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					REGIONAL INDIGENOUS LAND STRATEGY


            2007-2012




        South Australia
1       INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 3
2       ILC REGIONAL AREAS............................................................................................... 4
3       THE REGIONAL INDIGENOUS LAND STRATEGY ................................................ 4
    3.1Regional Indigenous Land Strategy................................................................... 4
    3.2Relationship to the National Indigenous Land Strategy ............................... 4
4 REGIONAL CONSULTATIONS .................................................................................. 4
5 COLLABORATION ....................................................................................................... 5
6 LAND ACQUISITION BY APPLICATION ................................................................ 5
7 LAND MANAGEMENT BY APPLICATION .............................................................. 5
8 STRATEGIC LAND ACQUISITION AND LAND MANAGEMENT ...................... 5
9 BENEFITS ........................................................................................................................ 6
10 SOUTH AUSTRALIA REGIONAL AREA OVERVIEW............................................. 6
  10.1 Population Characteristics………………………………………………………………..…7
            Table 1. South Australia’s Indigenous Population………………………..7
            Figure 1. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
            population of South Australia………………….…………………………..………7
            Table 2. South Australia’s Indigenous population by sex……………..7
            Figure 2. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander female and
            Male population within South Australia………………………………………8
            Figure 3. Map of Indigenous population in South Australia…………8
            Table 3. South Australia’s Indigenous highest year of school
            completed……………………………………………………………………8
            Figure 4. Highest year of school completion for Indigenous
            People of South Australia……………………………………………………………9
            Table 4. Individual Indigenous income 15-65+ years………..….….10
            Table 5. Indigenous households in South Australia……………………10
            Table 6. Indigenous landholdings in South Australia…………………11
            Figure 5. Existing Indigenous-held Land …………………….……………..11
            Table 7. Indigenous female and male labour force by age range
            in South Australia……………………………………………………………………..12
            Figure 6. Indigenous employment by industry for
            South Australia………………………………………………………………………….12
  10.2 Physical Characteristics…………………………………………..…………………..…....13
  10.3 Land based industry status………………………………………………….……………..13
  10.4 Key environmental issues…………………………………………..……………..….…..13
11 COMMONWEALTH AND STATE LAWS ............................................................... 14
  11.1 Introduction……….…………………………………………………..…………..…..............14
  11.2 Native Title Issues………...………………………..………………….……………………. 14
  11.3 Other Commonwealth Legislation……………………………..……..………….…...14
  11.4 South Australian Legislation…………………………….. ……………….……………..15
12 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................... 15
1.   INTRODUCTION

The ILC Board is pleased to present the Regional Indigenous Land Strategy (RILS)
2007-2012 for South Australia. The ILC believes the need for an understanding
of land issues at a local level is important. The RILS provides regional context,
data and information, including Indigenous population characteristics, physical
characteristics and land based industry status, Indigenous landholdings, and
legislation relevant to South Australia. The RILS align with the policies and
principles of the National Indigenous Land Strategy (NILS) 2007-2012.

Under the NILS, the ILC Board affirmed the following mechanisms for achieving
social, cultural, environmental and/or economic benefits from its land
acquisition and land management programs:
   • Seeking applications from Indigenous groups;
   • Strategically initiating projects; and
   • Operating viable businesses that produce education, training and
       employment benefits.

The ILC maintains that achieving sustainable benefits through land ownership
and management is a challenging and complex task, involving an array of
technical, business and management skills. Consequently, the ILC’s land
acquisition and management programs require applicant groups to define a
specific purpose, to demonstrate that benefits are achievable, and to
demonstrate that they possess capacity and commitment. The ILC assesses all
applications thoroughly and does not support those that are not sustainable in
the long term or are inconsistent with the ILC’s Program Guidelines. The ILC
gives priority to projects that deliver training and employment opportunities to
Indigenous people.

The ILC’s land acquisition and land management functions are undertaken in
addition to, and not instead of, the functions of other agencies. The ILC
proactively collaborates with other parties, including Australian and
State/Territory Government agencies, private industry, peak Indigenous
organisations, communities and the non-government sector, to achieve
sustainable benefits for Indigenous people.

The ILC’s collaborative partnerships have attracted significant additional
financial and human resources allowing long-term, sustainable programs to be
developed with a focus on building capacity, equity and economic returns. The
ILC will continue this approach to help deliver sustainable benefits and to
increase economic development, education, training and employment
outcomes, particularly in key industries such as pastoralism and tourism.

