · 41, 106
Leacock, Patrick · 45, 49                                  Mena Portales, J. · 29, 86
LeCointre, C. · 41, 89                                     Methven, Andrew S. · 17, 22, 74, 107
Lee, Keunsub · 34, 82                                      Meyer, Michelle E. · 32, 77
Lee, Maria · 18, 82                                        Meyling, Nicolai · 36, 96
Leroux, Michel · 20, 59                                    Mibey, Richard K. · 39, 78
Letcher, Peter M. · 17, 35, 43, 53, 82, 93, 108            Mihail, Jeanne · 22, 94
Lewis, David P. · 33, 83                                   Mikiashvili, N. · 18, 75
Lickey, Edgar B. · 28, 74                                  Milgroom, Michael G. · 23, 58
Liedl, B.E. · 18, 76                                       Miller, Andrew N. · 17, 22, 24, 48, 74, 95, 107
Lim, Young Woon · 25, 80                                   Miller, Bradley W. · 39, 87
Lindley, L.A. · 42, 83                                     Miller, R. Michael · 26, 67
Lindner, Daniel L. · 26, 84                                Mims, Charles W. · 39, 87
Llimona, Xavier · 29, 68                                   Minter, D.W. · 29, 87
Lodge, D. Jean · 43, 85                                    Moncalvo, Jean-Marc · 19, 21, 22, 23, 27, 33, 36, 61,
                                                           62, 66, 86, 93, 97, 102
Logsdon, John M. Jr. · 46, 108
                                                           Money, Nicholas P. · 16, 31, 103, 111
Lombard, Lorenzo · 34, 84
                                                           Mongkolsamrit, Suchada · 43, 88
Longcore, Joyce · 20, 59
                                                           Montenergro, Fernando · 34, 84
Louis-Seize, Gerry · 17, 96
                                                           Morgenstern, Ingo · 19, 88
Luangsa-ard, Janet Jennifer · 36, 43, 84, 88
                                                           Mueller, Gregory M. · 16, 45, 49, 88
Lumyong, Saisamorn · 18, 94
                                                           Muratet, M. · 38, 93
Lutzoni, François · 19, 20, 25, 29, 68, 70, 77, 86
                                                           Murrin, F. · 41, 89
Malcolm, J.R. · 27, 66                                     Mutitu, Eunice W. · 39, 78

Mann, S.K. · 41, 106                                       Myers, Kevin · 45, 54

Manoch, L. · 28, 34, 80, 85                                N
                                                           Nanagulyan, S.G. · 43, 81
Martin, F. · 38, 93
                                                           Natvig, Donald O. · 21, 94
Mata, Juan L. · 33, 83, 85
                                                           Navarro-Rosines, Pere · 29, 68
Matheny, P. Brandon · 28, 43, 45, 51, 81, 85, 91
                                                           Ndiritu, George, G. · 42, 89
May, Georgiana · 34, 82
                                                           Neves, Maria-Alice · 25, 90
Mazzola, M. · 41, 76
                                                           Nguyen, Nhu H. · 35, 40, 51, 103
McCann, Michael · 41, 101


Nierman, William C. · 38, 65                            Redhead, S. · 44, 95
Nilsson, R. Henrik · 39, 99                             Reeves, J. · 20, 97
Norvell, Lorelei L. · 28, 44, 65, 90                    Rehner, Stephen A. · 36, 96
Novozhilov, Yuri K. · 42, 103                           Reynolds, Hannah T. · 16, 96
O                                                       Richardson, Elizabeth A. · 39, 87
Oehl, Fritz · 36, 95                                    Richardson, P. · 39, 93
Oliver, Jason P. · 31, 90                               Richter, Daniel D. Jr. · 21, 76
OReilly, Bernadette · 19, 90                            Ridkaew, Rungpet · 36, 84
Orlovich, David, A. · 24, 48                            Rivera, Karol · 17, 96
Osmundson, Todd W. · 25, 91                             Rizvi, Leena · 33, 97
Ovrebo, Clark L. · 32, 33, 83, 85, 91                   Robbertse, B. · 20, 97
P                                                       Robert, Vincent A. · 44, 97
Packard, Jane M. · 42, 110                              Robertson, Larry D. · 39, 97
Padamsee, Mahajabeen · 28, 32, 77, 91                   Rodriguez, Jose A. · 17, 105
Palencia, Edwin R. · 19, 92                             Rojas, Carlos · 36, 42, 98
Palmer, Jonathan M. · 23, 92                            Rokas, Antonis · 20, 39, 59, 110
Pearson, Matthew · 20, 59                               Rollins, Adam W. · 27, 28, 98, 99
Peberdy, John F. · 18, 94                               Romaine, C. Peter · 31, 49
Pereira-Carvalho, Rita C. · 29, 32, 62, 92              Romero, Andrea I. · 29, 40, 55
Perez-Jimenez, Jose R. · 38, 55                         Romero, Marie · 41, 49
Pérez-Martínez, José M. · 32, 92                        Rosenblum, Erica B. · 20, 102
Perrin, Robyn M. · 23, 92                               Rossman, Amy Y. · 36, 41, 44, 57, 99, 101
Perry, Brian A. · 36, 93                                Rouze, P. · 38, 93
Petersen, Ronald H. · 28, 74                            Ruibal, C. · 25, 70
Peterson, Stephen W. · 33, 73                           Ryberg, Martin · 39, 99
Picard, Kathryn T. · 17, 93                             Ryvarden, Leif · 39, 47
Piceno, Yvette M. · 24, 61                              S
Piepenbring, Meike · 32, 92                             Samson, R.A. · 39, 110
Pikulklin, S. · 28, 85                                  Sarmiento, C. · 17, 66
Podila, G.K. · 38, 93                                   Savelkoul, Elizabeth · 46, 108
Porras-Alfaro, Andrea · 21, 94                          Scarborough, Angela R. · 36, 79
Powell, Martha J. · 17, 36, 43, 53, 82, 93, 108         Schlect, Joseph · 40, 102
Promputtha, Itthayakorn · 18, 94                        Schnittler, Martin · 42, 103
Pruett, Grechen · 22, 94                                Schoch, Conrad L. · 20, 40, 45, 75, 97, 99
Pryor, Barry M. · 40, 102                               Seifert, Keith A. · 17, 96
R                                                       Shadwick, J.D. · 37, 101
Raab, Philipp · 23, 36, 51, 95                          Shaw, Brian · 38, 78
Raja, H.A. · 17, 22, 95                                 Shearer, C.A. · 17, 22, 66, 95
Redecker, Dirk · 19, 23, 36, 51, 95, 104                Sikaroodi, M. · 17, 68

