Define psychology

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Define psychology

Describe nature vs. nurture

Describe the eight perspectives of psychology. You should be able to include an example
of the work a psychologist in that perspective does.

Create a timeline that organizes major trends and names in psychology.

Vocabulary

Wundt

structuralism

functionalism

Darwin

Hall

Ebbinghaus

James

Thorndike

Gestalt

S. Freud

Jung

Adler

Pavlov

Watson

Skinner

Maslow

Humanism
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Rogers

Bandura

Milgram

Zimbardo

eclecticism

basic research

applied research
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Identify elements of the scientific attitude.

Identify elements of critical thinking

Identify elements of the scientific method

Describe an operational definition. Give an example of an operational definition.

Define theory, hypothesis.

Define overconfidence

Define hindsight bias.

Define false consensus.

Give examples of overconfidence and hindsight bias.

Describe a case study.

Describe two kinds of observations a psychologist might use.

What kind of variables can a correlation study use?

Explain what correlation coefficients mean.

Describe the scientific method.

Define dependent and independent variables.

Describe control and experimental groups.

What is a double-blind experiment?

Describe a method to obtain a random sample of a population.

Use an example to explain how to obtain a random and representative sample of a
population.

Explain how questions on a survey could skew the results.

Give some examples of experimenter bias and how it might skew the results of a study.

What is debriefing?

Explain what is meant by informed consent?
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Under what circumstances might a research cause pain to a subject?

What is the function of an IRB?

Natural light experiment

Hypothesis

Variables

Groups

Subjects

Procedures

Ethics

Define mean, mode and median.

Explain the differences between a normal distribution and a skewed distribution.

Define standard deviation?

Given a data set, how would you find the standard deviation?

What does a correlation tells us about our data?

How would you find the correlation between two data sets?

What qualities must correlation variables have?

Explain the difference between positive and negative correlation coefficients
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Why is the endocrine system called the "slow" messenger system?

What is the “fast” messenger system in the body?

What is the role of the hypothalamus in the endocrine system?

What are two roles the pituitary plays in the endocrine system?

What is the role of the thyroid?

What is the role of the adrenal gland?

What is the role of the pancreas?

What is the role of the ovaries?

What is the role of the testes?

What are primary sex characteristics in males and in females?

What are examples of secondary sex characteristics in males and in females?

What is the evolutionary value of the "fight or flight" response?

Vocabulary

insulin

glucagon

hormone
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Identify the sub-systems of the nervous system and their functions.

Describe how a neuron receives and transmits information.

Explain the differences between the four types of neurons.

Describe the difference between a reflex and other neural transmissions.

Explain how a neuron might exceed threshold.

Why do you suppose neurons operate on an all-or-nothing basis?

Explain in some detail how a neuron transmits information using an action potential.

How is reuptake used therapeutically?

What is a neural network?

Describe the activity associated with:

dopamine

GABA

serotonin

norepinephrine

acetylcholine

endorphins

Explain the difference between an angonist and an antagonist.

What are the parts of the CNS?

Explain why two individuals who both have severed their spinal cords might have
different symptoms.

Can a substance be both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?

Vocabulary

cell body in a neuron
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dendrites
axons

terminal branches

synapse-

synaptic gap

myelin sheath

threshold

neuron

nerve

neurotransmitter
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Identify two structures in the brainstem.

Describe the functions of the medulla, the pons and the reticular formation.

Where is the thalamus?

What is the function of the thalamus?

Where is the cerebellum located and what is its function?

Identify the four structures of the limbic system.

Describe the functions of the amygdala.

Describe the functions of the hippocampus.

Describe the functions of the pituitary.

Describe the functions of the hypothalamus.

Describe the functions of glial cells.

Describe the structure of the cerebral cortex.

Where is the motor cortex located and what is its function?

Where is the sensory cortex located and what is its function?

What are the lobes called and what are their primary functions?

What are association areas and what is their function?

What is brain plasticity?

Where is the corpus callosum and what is its function?

Generally speaking, what functions are centered in the left brain?

Generally speaking, what functions are centered in the right brain?

Describe how these methods of brain research work and what they can tell us:

      MRI(Magnetic resonance imaging)-

      fMRI (functional MRI):
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       CAT scan (Computerized Axial Tomography)

       PET scan (Positron emission tomography)

       lesion

       ablation

       EEG (electroencephalogram)

split brain

Wernicke’s area

Broca’s area
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Explain heritability.

Explain why identical twin studies are useful to psychologists.

Explain why fraternal twin studies are useful to psychologists.

Explain why adoption studies are useful to psychologists.

Define temperament.

How does temperament vary over a lifetime?