The ILC looks forward to continuing work with Indigenous people, Australian,
State and Territory Governments, and other agencies to assist Indigenous people
to address land management issues on Indigenous-held land, and provide
cultural, social, environmental and/or economic benefits, especially in training
and employment.




                                                                             -3-
2.   ILC REGIONAL AREAS
Sub-section 191P(2) of the ATSI Act requires the ILC Board to determine regional
areas for the purpose of preparing the RILS. The Board has determined that the
regional areas would be the six States and the Northern Territory. The Australian
Capital Territory is incorporated into the New South Wales RILS.

The ILC regional areas have been defined for the purpose of preparing the seven
ILC RILS as required under the ATSI Act.

The ILC is aware that most regional Indigenous organisations, including statutory
bodies such as Native Title Representative Bodies, cover only a part of the ILC
regional area in which they are located. The ILC also recognises that the
complex pattern of Indigenous attachment to land does not necessarily conform
to State or Territory borders.

3.   THE REGIONAL INDIGENOUS LAND STRATEGY

3.1 Regional Indigenous Land Strategy

This RILS is prepared in conjunction with the NILS and is consistent with its
policies and priorities. The RILS are designed to give the ILC Board context on
the demographics of Indigenous people in a region and to assist in its decision-
making.

Each RILS needs to be read in conjunction with, and is subject to, the NILS.

3.2 Relationship to the National Indigenous Land Strategy

The NILS 2007-2012 was prepared in accordance with section 191N of the
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Act 2005 (‘the ATSI Act’). It is the ILC’s key
policy document and sets out the ILC’s principles, policies, program structure
and the strategic direction set by the ILC Board. The NILS adopts a flexible
approach enabling the ILC to proactively accommodate and respond to the
many regional differences that may impact on its functions.

Together the NILS and RILS are designed to provide Indigenous peoples and
other stakeholders with an understanding of the way the ILC will operate and
assist them. The ILC Board is required by section 191Q to have regard to the
NILS and the relevant RILS for the purpose of the performance of its functions.

The policies are not static or fixed documents and will be subject to regular
reviews and updates as required.

4.   REGIONAL CONSULTATIONS

The ILC believes that the need for an understanding of land issues at a local
level is important. Since its establishment, the ILC has consulted, and will
continue to consult, Indigenous groups, representative bodies, and other
stakeholders in relation to the performance of its functions.

This provides continuous feedback on ILC policies and procedures and
facilitates effective monitoring and evaluation of the benefits being derived by
Indigenous landholders. The ILC also consults State, Territory and Australian
                                                                               -4-
Government agencies, particularly in relation to the support of land use
activities.

5.       COLLABORATION

The ILC recognises that whole-of-government approaches and partnerships with
non-government agencies, Indigenous people and the private sector are required
to achieve real and lasting outcomes, particularly in training and employment.

6.       LAND ACQUISITION BY APPLICATION

The ILC will buy land and property for the purpose of assisting Indigenous
people to derive cultural, social, environmental or economic benefits when and
Indigenous group’s land need cannot be met through the functions of any other
agency. In particular, the NILS 2007-2012 states that the ILC will give priority to
projects that achieve training and employment outcomes for Indigenous people.

Indigenous groups are able to apply to the ILC for assistance with acquisition of
land to derive benefits under the following four streams:
     •     Cultural
     •     Social
     •     Environmental; and
     •     Economic.


7.       LAND MANAGEMENT BY APPLICATION

The ILC can support land management activities in relation to all Indigenous-
held land, provided that the activities meet the definition of land management as
defined in the ATSI Act.

The Land Management Program was designed to assist Indigenous landholders
to care for, develop and productively use their land to derive cultural, social,
environmental or economic benefits.

Indigenous landholders or agencies can apply to the ILC for support to:
     •     develop plans for their properties;
     •     Undertake cultural, social, environmental and economic projects on
           Indigenous-held land; and
     •     Achieve social, environmental, cultural and economic benefits in a
           region.


8.       STRATEGIC LAND ACQUISITION AND LAND MANAGEMENT

The ILC may initiate strategic land acquisition or land management projects
provided criteria are met and the Board endorses the proposed project.


                                                                              -5-
Strategic projects will focus on delivering education, training and employment
benefits in regions and specific industries. Collaboration and coordinated
service delivery with other agencies will be a priority.

The Board will take a long-term view regarding strategic land acquisition
projects. Consequently, divestment may take place over a longer-term period
while the ILC is an active partner. Land will not be granted unless the ILC is
satisfied the project’s future is sustainable.

