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									                METAMORPHOSIS OF A CECROPIA MOTH
                                       Student’s Dossier


1 - Brainstorming
Answer the following questions by using the following mind maps to build up complete

What is a moth?

What is special about moths and butterflies?

                                          a moth

What is a caterpillar?

                                        a caterpillar

                    METAMORPHOSIS OF A CECROPIA MOTH (text 1)

Most insects undergo a transformation of their bodies known as metamorphosis.
The creeping caterpillar turns into a moth with wings. Then the moth flies from its cocoon looking
for a mate or a place to lay its eggs.
Metamorphosis is a well-known biological phenomenon. However, until many years ago it was one
of the most mysterious. Recent experiments have carefully investigated these changes.

The life cycle of a Cecropia moth

The Cecropia moth (Hyalophora cecropia) is the largest moth in North America. The habitat of this
moth includes wild as well as urban and suburban areas. A Cecropia moth has a red body with
white bands on the abdomen. Its wings are dark brown and red with white and yellow edges. Its
antennae are large and feathery.


                                     Figure 1 - Cecropia moth

Female moths lay rows of eggs on the leaves of small trees and shrubs. An egg laid by a moth
hatches into a tiny larva after ten days. Then the larva, also called caterpillar, feeds voraciously for
six to eight weeks until it reaches maturity.

During this period the young larva starts moult. The larva changes colour and grows enormously,
splitting out of four skins, called cuticles. Then the fat larva spins a cocoon. Glands near the
caterpillar’s mouth extrude liquid silk so that the caterpillar can spin the cocoon. To escape
predation by rodents and birds, the cocoon is usually constructed in a dark, protected area. Within
the cocoon the pupa begins to form.

During the following period of dormancy the pupa rearranges its body tissue to form the mature
moth. At the end of the period of dormancy the moth escapes from the dry cuticle of the pupa. The
cuticle of the pupa begins to split at the head and the moth comes out. Then, using its legs, the moth
pulls out its body free and exposes its folded wings. Blood expands the wings, so that the moth can
fly. The mature moth cannot eat. It is only a reproductive creature which lives long enough to find a
mate and repeat the cycle.

1. What causes this change of body form and function in an insect?
2. What mechanism controls its timing, so that the moth leaves its cocoon only in spring?

Some elegant experiments have been done to explain the process called metamorphosis.


to undergo = subire                                  to grow = crescere     growth = crescita
edge = orlo                                          moult = muta
feathery = piumato                                   rodent = roditore
tiny = minuscolo                                     row = fila
to spin = filare                                     within = dentro
tissue = tessuto                                     enough = abbastanza
folded = ripiegato                                   timing = scelta del momento
to release = rilasciare                              silk = seta
cuticle = cuticola                                   shrub = arbusto

2 - Crosswords
Solve the crosswords to find the key words / ideas.

Across                                               Down
1. The skill of finding the right moment.            2. A change of form in nature.
3. An insect which has wings to fly at night.        4. A state of not being active or grow.
7. An animal looking like a fat worm.                5. Insect just before being a fully-grown adult.
8. A silky covering made by an insect.               6. The sexual partner.

3 - Matching items
Match the verbs on the left with their definitions on the right.

1.   feed                              a.   place something in a different order
2.   extrude                           b.   come out of an egg
3.   hatch                             c.   break into more parts
4.   split                             d.   be subject to
5.   rearrange                         e.   force something out by pressure
6.   undergo                           f.   eat

4 - True / false statements and correction
Are these statements true or false? Correct the false ones.

                                Statements                               TRUE   FALSE   Correction
1.   The metamorphosis of a caterpillar is still an unknown process.
2.   A moth lays eggs from which larvae come out.
3.   The caterpillar is green while it is growing.
4.   The caterpillar starts making its cocoon after nearly two months.
5.   The pupa splits at the top and the moth emerges.
6.   The moth flies away from the cocoon immediately.


1 - Warm-up
Answer the following questions. Then organize the main steps of scientific method by
unscrambling the following sentences.

Some elegant experiments have been done to explain the mystery of metamorphosis.
What type of insect did the experiments focus on?
What were the research questions in these experiments?


A scientist …
a. carries out the experiment and collects data.           1.
b. organizes the procedure for the experiment.             2.
c. draws a conclusion from the results.                    3.
d. states the research question and the hypothesis.        4.
e. draws an idea from observation.                         5.
f. records the results (tables, graphs).                   6.