Discuss nature vs. nurture in light of behavioral genetics.

Explain Darwin's concept of natural selection.
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Define the concepts of continuity vs discontinuity, stability vs. change, nature vs nurture

Describe the results of Harlow’s famous attachment experiments

Describe the effects of attachment deprivation and attachment disruption

Describe three parenting styles and their effects

Describe Piaget’s stages of cognitive development

Describe Kohlberg’s stages of moral development

Describe Erikson’s stages of social development

Describe Gilligan’s stages of moral development

Describe the physical, cognitive and social characteristics of older (60+) persons

Describe Kubler-Ross’s stages of dying

Vocabulary:

secure attachment                                     insecure attachment

genotype                                              phenotype

critical period                                       schema

imprinting                                            reversibility

cephalocaudal                                         proximodistal

maturation                                            sensorimotor stage

accommodation                                         assimilation

class inclusion                                       egocentrism

animism                                               stranger-anxiety

separation anxiety                                    visual cliff

preoperational stage                                  concrete operational stage

formal operational stage                              conservation
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object permanence                                authoritarian

permissive                                       authoritative

preconventional                                  conventional

postconventional (principled)                    maturation

metacognition                                    menopause
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Define learning

Give an example of unlearned behavior

Describe the process of classical consitioning

How would you train a person to exhibit certain emotions using classical conditioning?

Describe the process of operant conditioning.

How would you use operant conditioning to help a smoker quit?

Briefly distinguish operant and classical conditioning.

Explain what is meant by higher-order conditioning.

What was Thorndike's Law of Effect?

What is shaping and how would you use it to teach someone a complex skill?

Distinguish between primary and secondary reinforcers.

What is omission training?

What is behavior modification?

Discuss active and passive avoidance.

How do the following affect learning: amount of practice, delay of reinforcement,
motivation

What is a cognitive map?

Give an example of a biological constraint on learning.

Describe the results of Bandura's Bobo experiment.

Vocabulary - define the following terms

UCS unconditioned stimulus.

UCR unconditioned response.

CS conditioned stimulus.

acquisition
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extinction

spontaneous recovery

stimulus generalization

stimulus discrimination

variable interval

variable ratio

fixed ratio

fixed interval

positive punishment

negative punishment

positive reinforcement

negative reinforcement

overjustification

latent learning

observational learning

modeling

prosocial modeling
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This is the Personality study guide
How did Freud account for personality development?

Describe 3 characteristics of the ideal humanist personality

Discuss how the behaviorists see personality.

How did Eysenck, Allport and Cattell contribute to personality theory?

What was Rogers’ and Maslow’s contribution to personality theory?

What was Bandura’s and the social cognitive psychologists’ contribution to
personality theory?

What are the Big Five traits?

Are the Big 5 traits stable over a lifetime?
Is temperament stable over a lifetime?

What techniques did Freud and psychodynamic psychologists use to access the
unconscious?

vocabulary
unconscious
ego
id

superego
free association

identification

pleasure principle

reality principle

defense mechanism

repression
regression
reaction formation
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projection

rationalization

sublimation

locus of control

learned helplessness

reciprocal determinism

possible selves

self esteem

self-efficacy

ideal self
unconditional positive regard

empathy

self-serving bias
projective tests

inventories
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Explain the difference between sensation and perception

Describe the concept of threshold including absolute and just-noticeable-difference

Explain Weber's Law

Identify and describe the structure and function of the vision system including
    parts of the eye
    2 theories of color vision
    acuity and adaptation
    vision disorders

Identify and describe the structure and function of the hearing system including
    parts of the ear
    audition theory
    hearing disorders

What are the four basic tastes?

How is smell different from other senses?

How do we organize visual perceptions in order to make sense of them?

Explain perception constancies, 3D perception from 2D images, perception of motion

Explain effects on perception of patterns, experience, culture, learning

Vocab:

receptors                                            transducers

adaptation                                           habituation

photoreceptor                                        visible spectrum

cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina                    rods, cones

bipolar cells                                        ganglion cells

optic nerve                                          blind spot

optic chiasm                                         visual cortex

wavelength – hue         intensity – brightness      purity – saturation

Young-Helmholtz                                      opponent process
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pinna                                         auditory canal

tympanic membrane                             ossicles

cochlea                                       basilar membrane

hair cells

frequency – pitch      amplitude – loudness          complexity – timbre

place theory                                  frequency theory

pheromones                                    kinesthesis

vestibular sense                              selected attention

divided attention                             figure-ground

monocular                                     binocular

accommodation                                 motion parallax

texture gradient                              linear perspective

bottum up processing                          top down processing

				
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