Strategic land management projects may be shorter-term, but must focus on
developing the capacity for land management over regional areas, and
delivering training and employment in specific industries.

The ILC Board has identified the pastoral and tourism industries as focus areas
for strategic initiatives. The ILC will purchase land or lease Indigenous held land
and develop these as:
        viable enterprises;
        centres of Indigenous employment; and,
        hubs for skills development.

The initiatives will enhance Indigenous participation in the pastoral industry,
tourism and regional economies. In particular, the ILC will seek to generate
significant training and employment opportunities in these industries for
Indigenous people.

9.    BENEFITS

The primary outcome of the ILC’s land acquisition and land management
program is the delivery of environmental, cultural, economic and social benefits
to Indigenous people. Land will not be acquired or land management assistance
given unless applicants clearly show that sustainable benefits will arise and how
capacity already exists to deliver these benefits or will be achieved.

The ILC gives priority to projects that deliver training and employment
opportunities to Indigenous people.

10. SOUTH AUSTRALIA REGIONAL AREA OVERVIEW
South Australia (SA) is the fourth largest Australian state or territory, covering an
area of 983,966 km2 or approximately 12.8% of the Australian landmass. The
majority of the state’s population reside in Adelaide, while other major
population centres are located in fertile coastal areas and the valley of the
Murray River.




                                                                                -6-
10.1 Population Characteristics

The total population of South Australia is 1,514,337, making up 7.63% of the
Australian population. Of the total population, 25,557 (1.69%) residents are
Indigenous. The Indigenous population in SA is evenly distributed across both
rural/remote regions and larger urban centres.

Table 1. South Australia’s Indigenous population

          Indigenous Population - South Australia
          Aboriginal                                                                 24,080
          Torres Strait Islander                                                       1045
          Both Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander                                      432
          Total                                                                      25,557
          Indigenous population as percent of total
          South Australian population                                                1.69%
          Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census.




Figure 1. Aboriginal and / or Torres Strait Islander population of South
Australia



           432

             1,045

                                                                                                  24,080


      0                 5,000              10,000                 15,000          20,000         25,000           30,000



           Aboriginal             Torres Strait Islander                   Both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
   Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census


Table 2. South Australia’s Indigenous population by sex

      Population
      Aboriginal Males                                                                     11,703
      Aboriginal Females                                                                   12,377
      Torres Strait Islander Males                                                             524
      Torres Strait Islander Females                                                           521
      Both Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Males                                           221
                                                                                                              .
      Both Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Females                                         211

   Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census




                                                                                                                   -7-
Figure 2. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander female and male population
within South Australia


              2 11

                521

                                                                                                            12 ,3 7 7




              221

                524

                                                                                                      11,7 0 3



          0            2,000            4,000          6,000         8,000         10 , 0 0 0      12 , 0 0 0      14 , 0 0 0


         Ab o rig in a l     T o rre s S tra it Isla n d e r   Bo th A b o rig in a l a n d T o rre s S tra it Isla n d e r

Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census


Figure 3. Map of Indigenous population in South Australia




                                                                                                                        -8-
Table 3. South Australia’s Indigenous highest year of school completed

     Highest year of school completed

     Year 12 or equivalent                                                             2,760

     Year 11 or equivalent                                                             3,056

     Year 10 or equivalent                                                             3,948

     Year 9 or equivalent                                                              1,837

     Year 8 or below                                                                   2,157

     Did not go                                                                         333

     Not stated                                                                        2,174

     Total                                                                            16,265

     Indigenous Percentage of total South Australian
                                                                                      1.32%
     population

   Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census




Figure 4. Highest year of school completion for Indigenous people of South
Australia




  4,500
                                                  3,948
  4,000
  3,500
                                 3,056
  3,000        2,760
  2,500                                                                       2,157                   2,174
  2,000                                                         1,837

  1,500
  1,000
    500                                                                                   333

       0
              Year 12          Year 11          Year 10        Year 9     Year 8       Did not go   Not stated

                                                          Indigenous people




   Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census




                                                                                                         -9-
Table 4. Individual Indigenous Income 15 to 65+ years

Table 4 shows that the highest numbers of Indigenous people across all age
categories have an income of $150-$249 per week.

