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GIS Introduction

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									WHAT IS GIS
        GIS – SOME DEFINITIONS
• GIS may include manual systems, however, it usually
  refers to a computerised database system for capture,
  storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data
  (Huxhold, 1991).

• GIS is capable of assisting the storage, retrieval and
  manipulation of spatially referenced data such as street
  address or a census tract (Nedovic-Budic, 1999).

• GIS is most useful when used to perform data analysis
  (Lee and Wong, 2001, viii)
       GIS – SOME DEFINITIONS (cont.)
• application
   – acts as a problem solving solution
   – example: water pollution, traffic, land
     management
• toolbox
   – emphasize on the generic aspect of GIS in it’s
     definition
   – always used by vendors to maximize their
     market share
               The History

• First developed in North America,
  particularly the U.S. and Canada in the mid-
  1960s
• Previously been used in natural resources
  and environmental research
                          Period   Name of Database/                  Objective/Purpose/Use               The relevant body in
                                   System                                                                 Charge
GIS History in Malaysia
                          1986     Digital Cadastral                  Management of country’s natural     Department of Survey and
                                   Database (DCDB)                    Resources                           Mapping Malaysia
                                   National Topographic
                                   Database

                          1990     DOA’s GIS-Based Land Resource      Land and land use investigation,    Department of Agriculture
                                   Database                           creation and maintenance of a
                                                                      spatial and attribute database
                                                                      and the storage, processing and
                                                                      management of this information
                                                                      for the purpose of producing land
                                                                      use maps


                          1992     National Infrastructure for Land   Provide timely access to land       Ministry of Land and
                                   Information System (NaLIS).        information, eliminate/reduce       Cooperative Development
                                                                      duplication of data capture and
                                                                      promote effective data sharing
                                                                      among related agencies.

                          1992     Penang Geographic Information      Creation of digital data for all    Penang Development
                                   System (PEGIS)                     land-related administration         Corporation

                          1992     Darul Ehsan GIS (DEGIS)            Integrating the diverse datasets    The State of Selangor
                                                                      through the internet to create an
                                                                      effective, consistent and
                                                                      inexpensive GIS infrastructure

                          1993     Sabah GIS for agriculture          Digitizing all its land use         Sabah DOA
                                                                      distribution maps at a scale of
                                                                      1:25,000
                          1994   PEGIS handed over to the Penang     - same as above -                  Penang      Development
                                 Government                                                                 Corporation
GIS History in Malaysia
                          1994   Computerized Planning               Convert all land-related           Melaka City Council
                                 Information System                  information within the Council
                                                                     Administrative area, into a more
                                                                     efficient and integrated digital
                                                                     Format

                          1995   'AGISWlk' (stand for Aplikasi GIS   Land use/resource                  Bahagian Kemajuan
                                 Wilayah Lembah Klang).              management and planning            Wilayah Persekutuan dan
                                                                                                        Perancangan Lembah
                                                                                                        Klang, Jabatan Perdana
                                                                                                        Menteri (now
                                                                                                        Kementerian Wilayah
                                                                                                        Persekutuan)


                          1995   GIS for forest resources            To establish an efficient and      Forest Department of
                                                                     operational Forest Management      Sarawak
                                                                     Information System using GIS
                                                                     as a tool to support and
                                                                     strengthen the department to
                                                                     carry out its mandate as the
                                                                     custodian of the state's forest
                                                                     Resources


                          2002   Malaysian Cadastral Digital Data    Provide the technology, policies   MaCDDI
                                 Infrastructure                      and standards necessary to
                                                                     acquire, distribute and improve
                                                                     the utilization of land
                                                                     Information
            Tutorial question
• Briefly review the history of Geographic
  Information System application in Malaysia.
                  GIS: OLD AND NEW

Traditional GIS



                                            MANUAL DRAFING
                     MAP       TYPEWRITER   TOOLS




  New GIS

                    COMPUTER     PLOTTER    CD-ROM
                  THE NEED FOR GIS

• the real world has a lot of spatial data
   – manipulation, analysis and modeling can be
     effective and efficiently carried out with a GIS
      •   the neighborhood of the intended purchase of house
      •   the route for fire-fighting vehicles to the fire area
      •   location of historical sites to visit
      •   the earth surface for purposes of army
• the earth surface is a limited resource
      • rational decisions on space utilization
      • fast and quality information in decision making
           ... THE NEED FOR GIS

complexity of management
 – due to the need to combine and process many
   sets of data, in addition to judge as many as
   possible, situation that might happen.
intense competition
 – the need to use technology in making decisions
   and strategy in the world of intense competition.
                A. DATA VISUALISATION

Which one do you prefer: tabular data or map data?



