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					                                      Sample Midterm 1 Intro to Evolution of Animal Behavior
                                                           11:704:269

1. Which of the following is an example of natural selection in action?
a. the adaptations of marine iguanas to their mode of life
*b. the changing frequencies of dark- and light-colored peppered moth morphs in English populations over the past two centuries
c. the spontaneous production of a new plant species by the interbreeding of two parent species
d. interbreeding between different species sometimes occurs in plants, and can produce a true-breeding, new daughter species that
cannot interbreed with either parent species).
e. the reduction in the genetic variability of the northern elephant seal as a result of bottlenecking the development of dog breeds.

2. A population is
a. the minimum number of individuals required to maintain a varied gene pool in a given environment. the smallest unit that can
evolve.
*b. a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time.
c. a collection of communities.
d. both b and c.

3. Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is called
a. a founder effect
b. gene flow
c. nonrandom mating
d. natural selection
*e. a bottleneck effect

4. Random changes in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population is called
a. mutation
b. diversifying selection
c. microevolution
d. directional selection
*e. genetic drift

5. A species is defined as
a. a group of identical looking animals
b. a group of organisms that are similar and share a high proportion of genes
c. a group organisms that are similar and have the same mating habits
d. a population or group of populations that are not geographically separated and look similar
*e. a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce fertile offspring

6. Which of the following situations would be most conducive to a founder effect? (Assume the conditions described persist as long as
necessary.)
a. A bunchgrass population is split in two by the Grand Canyon. Every few years, strong winds carry bunchgrass pollen across the
canyon.
b. Bighorn sheep occupy mountainous terrain from Canada through Death Valley, interbreeding all the way. The populations at the
two ends of the range live in very different environments.
c. The growth of the Isthmus of Panama separates an abundant shrimp species into two large, completely isolated populations.
d. A Japanese mollusk species whose larvae are often carried from port to port in ship bilge now flourishes in San Francisco Bay
*e. Four circus wolves escape on Long Island. To everyone's surprise, they establish a small but viable population, coexisting
successfully with humans in a partly suburban environment. The population is isolated from other wolves.

7. The evolution of new species is called
a. reproductive isolation
*b. speciation
c. macroevolution
d. microevolution
e. geographic isolation
8. Speciation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation. Reproductive isolation can occur when individuals in two populations
a. mate with each other, but produce offspring that are non-viable.
b. use different types of behaviors to attract mates
c. have anatomical features that make it difficult for organisms from the different populations to mate and transfer sex cells.
d. can't mate with each other because mating occurs at different times
*e. all of the above

9. Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of moth species that could interbreed except that the females'
mating pheromones are not attractive to the males of the other species?
a. temporal isolation
b. gametic isolation
c. habitat isolation
d. mechanical isolation
*e. behavioral isolation

10. Two species interbreed occasionally and produce vigorous, fertile hybrids. When the hybrids breed with each other or with either
parent species, however, the offspring are feeble or sterile. These species are separated by
a. hybrid inviability
b. hybrid breakdown
c. hybrid competition
*d. hybrid sterility
e. gametic isolation

11. Two populations of the white-footed mouse Peromyscus maniculatus that are separated by a geographical barrier that prevents
gene flow constitute a pair of
*a. allopatric populations.
b. emergent species.
c. communities.
d. sympatric populations.
e. subspecies.

12. When nest building, Fisher's lovebird cuts long strips of vegetation and carries them to the nest site one at a time in her beak. The
peach-faced lovebird cuts short strips and carries them to the nest tucked under back feathers. Hybrid offspring cut intermediate-sized
strips and attempt to tuck them under back feathers before carrying them in their beak. What does this demonstrate about behavior?
a. Lovebirds can be trained easily.
b. Behavior can be learned from parents.
c. Environment is important in forming behaviors.
d. The smaller the strip, the easier it is to carry.
*e. There is a genetic basis to behavior.

13. What do we call the type of associated learning in which a stimulus is associated with a reward or punishment?
a. trial-and-error learning
b. positive or negative rewarding
c. imitation
d. programmed learning
*e. classical conditioning

14. Which of the following scientists was the first to use experimental work on animal behavior?
a. Karl von Frisch
b. Konrad Lorenz
c. Nikolaas Tinbergen
*d. all of the above

15. Thirty people are assigned to live in a spaceship that is exploring other galaxies. The journey will take several hundred years and
will be completed by the descendants of these crew members. The gene pool of the population on this ship when it returns is most
likely to reflect
a. a bottleneck effect.
b. gene flow.
*c. a founder effect.
d. mutation pressure.
e. polymorphism.
16. When evolutionary biologists describe an organism as being "fit", they mean that the organism
a. lives for a long time.
*b. reproduces viable young.
c. survives many hardships.
d. is stronger than the other organisms in its community.
e. is disease-free.

17. Which of the following types of reproductive barriers separates a pair of species that could interbreed except that one mates at
dusk and the other at dawn?
a. gametic isolation
b. habitat isolation
c. behavioral isolation
d. mechanical isolation
*e. temporal isolation

				
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