  Income                        15-24        25-34       35-44    45-54      55-64         65+        Total

  Negative/Nil income            445           60            47    35           11          7         605

  $1 - $149                      398          114            96    62           24         19         713

  $150 - $249                    585          424           415    263          177        155        2,019

  $250 - $399                    254          171           195    122          83         69         894

  $400 - $599                    226          221           171    134          62         28         842

  $600 - $799                    101          184           140    118          45         22         610

  $800 - $999                     34          101            99    86           37          5         362

  $1000 or more                   51          130           163    147          55         10         556

  Not stated                     404          284           214    137          58         50         1,147
    Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census.


Table 5. Indigenous households in South Australia

Table 5 shows the dwelling and tenure type for Indigenous people in South
Australia. 60% of Indigenous households reside in rented accommodation,
while 34% live in accommodation that is either fully owned or being purchased.

  Dwelling Type                                                     Tenure Type
                                                      Being    Fully Rented Other    Not Total
                                                    Purchased Owned          Tenure Stated
                                                                              Type
  Flat, unit or apartment                                51       23      567         5          44     690

  Separate house                                        2,254     830     4,250       56         346 7,736

  Caravan, cabin, houseboat                              0        22       26         0          11     59

  House/flat attached to shop, office, etc               0        0        6          0          0       6

  Improvised home, tent, sleepers out                    0         4       3          0          71     78

  Semi-detached, row/terrace, townhouse                 137       52      1,093       11         85    1,378

  Not stated                                             0        0        4          0          0       4

  Total                                                 2,442     931     5,949       72         557 9,951
Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census.




                                                                                                       - 10 -
Table 6. Indigenous landholdings in South Australia

Table 6 shows that 203,923 km2 of land (21% of the state) is Indigenous-held.

  Land
  No. Parcels                                              1487
             2
  Area km                                           203,923.04
                                      2
  Total Area State/Territory km ^                   983,966.50
  LILI* as % of State                                      20.72
^Total land areas developed from GeoSciences Australia data.
*Legal Indigenous Land Interests (LILI) data developed from the ILC's Property Acquisition and Management
System.


FIGURE 5. Existing Indigenous-held Land*
*Legal Indigenous Land Interests less than 100 ha are not shown in the maps for graphical clarity




                                                                                                    - 11 -
  Table 7. Indigenous female and male labour force by age range in South
  Australia
                                Employed                                 Unemployed                      Total                        Not in                 Not          Total
                                                                                                        Labour                        Labour                Stated
                                                                                                         Force                         Force
                                                                                                   Female
        15-24                        792                                         219                                1,011                 1,408               114         2,533
        25-34                        764                                         143                                 907                  864                     82      1,853
        35-44                        809                                         112                                 921                  749                     83      1,753
        45-54                        570                                          53                                 623                  509                     61      1,193
        55-64                        198                                          18                                 216                  382                     44       642
          65+                          35                                              3                                 38               435                     69       542
                                                                                                       Male
        15-24                        951                                         282                                1,233                 1,130               132         2,495
        25-34                        845                                         182                                1,027                 560                 102         1,689
        35-44                        733                                         162                                 895                  546                     99      1,540
        45-54                        600                                          57                                 657                  379                     68      1,104
        55-64                        222                                          13                                 235                  287                     32       554
          65+                          48                                              3                                 51               259                     55       365
  Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census.



  Figure 6. Indigenous employment by industry for South Australia
  Figure 6 shows that the highest numbers of Indigenous females were employed
  in health care and social assistance, followed by public administration and
  safety. The highest numbers of Indigenous males were employed in public
  administration and safety, followed by manufacturing.
           Accommodation & food services                                                                     243
                                                                                 115

          Administrative & support services                                              148
                                                                                       137

               Agriculture, forestry & fishing                       58
                                                                                           160

                  Arts & recreation services                    45
                                                                44

                                Construction             16
                                                                                                                          311

                        Education & training                                                                                                    458
                                                                                                 183
                                                     7
     Electricity, gas, water & waste services                  43

             Financial & insurance services                    39
                                                         18

            Health care & social assistance                                                                                                                                     726
                                                                                                                                      404
                                                              31
  Information media & telec ommunications                     32

                              Manufacturing                                        125
                                                                                                                                          416

                                      Mining         8
                                                                     58

Professional, scientific & technical services                             85
                                                                    51

              Public administration & safety                                                                                                          488
                                                                                                                                                            537
                                                               35
        Rental, hiring & real estate services                 31

                                 Retail trade                                                                      269
                                                                                                 186

           Transport, postal & warehousing                          50
                                                                                           155
                                                               42
                            Wholesale trade                                96

                              Other services                              85
                                                                            98

                                  Not stated                                                           209
                                                                                                                              327

                                                 0                        100                    200                300             400               500          600    700         800
                  Males       Females



  Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census

                                                                                                                                                                         - 12 -
10.2 Physical Characteristics

South Australia is characterised by its flat topography and dry climate. The state
is home to several low mountain ranges, but over 80% of the land area is less
than 300m above sea level. The majority of South Australia is comprised of arid
plains, desert and salt lakes, although the wetter south eastern parts of the state
are home to some very fertile agricultural areas.