 TABULAR DATA                        MAP
 State        Population (1991)


 Johor            2,074,297


 Kedah            1,304,800


 Kelantan        1,181,680


 Melaka            504,502
                     B. LOCATION
                                   EAST
                             10       11       12



                     3
                                               P


                     4
             SOUTH




                                                S
                     5
                                       Y


1.   WHERE IS OBJECTP?
     ANSWER: P = 3Y SOUTH, 12X EAST


2.   WHAT CAN BE FOUND AT A CERTAIN LOCATION ?
     EXAMPLE: What can be found at 5x SOUTH, 11y EAST?
     ANSWER: Y
                   C. ATTRIBUTE QUESTION:

     NO.      AREA (HECTARE)       OWNER    TAX CODE   MINERAL QUALITY
      1             100,000        TALATU       B         HIGH
      2             50,100        BRAUDO        A      MEDIUM
      3             90,900        BRAUDO        B        LOW
      4             40,800        ANUNKU        A        LOW
      5             120,200        SILIMA       B         HIGH

1.        ATRIBUTE EXPLANATION
          EXAMPLE: WHAT IS THE ATTRIBUTE FOR ITEM 2?


2.        WHERE A CERTAIN SENARIO MIGHT HAPPEN?
          EXAMPLE: WHO HAS THE HIGHEST QUALITY OF MINERALS ?
….QUESTION: RELATIONAL DATABASE

NO.   AREA (HECTARE)        OWNER     TAX CODE    MINERAL QUALITY
 1         100,000          TALATU         B         HIGH
 2         50,100          BRAUDO          A       MEDIUM
 3         90,900          BRAUDO          B        LOW
 4         40,800           ANUNKU         A        LOW
 5         120,200          SILIMA         B         HIGH


3.    SELECTION OF AN AREA (ACCORDING TO RULES)
      EXAMPLE: WHICH ITEM HAS
             a)        AREA >40,000 HECTARE
             b)        OWNER: NOT SILIMA
             c)        TAX CODE: B
             d)        MINERAL QUALITY: HIGH
QUESTION: PATTERN AND RELATIONSHIP
                  X             Z                 Z
                  Y
                                     X   Y
                                                      Y
                                                  X
              Z                              Z

    1. IS OBJECT X IN THE PATTERN?
      YES, IN THE FORM OF LINE, FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST
      IN THE FORM OF A LINE

    2. IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN X AND Y?
      YES, Y IS ALWAYS NEAR X

    3. WHAT OTHER SPATIAL PATTERN EXISTS?
     OBJECT Z IS ALWAYS NEAR THE BORDERS AND ITS SIZE INCREASES
     FROM LEFT TO RIGHT
  TREND QUESTION

         A                            A             B
                     B
          C                           C             D
          1980                             1990
1. WHAT ARE THE CHANGES FOR A,B AND C FROM 1980 TO 1990?
       A: INCREASE IN SIZE
       B: DECREASE IN SIZE AND CHANGE IN LOCATION
       C: CHANGES IN SHAPE


2. WHAT HAS CHANGED SINCE 1980?
       A AND B HAVE CHANGED IN SIZE
       B RELOCATES
       C CHANGES IN SHAPE
       ADDITION OF ITEM D
         GIS AND OTHER INFORMATION
                    SYSTEMS
                Information
                  System

Non-spatial                      Spatial
Information                   Information
  Systems                       Systems

Management           Geographic        Other
Information          Information       Types
  Systems              Systems       (CAD/CAM)
                                GIS
                                USES


           VARIOUS DATA     AND          VARIOUS DATA
1          SOURCES                       FORMATS



                      DIGITAL                  TEXT         TABULAR
2   MAPS     IMAGE
                     PRODUCTS
                                       GPS
                                               DATA           DATA




                          DATABASE

           MAPS                                  REPORTS

            4                    3                      4
               GIS APPLICATION (I)

• environment
   – management of natural resources
       • land, forest, marine, etc.
   – monitoring/control of environmental pollution
   – environment impact study
• infrastructure
   – transport and irrigation management and
      maintenance
   – utility management and maintenance
       • electric, water, gas, telephone, etc.
              GIS APPLICATION (II)