2     Fill in the blanks
Fill in the blanks in the passage choosing the words from the box.

methods      environment        larval tissues        tubular mouth       life cycle      vegetation

    The change of body and function in the _______________ (1) of a moth or a butterfly is
    called metamorphosis.
    The eggs hatch into larvae or caterpillars which feed on ________________ (2). When the
    caterpillar is fully grown, its last form reveals a change. The active larva has become a pupa,
    which does not move or feed. Inside the pupa, the _____________ (3) are replaced by adult
    organs. When the pupa splits open, a moth or a butterfly emerges. During metamorphosis, the
    larval forms often live in an ____________ (4) quite different from that of an adult and have
    different ____________ (5) of feeding and moving. Caterpillars use their mouth to cut off
    pieces of leaves. They move by means of “true legs” and “pro legs”. Butterflies feed on nectar
    with their________________ (6). They can only fly.

3 Sequencing and completion
Put the eight cards in the correct sequence.

                 Cecropia moth

From the Teacher’s Dossier

4 Oral report
Use the prompts and the cards to report concisely about the metamorphosis of a Cecropia moth.


1 Warm-up
Here are some questions to think about. Suggest a possible explanation.

1. What causes metamorphosis in moths, butterflies and other insects?
2. When does the larva start metamorphosis?
3. How does the larva find the right moment to start this change?
                          METAMORPHOSIS OF A CECROPIA MOTH (text 2)

An elegant experiment

In 1942 a young Harvard biologist, Dr. Carroll Williams, began a scientific research to solve the
mystery of metamorphosis. He focused on a Cecropia moth for his experiments.
He discovered that the stimulus of metamorphosis was a hormone produced in the front section of
the animal. If a caterpillar was cut in two, the front half developed into half a moth, while the back
part remained a caterpillar.
Then Dr. Williams wanted to investigate how the change occurred. His experiments detected two
interdependent hormone centres: one in the brain and the other in the thorax, just behind the head.

                                          Figure 2 - A caterpillar

WITHOUT HORMONES, a caterpillar cannot develop. To prove this point, Williams first tied off
the head from the thorax and then the head and the thorax from the tail. Although it was divided
into two halves, the caterpillar continued to live but it did not begin metamorphosis.

WITH ONE HORMONE, development begins. This insect was tied off after the brain hormone
began to flow but before the thoracic hormone was produced. Only the thorax developed. The tail
did not develop, because it received no stimulus from the thoracic centre.

WITH BOTH HORMONES, full metamorphosis occurs. Head and thorax sections were tied off
after both hormones had been produced. The experiment proved that the brain hormone stimulates
the thoracic hormone, which in turn initiates metamorphosis.

Further experiments showed that a warming of the temperature – in nature the first warm days of
spring – starts the flow of the brain hormone which causes the transformation of the dormant moth.

Adapted from: Farb P. & The Editors of Life, The Insects – Life Nature History, Time – Life International

       For more information about Dr. Carroll Williams
       CLICK ON


2 True / false statements
What is a hormone? Tick the correct statements.

                              a.   …are enzymes.
                              b.   …are secreted by glands.
                              c.   …regulate the growth of a tissue or an organ.
     HORMONES …               d.   …speed up the function of all organs.
                              e.   …provide energy for metamorphosis.
                              f.   …circulate round the body in the blood.
                              g.   …are produced in great quantities.
                              h.   …are chemicals.

3 Questions / answers
Tick where metamorphosis occurs in the insect’s body.
                                                                                    thorax   tail
1. The insect has the head tied off from the thorax before the brain hormone
2. The insect has the head and the thorax tied off from the tail after the brain
   hormone flows but before the thoracic hormone flows
3. The insect has the head and the thorax tied off from the tail after the brain
   hormone and the thoracic hormones flow

4 Oral / written report
Organise a report referring to the following entries.

                                    Dr. Williams’s investigation

The purpose of his research

His hypothesis

The experiments

What he found out

His conclusions

THE WORLD OF MOTHS Student’s Dossier, Teacher’s Dossier e Tests sono opere elaborate dai
coautori prof.ssa Cristina Rossi e prof. Marco Fragiacomo nell’anno 2005.

                                      Student’s Dossier


1 - Brainstorming
Find your own definition of ”parasite”. Then read the following short text and find the Italian
equivalent of the words in bold. Finally, use the mind map below to write definitions.