10.3 Land Based Industry Status

Significant elements of the South Australian economy are agriculture and
horticulture (including wine) products, mineral resources, aquaculture and
fisheries. South Australia’s land based industries focus around mining in the
state’s north, and agriculture in the more fertile areas in the south east and
around the Murray River.

South Australia has a very diverse agricultural sector, which produced $3.9
billion in 2004-05. Crops represent 67% of the state’s gross agricultural product,
with the most significant being wine grapes, wheat and barley. Pastoral activities
are also widespread in South Australia, particularly sheep grazing. In
comparison to other states, cattle grazing is not a major industry in South
Australia.


10.4 Key Environmental Issues

Significant environmental issues in South Australia include:
        Dryland salinity
        Loss of biodiversity
        Erosion
        Murray River water flow
        Pests and weeds




                                                                             - 13 -
11.    COMMONWEALTH AND STATE LAWS

11.1 Introduction
This section outlines Commonwealth and SA laws relevant to the functions of
the ILC.

The Acts listed below address:
   • Native title, land rights and land grants;
   • Indigenous heritage protection;
   • Environmental land management of Indigenous-held land; and
   • Rights to, protection of and control over land, such that the land falls
      within the definition of ‘Indigenous-held land’ given by section 4B of the
      ATSI Act.

11.2 Native Title Issues

Native Title Act 1993 (Cth)
This Act establishes principles and procedures for dealing with native title. It
recognises and protects native title, by providing that acts affecting native title
can only be validly done only in accordance with certain procedural, and
sometimes substantive, requirements.

It validates past acts attributable to the Commonwealth which may otherwise be
invalid because of native title. It enables States and Territories to do the same.

It establishes a regime in which native title rights are protected and imposes
conditions on future acts affecting native title land and waters, and in particular
provides a special 'right to negotiate' for native title holders and claimants in
relation to mining and some types of compulsory acquisition of native title
outside towns.

It establishes the National Native Title Tribunal and processes by which native
title rights can be established, by which determinations can be made about
whether future grants or acts can be made over land and waters and by which
compensation can be determined.

Native Title (South Australia) Act 1994 (SA)
This Act operates in conjunction with the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth). It
validates past acts, which may otherwise be invalid because of native title. It
creates a regime whereby native title in SA may be recognised and a system of
hearing and recording matters related to native title.

The Act confirms the state’s existing right of ownership of natural resources,
rights to regulate flow of water, and existing fishing rights. Public access to
waterways, foreshores of waterways, coastal waters, beaches, stock routes and
public places is confirmed.

11.3 Other Commonwealth Legislation

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Cth)
This Act creates a system of protection of places, areas and objects of particular
significance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia.

                                                                             - 14 -
The Minister may make a declaration to protect an area of land or water of
significance to Aboriginal people, and where a declaration affects an acquisition
of property, it must be made on just terms.

A declaration must be revoked if the Minister becomes satisfied that the relevant
State law provides effective protection.

The Act provides for a local Aboriginal community to enter an Aboriginal
Cultural Heritage agreement with the owner of Aboriginal cultural property
(including land) covering such things as the preservation, maintenance,
exhibition, sale and use of the property.

The provisions of the Act which enable a declaration can only be used as a last
resort after all other heritage protection mechanisms at State or Territory level
have been exhausted.

Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth)
The Act established an Indigenous advisory committee to advise the Minister on
the significance of Indigenous peoples’ knowledge of land management,
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

The Act has the following objects:
   1) To promote a cooperative approach to the protection and management of
      the environment involving governments, the community, land holders
      and Indigenous peoples;
   2) To recognise the role of Indigenous people in the conservation and
      ecologically sustainable use of Australia’s biodiversity; and
   3) To promote the use of indigenous people’s knowledge of biodiversity
      with the involvement of, and in cooperation with, the owners of the
      knowledge.

11.4 South Australian Legislation

Aboriginal Heritage Act 1988 (SA)
This Act provides for the protection and preservation of Aboriginal heritage. It
establishes the Aboriginal Heritage Committee, which must consist of Aboriginal
persons appointed by the Minister. If traditional owners of an Aboriginal site or
object so request, the Minister must delegate to the traditional owners, his/her
powers under certain provisions of the Act dealing with treatment of sites, sale of
objects and the giving of information.