                                                                                                AUTHOR INDEX

Silberman, J.D. · 42, 83                                        Taylor, Josephine · 39, 87
Silliker, Margaret E. · 19, 63, 109                             Thiery, Odile · 19, 104
Simard, Suzanne W. · 26, 50                                     Thompson, Lisa · 28, 104
Simpson, Nicholas · 30, 100                                     Thorn, R. Greg · 17, 96
Singburaudom, N. · 34, 80                                       To-Anun, Chaiwat · 37, 54
Singh, Narinder · 41, 106                                       Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos · 17, 105
Singh, Rama S. · 41, 79, 106                                    Torok, Tamas · 24, 61
Sinsabaugh, Robert L. · 21, 94                                  Torzilli, Albert, P. · 17, 68
Siri, Augusto · 33, 108                                         Trail, Frances · 18, 20, 45, 70, 105
Sirunyan, A. · 43, 81                                           Trusty, Paul · 27, 105
Sisson, J. · 18, 76                                             Tsuneda, Akihiko · 16, 60
Six, Diana L. · 22, 34, 100, 103                                Tuggle, Alicia A. · 41, 106
Skillman, Jane E. · 21, 86                                      Tumbalam, Pavani · 26, 56
Slay, Michael E. · 41, 106                                      Tunlid, Anders · 20, 106
Smart, C. D. · 45, 112                                          Turgeon, B. Gillian · 19, 40, 54, 75
Smitana, Prasartporn · 37, 54                                   U
Smith, Matthew E. · 20, 41, 63, 100                             Untereiner, W.A. · 25, 70
Snetselaar, Karen · 41, 101                                     Untoo, Showkat Ahmad · 41, 106
Sogonov, M.V. · 36, 101                                         Urb, Mirjam · 17, 96
Song, Hong-Gyu · 23, 111                                        URen, Jana M. · 27, 107
Spatafora, Joseph W. · 20, 21, 45, 72, 97, 99                   V
Spiegel, Frederick, W. · 27, 37, 42, 53, 64, 83, 89,            Varga, J. · 39, 110
                                                                Vasta, Lauren · 41, 101
Spriggs, Ekaterina · 40, 102
                                                                Vazquez-Estup, R. · 32, 57
Stajich, Jason E. · 20, 102
                                                                Velez, Carlos G. · 36, 82
Stamenova, Elena · 26, 57
                                                                Vernier, Kimberly L. · 17, 22, 74, 107
Steenkamp, Emma T. · 23, 45, 52
                                                                Vilgalys, Rytas · 16, 21, 24, 40, 52, 76, 96
Stefani, Franck O.P. · 22, 25, 50, 102
                                                                Virella Perez, Carlos R. · 34, 107
Steinberg, S.J. · 41, 60
                                                                Visarathanonth, N. · 34, 80
Stephenson, Steven L. · 27, 28, 29, 36, 41, 42, 89, 98,         Volk, Thomas J. · 16, 18, 26, 27, 59, 64, 77, 81, 82
99, 103, 106, 109, 110
Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L. · 16, 103
                                                                Wagner, R. Steven · 37, 77
Stone, W. Doug · 34, 100
                                                                Wakefield, William S. · 17, 43, 53, 108
Strongman, Doug · 33, 108
                                                                Walker, Nathan · 40, 51
Suh, Sung-Oui · 16, 35, 40, 51, 69, 103
                                                                Walker, Paul N. · 31, 49
Sung, Gi-Ho · 45, 99
T                                                               Wang, Zheng · 46, 108
Taerum, Stephen J. · 22, 103                                    Weir, Alex · 28, 32, 69, 104, 112
Tasanathai, Kanoksri · 36, 84                                   Westbrook, Andrea · 41, 63
Taylor, John W. · 20, 24, 102, 104                              White, J.F. · 36, 101


White, Merlin · 33, 108                                      Wu, Wenying · 31, 110
Wilkinson, Heather · 38, 78                                  Y
Williams, Calvin L. · 19, 109                                Yafetto, Levi · 31, 111
Willmarth, Kirk · 19, 90                                     Yeo, Sumin · 23, 111
Wingfield, Brenda D. · 23, 34, 45, 52, 84                    Yu, Yan · 38, 65
Wingfield, Michael J. · 23, 33, 34, 45, 52, 84, 111,         Z
                                                             Zanzot, James W. · 23, 33, 111, 112
Winsett, Katherine E. · 29, 42, 109, 110
                                                             Zhang, Ning · 45, 112
Witiak, Sarah Melissa · 39, 110
                                                             Zhang, Y. · 42, 75
Woolfolk, Sandra W. · 34, 100, 110
                                                             Zhou, Fang · 32, 112
Worapong J. · 34, 80                                         Zhou, Jim · 26, 57
Wright, Angela · 28, 104                                     Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella · 17, 105


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