A parasite is …………………

In agriculture, insect pests are parasites, because they use the plant as a host to have food from
it. They attack the plant and feed on the plant tissue or suck the sap. As a result, the plant is
weakened and dies. Insect pests can also transmit diseases. Some of these insects are
dangerous to crops both as larvae and as adults.

insetti parassiti =                     tessuto della pianta =
ospite =                                malattie =
linfa =                                 colture =

What are the main characteristics of insect pests?

                                     INSECT PESTS

                            THE EUROPEAN GRAPEVINE MOTH (text 1)

Name: Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller )
Class: Insects     Order: Lepidoptera          Family: Tortricidae

The European grapevine moth: identification and damage

Lobesia botrana, also called the European grapevine moth, is a widespread pest of grapes. The
larvae of this insect feed on grapes and cause serious damage to commercial vineyards.
The adult moth is small, with brownish grey wings 10 – 12 mm wide. Larvae are about 9 – 10 mm
long. A young larvae is light brown with a dark head. The body of a mature larva is dark green.                 http:\\www.dgpc.min-

              Figure 1 - Adult moth                           Figure 2 - Young larva

Damage is caused by larvae. The first generation feeds on the grape flower clusters. The second
generation has a much more disruptive effect on yields. The larvae feed on the pulp of grape
berries, which shrivel, turn brown and rot. A fine web produced by larvae can be found inside the
grape bunches.
Damage can be severe. Feeding by larvae creates infection sites for mould (Botrytis) and feeding by
fruit flies. The presence of larvae and rotten or hollow berries makes the crop unusable for wine-

The European grapevine moth: life cycle

The European grapevine moth overwinters as a pupa in a cocoon on the fallen leaves, under the vine
bark or in the soil. Adults emerge from April to May. Soon after mating females lay eggs of the first
generation on blooming flower clusters. Eggs hatch in 6 - 9 days and larvae feed on the blossoms
and the young fruits for about 3 weeks. Then the larvae spin a silky web inside and together grape
bunches, and pupate. At the end of June or early July the second flight occurs and adult moths begin
laying eggs on the mature grape berries for the second generation. Each larva usually destroys
several grapes.
This species can have up to 3 generations, depending on the region and a hot summer. The third
flight occurs from August to September and originates the overwintering pupae.

widespread = diffusa                               mould = muffa
disruptive = dirompente                            hollow = vuoto
to shrivel = avvizzire                             unusable = inutilizzabile
to rot = marcire                                   bark = corteccia
web = tela                                         to bloom = fiorire
to lay = deporre                                   to occur = avvenire

2 - Matching items
Read the text and match each word in column A with a definition in column B and the Italian
equivalent in column C.

                A                                 B                                    C
                                   a) the single flower which
1. grape bunch                                                       I.     grappolo
                                      comes before an edible fruit
                                   b) a number of grape fruits
2. grape berry                                                       II.    fiore
                                      growing in a group
                                   c) a number of flowers
3. flower cluster                                                    III.   acino
                                      growing in closely together
                                   d) the single small round fruit
4. blossom                                                           IV.    infiorescenza
                                      of grapes

3 - Word play
Anagram the following words to obtain verbs which go with their definitions.

                    DEFINITION                           ANAGRAM                       VERB
1. spend the coldest season in a protected place      INTERWOVER            __________
2. move from the larval to the next stage             TEAUPP                ______
3. come out of an egg                                 CHATH                 _____
4. have sex and produce young                         TEAM                  ____
5. produce fine silk to make a web                    NIPS                  ____

4 - Unscrambling
Put the sentences in the correct order.

a)   The larvae feed on the pulp of grape berries.                                          1.
b)   At the time of harvest rotten or hollow berries cannot be used for wine-making.        2.
c)   Grape berries shrivel, become brown and rot.                                           3.
d)   The first generation larvae feed on the grape flower clusters.                         4.
e)   The second generation larvae affect grapevine production more seriously.               5.
f)   The European grapevine moth is a widespread pest of grapes.                            6.

5 - Completion
Complete the sentences to describe the lifecycle of Lobesia botrana.


                                       In some areas, there is a
                                       third flight in….
                                       The third generation
                                       produces ….

     After the second flight in                                           Pupae overwinter in…
     early July, adults …. .
     Larvae feed on ….