The Act establishes a Register of Aboriginal Sites and Objects. The Act allows for
a discretionary refusal to disclose the situation of sacred sites if the Minister
believes that the disclosure is likely to be detrimental to the protection or
preservation of the site or object, or to be in contravention of Aboriginal
tradition.

This Act also allows for the Minister to enter into an Aboriginal Heritage
Agreement with an owner of land on which there is an Aboriginal site, object or
remains. This agreement attaches to the land and is binding on the current
owner of the land, whether or not that owner was the person with whom the
agreement was made. The Aboriginal people with an interest in the land must be
                                                                             - 15 -
given the opportunity to be involved in the Aboriginal Heritage Agreement,
however the Agreements are valid without their participation.

Aboriginal Lands Trust Act 1966 (SA)
This Act establishes the Aboriginal Lands Trust, each member of which is to be
Aboriginal. The Act gives power to the Governor to transfer Crown land, or
land reserved for Aboriginal people - in freehold or other tenure - to the trust.
The Minister of Lands or Irrigation, as the case may be, and both Houses of
Parliament must first give a recommendation in respect of any Crown land
which does not contain a reserve for Aboriginal people prior to any grant of that
land.

Minerals are reserved to the Crown. The Government may make payments to
the Trust of an amount not exceeding any royalties that the Crown may have
received for any mining leases granted over the land.

Heritage Places Act 1993 (SA)
This Act establishes the South Australian Heritage Council which is to maintain
the State Heritage Register. This Register contains places designated in any
development plan as places of local heritage value. It also contains places
entered in any register of places of natural or historic significance kept under a
law of the Australian Parliament. The Council may also advise the Minister on
the terms of a Heritage Agreement that the Minister may enter into with an
owner of land.

Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act 1984 (SA)
This Act establishes Maralinga Tjarutja as a corporate body. Its functions include
protecting interests of traditional owners in relation to management use and
control of the lands. The Governor may grant land in freehold to the Maralinga
Tjarutja of any part of the Maralinga Tjarutja lands and land cannot be alienated.
The Council of the Maralinga Tjarutja have control over mining on the land.
Any occupation of part of the land for health, education, etc, by the Crown
continues to be permitted for fifty years from the commencement of the Act.

Pastoral Land Management and Conservation Act 1989 (SA)
  This Act provides for the State Government to grant pastoral leases of Crown
  land for periods of 42 years. It preserves the right of Aborigines to enter,
  travel across or stay on pastoral land for the purpose of following their
  traditional pursuits. Restrictions on these rights include not camping within a
  radius of one kilometre of a house or building on the property or within a 500
  metre radius of a dam or stock watering point.

Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Land Rights Act 1981 (SA)
  This Act provides for the Governor to grant land in the north west area of the
  state in freehold to Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara. The land granted is
  inalienable. All Anangu have access to the land, and others must not enter
  the land without permission from Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara.

Environment Protection Act 1993 (SA)
This Act establishes the Environment Protection Authority to promote the
principles of ecologically sustainable development, which are that the use of the
environment should be managed in a way to sustain natural resources to meet
reasonably foreseeable needs of future generations as well as safeguarding air,
                                                                           - 16 -
water, land and ecosystems. It imposes a general environment duty on a person
not to undertake any activity that pollutes the environment unless all reasonable
measures to prevent or minimise any resulting environmental harm have been
taken. The Authority may also prepare draft environment protection policies
which may eventually be proclaimed by the Minister after proper consultation
with interested persons.

If a person is to carry out work for the construction or alteration of a building for
use for an activity of environmental significance, then that person must obtain an
environmental authorisation from the Authority. The Authority may also issue
environment protection orders for the purpose of securing compliance with the
general environmental duty or mandatory provisions of an environment
protection policy or a condition of an environmental authorisation.




                                                                               - 17 -
12. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008. Year Book Australia 2008, catalogue
number 1301.0

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007.      South Australia at a Glance 2007,
catalogue number 1306.4

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006. Agricultural State Profile, South Australia,
2004-2005, catalogue number 7123.6.55.001

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006b. Value of Agricultural Commodities
Produced, Australia, 2004-2005, catalogue number 7503.0

State Government of South Australia, 2008. Atlas South Australia,
 http://www.atlas.sa.gov.au/go/about-south-australia/facts-and-figures




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