• socio-economy
   – town and country planning
   – monitoring of population migration
   – disperse of resources/services
       • clinics, schools, etc
• military
   – land form visualisation
   – visibility analysis
     Residential Real Estate

• A single map lets your customer compare
  multiple properties and their respective
  proximity to desired amenities such as
  schools, parks, and shopping centers.
• Introduce the subject of disclosure by
  displaying FEMA floodplain data and know
  toxic sites in an area.
           Commercial Real Estate
• Evaluate and analyze key factors when siting new premise for
  restaurants, stores, warehouses, corporate offices etc.:
  * Proximity to suitable customers
  * Location of potential competitors
  * Crime rates
  * Transportation infrastructure
  * Regional labor pool characteristics
  * Environmental risk factors (i.e., flood plains, toxic sites, and
  others)
• Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) can gain a competitive
  edge over traditional investments by using GIS to quantifying
  the investment potential of portfolios.
• GIS can show properties in the context of potential
  customers/tenants, nearness to competitors, inventories of like
  property, labor pools, and risk factors.
          Multiple Listing Services
• Multiple Listing Services (MLSs) can add features and
  functions to the standard MLS menu of services such as an
  interactive map to show qualifying properties in the context of
  neighborhood amenities or perceived nuisances. Layers such as
  toxic sites can be added to address the sometimes thorny issue
  of disclosure.
• A prospective buyer can browse listings, look at an appropriate
  map, and choose an agent without ever leaving home. A good
  Internet site can link visitors to agents' e-mails and office Web
  sites.
• Mapping at the local level. Data such as parcel maps, school
  district boundaries, bus routes, local parks, and recreation
  facilities can be used by local MLS providers.
• Internet Map Server (IMS) technology gives us the tools to
  publish maps on the internet.
                 Title Companies
• Title companies can use GIS for relatively simple customer care
  mapping services, preliminary title searches, and the creation of
  GIS-based land information systems (LISs).
• LIS projects can involve the conversion of an existing paper-based
  land registration/taxation system to an automated interactive GIS
  system. Projects also include the creation of GIS/LIS from
  historical records and aerial photogrammetry.
• The title industry can also take advantage of internet-enabled GIS
  systems to allow free public access to a county's parcel ownership
  data and maps with a gateway to a fee-for-service section.
• In the fee-for-service section, customers can order/down
  proprietary data and reports and initiate title searches. More
  innovative applications can be linked to a local real estate board or
  MLS provider and are of particular value to a wide range of real
  estate professionals.
                  Appraisers

• Map current and recently retired listings for a more
  accurate representation of sales information for
  comparison.
• GIS maps properties based on searchable features such
  as address and parcel number, so we can review all
  properties in a given area using these ‘connectors’
• ArcView GIS desktop software gives you the tools to
  map features that affect a property's value such as crime
  rates, environmental hazards, and the condition of
  surrounding neighborhoods and properties.
                          GIS USAGE
• Data recall                         Geomdk_id: 252
                                      Area: 147: 147.477900
                                      Geodmk_: 640
                                      Account_no: A0546142
      Land Ownership
                                      Owner: LAM MEE WONG
    MAJLIS DAERAH KULAI               No_k_p: 2224567
                                      Bangsa: CINA
                                      Address: 142, JLN. BERJASA,
                                      TMN. TIMUR,
                                      KULAI, JOHOR
                                      Poscode: 81000
                                      No_geran: GM 125
                                      No_lot: PTD 12201
                                      Area: BANDAR KULAI
                                      Mukim: SENAI-KULAI
                                      Holding: BEBAS
                                      Usage: KEDIAMAN
                                      Floors: 01
                                      Assesment: 89000.00
                                      Rate: 0.25
                                      Tax: 222.50
• Modeling
   – predict information from data within the GIS
   using a certain model

                                               Population Density
                                               Year 2010


                                                       - High
                                                       - Medium
                                                       - Low
                 BENEFITS OF GIS
• improves/enhances the effects of
  physical/environmental growth
• better management of resources
• adding new value-added services
• perform analysis on spatial and non spatial
  components
• fast recall of data
• ability for complex analysis
• recalling of non spatial data through object location
• display of information in a different light/view
• multiple scenario in planning can be performed
  easily

								
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