                  First generation larvae
                  feed ….                                          From April to May
                  Then larvae pupate in                            adults emerge, mate
                  their silky web.                                 and …

6 - Information search
You have some information about grape berry moths in general and particularly Lobesia botrana.
Look for a friend who has got the information you need and ask questions.

            Three things you know

         Three things you don’t know

From the Teacher’s Dossier


1 - Fill in the table
Use the prompts about the Cecropia moth and the European grapevine moth to fill in the
table. Complete the prompts to explain how the two moths are different or similar.

                                  Cecropia moth                   European grapevine moth
                                Hyalophora cecropia                   Lobesia botrana

         Where it lives



 A research objective -

       A harmful pest -

     hormone produced in the front section of the moth
     small brownish grey wings 10 – 12 mm wide
                 the second generation larvae / the pulp of grape berries
                 the stimulus of metamorphosis
                                                                egg / larva / pupa / moth
                                                         insect metamorphosis
                                           serious damage to commercial vineyards in Europe
light brown larvae with a dark head
Dr. Williams / scientific research/ caterpillar
                                                                    infection sites for Botrytis
                                                           the largest moth in North America
           large dark brown and red wings with white and yellow edges
           grape berries shrivel, turn brown and rot

                     DATAFILE: THE EUROPEAN GRAPEVINE MOTH (text 2)

Moth development and environmental temperature

Insects are cold-blooded, so that the rate at which they grow and develop depends on the
temperature of the environment. Cooler temperatures slow down insect growth. Higher
temperatures speed up the growth process. If the summer is hot, more generations may occur than
during a cool summer. That is why the European grapevine moth can have up to 3 generations.

Insecticide Growth Regulators

Dr. Williams’s research has greatly contributed to a better understanding of how insects grow.
Knowledge of the hormonal control of insect metamorphosis has led to the development of a new
class of insecticides called growth regulators (IGR). Insecticide growth regulators interfere with
metamorphosis hormones and stop the insect’s growth. A specific IGR is effective in the European
grapevine moth control.

History of Lobesia botrana

Lobesia botrana attacks vineyards in Southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. In Europe
the moth began to propagate at the end of 19th century. Its adaptation to the grapevine plant is
considered relatively recent. Lobesia botrana was first discovered to be a harmful grape pest in
Austria in the 18th century, after Denis and Schiffermüller had classified this insect in 1776.

Scouting a vineyard

You can determine moth activity by scouting a vineyard for damage on grape berries. This
technique is useful because it provides guidance for control measures and their timing.
Adults are not likely to be seen during the day because they are usually active in the late afternoon.
On the contrary, signs of larval feeding are very easy to find. Usually 100 flower clusters or grape
bunches are visually inspected at random on a certain number of vines for each vineyard hectare.
Scouting should be effected during the period when each generation larvae begin feeding: a) the
early bloom period in spring, b) when the very young fruits develop into berries in June and July, c)
when grape berries turn dark in colour in August and September.
Economic damage threshold for effective pest control is:
- 1st generation: 35 – 50 % infested flower clusters,
- 2nd and 3rd generations: 5 % infested grape bunches with eggs and larvae holes.

Adapted from: Ferrari M., Marcon E., Menta A., Fitopatologia, Entomologia Agraria e Biologia Applicata, Calderini Edagricole

2 - Key words
Find in the text the following words of which an Italian translation is given below.

1) velocità, andamento =                                        6) lotta alla tignoletta della vite =
2) a sangue freddo =                                            7) esaminare =
3) ambiente =                                                   8) guida =
4) regolatore di crescita =                                     9) in modo casuale =
5) adattamento =                                                10) soglia di danno =

3 - Multiple choice
Choose the correct statement. Say why it is correct.

1. There are more generations of moths if
a) the season is cooler.
b) the season is warmer.
c) the insect is cool-blooded.
d) the habitat of the moth is in Europe.

2. Insecticide growth regulators
a) are used for pest management.
b) are beneficial to insects.
c) affect moth reproduction.
d) do not alter metamorphosis in insects.

3. Denis and Schiffermüller
a) first discovered the moth.
b) first captured this species in Austria.
c) first propagated the moth in the 19th century.
d) first gave this insect its scientific name.

4. Adult moths are mostly seen flying
a) in winter.
b) in the morning.
c) in the late afternoon.
d) when the temperature is very low.

5. Scouting should be carried out
a) when the flower clusters develop in autumn.
b) when the moth overwinters in a cocoon.
c) when the berries turn dark in spring.
d) when the young fruits develop in summer.

