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									Waste Recycling
Define terms related to waste reduction
Hazardous waste recycling
Discuss advantages associated with
 waste reduction and recycling.
Discuss recycling of specific MSW
Discuss ways to increase recycling
 Reduction: Reduction in generation, reduction in amount of
  material, increase lifetime, or eliminate the need
 Recycle - used, reused, or reclaimed, use of the material as a
  source raw material, involves physical transformation
   – Reused: The direct use or reuse of a secondary material
     without prior reclamation
   – Reclaimed: regeneration of wastes or recovery of usable
     materials from wastes (e.g., regenerating spent solvents in a
     solvent still). Wastes are regenerated when they are
     processed to remove contaminants in a way that restores
     them to their usable condition materials that must be
     reclaimed/recycled prior to use or reuse
 Recovery - Process to recover useful material from mixed waste
  (energy is an example)
Hazardous waste materials that
are recycled may be:
Excluded from the definition of solid
 waste and fall out of RCRA altogether;
Subject to less-stringent regulatory
 controls; or
Required to comply with the full
 universe of hazardous waste treatment,
 storage, and disposal regulations.
Inherently waste-like materials
 The following materials are solid wastes when
  they are recycled in any manner:
 (1) Hazardous Waste Nos. F020, F021 (unless
  used as an ingredient to make a product at
  the site of generation), F022, F023, F026,
  and F028.
 (2) Secondary materials fed to a halogen acid
  furnace that exhibit a characteristic of a
  hazardous waste or are listed as a hazardous
Materials are solid wastes (and potentially
hazardous waste) if they are recycled in
the following ways:
 Used in a manner constituting disposal - Directly
  placing wastes or products containing wastes on the
  land is considered to be use constituting disposal.
   – If, however, direct placement on the land is consistent with
     its normal use (e.g., pesticides), then the material is not
     regulated as a solid waste.
   – For example, heptachlor can potentially be a P-listed waste.
     This pesticide is not regulated as a solid waste, however,
     when it isused as a pesticide.
 Burned for energy recovery
 Reclaimed (with some exceptions) - materials that
  must be reclaimed/ recycled prior to use or reuse
 Accumulated speculatively
Materials that are not solid waste (and
therefore not hazardous wastes) when

 (i) Used or reused as ingredients in an
  industrial process to make a product,
  provided the materials are not being
  reclaimed; or
 (ii) Used or reused as effective substitutes for
  commercial products; or
 (iii) Returned to the original process from
  which they are generated, without first being
  reclaimed or land disposed.
Materials Subject to Less
Stringent Standards
 Universal Waste regulations include batteries, pesticides, lamps
  (e.g., fluorescent bulbs), and mercury-containing equipment
  (e.g., thermostats) (see 40 CFR Part 273).
 Used Oil includes petroleum-based or synthetic oil that has been
  used (see 40 CFR Part 279 ).
 Waste-Derived Fertilizers (e.g., zinc fertilizer products) and
  Other Materials Used in a Manner Constituting Disposal (see 40
  CFR Part 266 Subpart C).
 Materials Utilized for Precious Metal Recovery (see 40 CFR Part
  266 Subpart F).
 Spent Lead-Acid Batteries (see 40 CFR Part 266 Subpart G -
  note that lead-acid batteries may also be managed as a
  Universal Waste).
 Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces
Recycling Advantages
 Prevents the emission of many greenhouse
  gases and water pollutants,
 Saves energy,
 Supplies valuable raw materials to industry,
 Creates jobs,
 Stimulates the development of greener
 Conserves resources for our children’s future,
 Reduces the need for new landfills and
MSW Recycling Goals
25% by 1995 (was met)
30% by 2000 (was met)
35% by 2005 (not met)
Recycling Challenges
 Location of wastes (9000 curbside programs)
 Uncertainty of supply
 Administrative and institutional constraints
 Legal restrictions
 Uncertain markets
 Technical challenges to recycling
 Changes in materials (i.e. light weighting)
 Too many items in waste
 Actually encourages waste production
  (because recycling will take care of it)
SWANA Recommendations to
Increase Reduction/Recovery
 Encourage more extensive product
  stewardship by product designers,
  manufacturers retailers, and consumers
 Expand efforts by federal, state, and
  provincial governments to develop markets
  for recycled materials and recovered energy
 Provide financial incentives for investments in
  recycling, composting and the use of
  recovered materials
SWANA Recommendations to
Increase Reduction/Recovery
 Include WTE and conversion technologies in
  renewable portfolio standards and green
  power programs
 Encourage the recovery and use of landfill
  gas by maintaining federal tax credits and
  through renewable portfolio standards and
  green power programs
 Support technology transfer and research
  efforts that have the potential to increase
  waste recovery rates
        Commodity      % of MSW Recycled
Paper and Paperboard   48.1
Steel                  36.4
Aluminum               21.4
Glass                  18.8
Plastics               5.2
Paper Recycling
 Problems
  –   Chlorination produces dioxins/furans
  –   Inks are petrochemical based
  –   Acid used to break fibers shortens life
  –   Coating of high gloss paper
  –   Demand for high quality paper
  –   Glues, laminates, plastics, inks not water soluble
  –   Paper can only be reused 4-12 times, always need
      a virgin source
Paper Recycling
~ 50% of consumed material and
Goal 55% by 2012
Strong markets for old corrugated
 cardboard (OCC) and newsprint (ONP)
Expanding domestic and international
Office paper lower demand
Steel Recycling
 Expanding economy – increased steel
  demands; China and India biggest markets
 36.4% of steel is recycled
 Use of plastic for automobiles is a problem
 One ton steel recycled saves 2500 lb of iron
  ore, 1000 lb of coal, 40 lb of limestone, and
  significant energy savings
Aluminum Recycling
 About 51 percent of aluminum cans is being recycled
 Twenty years ago it took 19 aluminum cans to make
  one pound, but today, aluminum beverage cans are
  lighter and it takes 29 cans to make a pound.
 Americans throw away enough aluminum every three
  months to rebuild our entire commercial air fleet.
 Making new aluminum cans from used cans takes 95
  percent less energy and 20 recycled cans can be
  made with the energy needed to produce one can
  using virgin ore.
 Domestic recycling has declined recently, collection is
Glass Recycling
 Glass always lags other recyclables
 Alternative markets needed – grind for
  construction fill, “glassphalt,” fiberglass
 Transportation of heavy glass is expensive
 Raw materials are inexpensive
 Contamination is an issue
 Reuse used to be common practice; however
  as manufacturing plants became larger and
  decreased in number, bottles had to be
  carried further for refilling.
 More colored glass is imported than used
Plastic Recycling
  – Light weight, bulky, low density
  – Wide variety of polymers
  – Concerns over contamination for reuse
  – Difficult to differentiate among types
Plastic Recycling
PET and HDPE have high prices due to
 domestic and international demand
Curbside recycling is down, driving
 prices up
More expensive oil prices makes virgin
 plastic more expensive
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Last updated July 2008 by Dr. Reinhart

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