JOURNAL ENTRY - PowerPoint

Document Sample
JOURNAL ENTRY - PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					    JOURNAL ENTRY
DO YOU BELIEVE IN UFOs?

WHEN PEOPLE CLAIM TO SEE
UFOs, DO YOU BELIEVE THEY
ARE TELLING THE TRUTH?
Accelerated Psychology


 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
OUR SENSATIONAL SENSES
Sensations begin with sense receptors


   SENSE RECEPTORS are cells located
    in the sense organs (eyes, ears, etc.) that
    convert ___________ energy in the
    environment or the body to
    _______________ energy that can be
    transmitted as nerve impulses to the brain.
      Chain of Command
 SENSE RECEPTORS send info to
 SENSORY NEURONS which
 pass the information along to the
 brain

SENSE RECEPTORS → SENSORY
 NEURONS → BRAIN CELLS
                 HMM??
The sensory nerves all use exactly the
same form of communication, a NEURAL
IMPULSE

Almost like the sound of a beating
drum

If all impulses and forms of communication are
the same, how are we able to experience so
many different kinds of sensations?
        Hmmm?
The answer does not lie in how the
messages are SENT but rather in
how they are ENCODED!!!



   The nervous system encodes
   messages in 2 ways
      ANATOMICAL CODES
_____________________ were first
described in 1826 by German physiologist,
JOHANNES MÜLLER
  DOCTRINE OF SPECIFIC NERVE

   ENERGIES

     Different sensory modalities exist
    because signals received by the sense
    organs stimulate different nerve
    pathways leading to different areas of
    the brain
SO, WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?
In other words, your sense organs
(eyes, ears, nose, etc.) send impulses
along designated nerve pathways to
specific parts of the brain.

   EXAMPLE 1: Visual info. goes to the visual
    part of the brain
      But what about…?
ANATOMICAL CODING explains the
     separation of the senses




It does NOT explain variations within a
           particular sense
    FUNCTIONAL CODES
FUNCTIONAL CODES rely on the fact that
sensory receptors and neurons _____, or
are inhibited from firing, only when
presented with specific stimuli.

                  THUS

At any particular time, some cells in the
nervous system are firing and others are
not
     The Role of Functional Codes
    FUNCTIONAL CODES have 4 primary
    functions

    They determine:
     1. ________ cells are firing
     2. ___________ cells are firing
     3. The ________ at which cells are firing
     4. The _____________ of each cell’s firing
         But, what if…


What do you think the result might
  be if our sensory nerves got
         “criss-crossed”?
             WEIRD, but TRUE!
_______________: A rare condition in
which stimulation of one sense also
evokes a sensation in another
   In other words, a person might see sounds or
    smell colors

   EXAMPLE 1: A person may say that
the aroma of cinnamon feels like velvet

   EXAMPLE 2: One might say that the
   sound of a clarinet tastes like cherries.
MEASURING OUR SENSES
_______________________:
A field of study that draws upon physics and
psychology to study the sensitivity of our
senses.
             THRESHOLDS
______________________: the smallest
quantity of physical energy that can be
reliably detected by an observer.

RELIABLE = When a person can detect a
signal ______% of the time

How was this determined?
   EXAMPLE: Flashes of light in a dark room
     ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
Normal Sensory Abilities
 VISION: A candle flame on a clear, dark night

             from _____ miles away
 HEARING: A ticking watch in a perfectly quiet

             room from ____ feet away
 TASTE: A teaspoon of sugar diluted in ___

          gallons of water
 SMELL: A drop of perfume diffused through a

             ______-room apartment
 TOUCH: Feel the wing of a bee falling on

  your cheek from a height of ________.
            THRESHOLDS
DESPITE these incredible sensory skills,
our senses are tuned in to only a narrow
band of physical energies

   We cannot see radio waves or microwaves
   Many animals can pick up signals
    that we can’t

      EXAMPLE: Dogs and dog whistles
             THRESHOLDS
_____________________________: The
smallest difference in stimulation that can be
reliably detected by an observer when two
stimuli are compared
   AKA:
    _________________________________(JND)


In other words, we compare 2 stimuli and
judge whether they are the same or different
          EXAMPLE 1: Measuring the
          brightness of 2 light bulbs
         MASS MATTERS
In comparing 2 pebbles, you might be able
to detect a difference of only a fraction of
an ounce

In comparing 2 massive boulders, such a
subtle difference would most likely not be
noticed.
VARIETY IS THE SPICE OF LIFE
________________________: The reduction or
disappearance of sensory responsiveness that
occurs when stimulation is unchanging or
repetitious.

    Receptors (nerve cells)
    higher up in the sensory
    system get “tired” and fire
    less frequently.

EYE RECEPTORS GET BORED!
    SENSORY ADAPTATION
VERY USEFUL!
   EXAMPLE1: Watch on your wrist
   EXAMPLE 2: Swimming in a cold lake



CAN BE HARMFUL
   EXAMPLE: You might
  no longer smell a gas leak
  that you noticed upon first entering
   the kitchen.
    SENSORY ADAPTATION
Do we completely adapt to extremely intense
stimuli? _______.
   EXAMPLES: A terrible toothache or the sun’s heat on
    a very hot, summer day
  Sensation and Perception

________________________: The
absence of normal levels of sensory
stimulation.
       STUDIES IN SENSORY
          DEPRIVATION
MALE VOLUNTEERS
   Isolated from all patterned sight and sound
      Vision was restricted by a translucent visor
      Hearing was restricted by a U-shaped pillow and by
      background noise from an A/C unit or fan
      Touch was restricted by cotton gloves and
      cardboard cuffs
Given brief restroom eating breaks BUT…
Spent their entire day laying in bed, doing
 nothing.
                 RESULTS
Within a few hours, many felt edgy
   Some were so disoriented, they quit the first
    day!
   Those who remained became confused,
    restless, and grouchy
   Many reported bizarre visions
      Example: Squadron of marching squirrels or a
      procession of marching eyeglasses
   Very few men were willing to remain in the
    study for more than 2 or 3 days
CAN THE OPPOSITE BE TRUE?
____________________ occurs when
there is excess stimulation
   It may lead to fatigue and mental confusion


                      EXAMPLE: Finals week
        SENSORY OVERLOAD
We can only focus completely on ONE thing
at a time!
   Unimportant sounds are not processed by the
    brain
   Called the:
    _____________________________
      Imagine yourself listening intently to ONE
      conversation in a room full of people chatting

      AKA ________________________________

				
DOCUMENT INFO