6. The damage threshold for the second generation is
a) minimum 35 % infested grape bunches.
b) up to 5 % damaged grape bunches.
c) up to 50 % injured grape bunches.
d) up to 5 % attacked flower clusters.

4 - Training experience and oral report
Go to the small school vineyard just behind the school building. Follow the instructions in the
form to collect data about Lobesia botrana infestation. Finally, report from the form.


                               LOBESIA BOTRANA SCOUTING FORM

                            Istituto Tecnico Agrario Statale “Giovanni Brignoli”
                                             Gradisca d’Isonzo

Student:                                                          Date:

 Select site 1 on the vineyard edge and site 2 in the centre of the vineyard,
 Choose 5 vines,
 At random, visually inspect 10 flower clusters / grape bunches per vine for damage,
 Record the data.

                    Vine I         Vine II        Vine III       Vine IV          Vine V           TOTAL
       Site 1
       Site 2

                  Site 1
                  Site 2

              TOTAL                                    %



1 - Warm-up
Think about a suitable answer to the following questions. Then group the statements listed
below in each circle according the type of pest control. Finally, read the short text and write in
the box which type of pest control it refers to.

What is pest control? Why is it useful?

                   CHEMICAL                                BIOLOGICAL
                   CONTROL                                   CONTROL
                                                          and other methods
                                        Integrated pest
                                            ( IPM )

a) uses natural enemies of insect pests                 b) includes contact and systemic pesticides
                             c) chemical residues have a harmful effect on the environment
d) includes farming practices such as crop rotation
e) natural enemies are predators which feed on pests
                                                               f) pests develop immunity to chemicals
                 g) many pests are easily and quickly controlled
h) pest-resistant plants are selected          i) the ecosystem is maintained
                       j) also beneficial insects are killed

                   aims to produce quality fruit with a deep concern for the environment. It
minimizes crop damage and insecticidal resistance through a combination of non-chemical methods
of plant protection and the minimal use of selective insecticides. It relies on pest population
monitoring and the focus on economic damage threshold to determine whether a treatment is
needed and when to apply it.

                     EUROPEAN GRAPEVINE MOTH MANAGEMENT (text 3)

Light infestation of the European grapevine moth can be managed by removing injured berries by
hand. Severe infestation requires a management program which includes the use of insecticides.

A management program

Pheromone traps can be used to monitor the emergence and flight of male moths (the generations)
and consequently improve the timing of insecticide sprays. Traps are installed in early April,
usually 1 or 2 per hectare. First generation attack generally requires no treatment because only few
clusters are damaged. A large population of second or third generation moths, about 15 – 20 males
per trap, and significant damage to young ripening berries indicate the need for a chemical
insecticide application.

                                                Figure 1 – A pheromone trap

An insecticide should be applied about 10 – 12 days after the early moth was captured. Otherwise,
the insecticide can be applied 9 – 13 days after the early catch, with a following application 7 days
later, when male moth catches increase. Treatments are generally effected with organophosphorous

The organic pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a bacterial disease which kills pest larvae, can be
used in pest management. Bt should be sprayed before the larvae make holes in the grape berries.
Good results are obtained against the second generation larvae by spraying this insecticide 9 – 13
days, when male moth catches increase. Third generation larvae are controlled by spraying Bt 2 or 3
weeks after the early male moth catch.

Biological control relies on a specific insecticide growth regulator (IGR), which stops the pest
growth. IGR is applied after the early male moth catch.

An alternative to conventional insecticide control is mating disruption of the European grapevine
moth with synthetic pheromones. An amount of pheromone is released by a dispenser in the
vineyard. The males cannot find female moths because of the presence of the pheromone. As a
result, eggs laid by unmated females do not hatch. Various systems are commercially available for
mating disruption, but the cost is higher than for insecticide sprays. The advantages are that mating
disruption provides season–long control and it is completely non-toxic to man and beneficial

Adapted from: Ferrari M., Marcon E., Menta A., Fitopatologia, Entomologia Agraria e Biologia Applicata, Calderini Edagricole


management program = programma di lotta                                    to rely (on) = basarsi (su)
injured = danneggiato                                                      peak = picco
emergence = comparsa, manifestazione                                       mating disruption = confusione sessuale
flights = voli                                                             released = rilasciato
catch = cattura                                                            available = disponibile

The following graph illustrates the flight curve of adult moths. The flight curve helps determine the
timing of applications according to the different types of insecticide.




                                                                                                                         expected egg and larvae percentage
adult moth catches number


                            ---- expected egg presence ----             expected larvae birth      . adult catches
Flufenoxuron                          The insect growth regulator stops egg development. It is applied after the early male moth

Tebufenozide                          MAC (Moult Accelerator Compound) insecticide accelerates insect moult and then stops
                                      young larvae development. It is applied 1 week after the early male moth catch.

B.t.k.                                Bacillus thuringiensis (Kurstaki subspecies) is sprayed 8 days after the early male moth
                                      catch. The application must be repeated 1 week later. Btk kills young larvae.

Fenitrothion                          The organophosphorous insecticide should be used about 10 days after the flight curve
                                      reaches its peak, as shown in the graph.

2 - Domino
Match the right end of a card with the left end of another card to form a line. Then, be ready
to give a short oral definition of the compound words from the card combinations.

From the Teacher’s Dossier

3 - Substitution table
Reorder the different parts of eight complete sentences from the following substitution table.

           interferes with metamorphosis hormones
           indicates the percentage
                                                      and the minimal use of selective
           stops the insect’s growth                  insecticides.
           is a bacterial disease
                                                      of larval feeding on grapes.
           combines non-chemical methods of plant
IGR        protection
                                                      to determine when a treatment is needed.
           focuses on pest population monitoring

Economic kills pest larvae
threshold minimizes insecticidal resistance

4 - Information gap
You have some information about Lobesia botrana management. Look for a friend who has
got the information you need and ask questions.


        Lobesia botrana management

From the Teacher’s Dossier

5 - Grid
Fill in the grid with a tick corresponding to the question / answer crosses.

     Lobesia botrana             When male       10–12    After the 1or 2 per   9-13    15-20 male      7 days    2 or 3
     MANAGEMENT                  moth catches     days   early male hectare     days   moths per trap    later    weeks
                                  increase               moth catch                     + damaged

How many pheromone traps are
installed in early April ?

When is an insecticide
application necessary ?

When should the insecticide be
applied (1 APPLICATION)?

When should the insecticide be
applied (2 APPLICATIONS)?

When is Bt applied against 2nd
generation larvae?

When is Bt applied against 3rd
generation larvae?

6 - Graph
Label the graph using the following terms in the box. Then, describe it.

                             expected egg presence
                     Flufenoxuron               adult catches
                          Tebufenozide      Fenitrothion
                    expected larvae birth                 B.t.k.

From the Teacher’s Dossier

7 - Guided dialogue
Follow the cues to roleplay the conversation.

        AGRICULTURAL EXPERT                                    WINE GROWER
              Student A                                          Student B

 Introduce yourself and ask about the            Introduce yourself and describe the
  problem.                                         damage in your vineyard.
 Offer to organize a good program for            Accept.
  Lobesia botrana management.
 Say that pheromone traps are necessary          Ask what you can do when there is severe
  and explain why.                                  damage to young grape berries.
 Suggest using an insecticide and                State that chemical insecticides can give
  describe when and how it is applied.             problems. Describe the negative effects
                                                   of chemical control.
 Reply this is IPM. Explain.                     Remark you prefer applying Bt. Describe
                                                   the characteristics of biological control.
 Agree that Bt gives good results and            Say mating disruption is a good method,
  explain the related application program.         too. Explain how it works.
 Reply it is expensive but effective.            State you can afford the expense.

8 - Problem solving
Devise a program for the management of Lobesia botrana in the school vineyard (the small
one just behind the school building). Calculate the amount of insecticide sprayed according to
the number of applications and the total cost. Finally, write a short report.

                                The school vineyard = 83 m x 12 m

            KILLMOTH insecticide packet ( 250 g / l ) containing Fenitrothion
                    Insecticide application = 250 – 300 ml / hl
                      An application requires 10 hl /hectare
                            Cost of the packet = € 13.00

                                1 pheromone trap per hectare
                     Trap site = around vineyard perimeter, 30 m apart.
                                       Cost = € 25.00

                Situation = severe damage to young grape berries in late June

       Farm machinery for the application = a crop sprayer holding up to 70 l of water

THE WORLD OF MOTHS Student’s Dossier, Teacher’s Dossier e Tests sono opere elaborate dai
coautori prof.ssa Cristina Rossi e prof. Marco Fragiacomo nell’anno 2005.


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