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					         THAI
       HISTORY
  M.R. SURIYAWUTH SUKSAWAD



Prepared   :   Kh. Kasem ,   Kh. Supawan
                                           Dec 2003
       THE GREAT PERIOD

      PRE               HISTORIC
HISTORIC PERIOD          PERIOD

The line between two great period is
       alphabet of inscription
       PRE HISTORIC PERIOD


STONE AGE            METAL AGE

PALEOLITHIC PERIOD   BRONZE AGE
MESOLITHIC PERIOD
                     IRON AGE
NEOLITHIC PERIOD
              STONE AGE
    Characterized by using of stone tools
1. Paleolithic Preiod = Old Stone period
     - Paleo = Old ; Lithic = Stone
     - More than 10,000 yrs
     - People lived in cave / shelter and hunted for their
       lifes
2. Mesolithic Period = Middle Stone period
     - Meso = in between / middle
     - about 5,000 – 10,000 yrs
     - People could make bow and cutting tools
3. Neolithic period = New stone period
  - Neo = New
  - Less than 5,000 yrs
  - People could build house with bamboo and make
    their living on agriculture and farming
  - They could make pottery and stone implements
    (instruments) on any purposed for daily used
                      METAL AGE
  People began to make an implement by using metal
1.Bronze Age
    Bronze = 90% Copper (Cu) + 10% Tin = ทองสำริด
    Period of human culture between Stone Age and Iron Age
    Characterized by weapons and implements made of bronze

2.Iron Age
    Characterized by the introduction of iron metallurgy
    In Europe beginning around 8th B.C.
          HISTORIC PERIOD

SOUTH WEST ASIA    SOUTH EAST ASIA

     EGYPT             GOLDEN
                     KHERSONESE
 MESOPOTAMIA

     PERSIA          SUVARNABHUMI

  INDIA/CHINA
                  HISTORIC PERIOD
SOUTH WEST ASIA
1. Egypt
App 5,000 yrs ago,should be the 1st Community in the world.
In 1799, French scholar called “Champolion” found a basalt
tablet (stone) near Rosetta town which bearing an inscription in
old Greek, Hierotic and Egyptian Hieroglyphic. He could read
and translate this “Rosetta Stone”
                            Hieroglyphic
                            Hierotic
                            Old Greek
2. Mesopotamia (4,000-5,000 yrs BP)
The land was in between the two great river Tigris and
Euphrates . It consisted of
    2.1 Sumaria ( S. Iraq )
    2.2 Assyria, the upper part of Tigris
    2.3 Babylonia ( Babylon was a capital ), the lower part of
        Euphrates
3. Persia ( Now, Iran )(3,500-4,000 yrs BP)
4. India / China. (3,000-3,500 yrs BP)
             HISTORIC PERIOD (cont.)
SOUTH EAST ASIA
The first inscription was found in Vietnam called “Vocanh
Inscription” or Pallawa (in India) script in 3rd A.D..
Before that, we had 2 documents’ sources:-


1.Ptolamys’ geography
Ptolemy, the most Greek well - known geographer,
who drew the world map, wrote about the old day of
golden land of Southeast Asia , called Golden Khersonese.
2. Nidesa
  This second document is a book in Buddhism, was
   written in 1st – 2nd A.D., talked about the golden
   land called “Suvarnabhumi”



 Up to these two documents, we may say that Southeast
 Asia should be in Historical Period around 2,000 yrs
 ago, in the beginning of Christianity.
                 THAILAND

PRE HISTORIC PERIOD   HISTORIC PERIOD


    NEOLITHIC/ NEW
                        BEFORE THAI CULTURE
      STONE AGE
                        AFTER THAI CULTURE
     METAL AGE
                        THAILAND
The Civilization in this land has 2 periods:-
Prehistoric Period

1. Bankao Kanchanaburi province, was in Neolithic period /
   New Stone Age. After the WW II, Denish archaeologist
   had found stone implements and human beings skeleton
   for 3,000 yrs ago.

2. Ban Chieng Udorn Thani, was in the Metal Age.
   The most interesting place in Prehistoric period. More than
   50 different designs, colour in red, and curled desiqns of
   painted pottery were found by the cooperative of the USA
 and the Thai archaeologists last 30 yrs ago.
Also ornaments such as bracelet, necklet, ring for the body
decorated, which all of them were made of bronze, were
found.

People wore clothes which made of cotton, but not naked.
                   Historic Period
      Before                     Thai Culture
    Thai Culture                   Period

  Ancient Object                 Lanna Period
     Dvaravati                 Sukhothai Period
Ancient Hindu Image             U-Tong Period
     Srivijaya                 Ayuddhaya Period
     Lopburi                       Bangkok /
                              Rattanakosin Period
                 Before Thai culture
                      (3rd-13th AD Century)

1.Ancient Objects
Almost were found in the central part of country.

2.Dvaravati
Mostly also found in the central, but the rest had been found
in the northern upper part and eastern upper part of the
country.

3.Ancient Hindu Images
Divided into 3 groups
   3.1 Group 1 was found at the Southern.(อ.ไชยา และนครศรีธรรมราช)
   3.2 Group 2 was found at the Eastern.(ปราจีนบุรี และศรีมหาโพธิ์)
   3.3 Group 3 was found in the upper central
      part of the country (อ.ศรีเทพ จ.เพชรบูรณ์)

4. Srivijaya ( Mahayana Buddhism )

5. Lopburi/Contemporanory Khmer Period
Contemporanory = only archaeology evidents study
This period had different style of arts.
These arts owner should belong to Mon – Khmer speaker land.
             Thai Culture Period
1. Lanna Period                          14th –18th A.D.
  In the extreme north , Chiangmai was capital
2. Sukhothai Period                      13th – 15th A.D.
   In the northern lower part , 140 yrs lasted
3. U-Tong Period.                        14th – 15th A.D.
   In the lower part
4. Ayuddhaya period                      1350 – 1767 A.D.
5. Bangkok / Rattanakosin period 1782 – present
                   History of Thai people
         1.) The linguist said that the original Thais came from
Southeast China (กวางสี, กวางเจา) . Until 13th - 14th A.D. Khrub
Likhan had ruled the entire China, but Thais didn’t want to be
under his rule, they migrated down along MeKhong river until
the present day.
         2.) In the great 14th A.D. century.
 Lanna was the 1st Thai Kingdom.
 Before that, was Haripunjaya Kingdom
 King Mangrai ,founder of Wiang Kum Kam (เวียงกุมกาม อาเภอสารภี
จ.เชียงใหม่ในปัจจุบัน) conquered the battle to King YiBa (Mon King )
                   Lanna Kingdom
• King Mangrai, KingPraruang , King Ngam maung
   founder of Chiang Mai City
• King Mangrai was the 1st Mangrai Dynasty in Chiang Mai
   in 1296 A.D. and lasted for over 700 yrs.
• Chiang Mai was under Burma for 200 yrs.(King Bayinong)
• King Gawila asked King Rama I ’s army troop to evade
   Burmese troop out of Chiang Mai, then under BKK.
• Chao Kheaw Nawarat was Chiang Mai last prince
   in the reign of King Rama VI
           Sukhothai Kingdom
- Located lower part of the Northern, started in 13th AD
- Means : Dawn of happiness
- Found a lot of Stone Inscriptions, over 70 pieces
- During King Rama IV, Prince Mongkut was a monkood
discovered 3 Stone Inscriptions at Nern Prasart of
Sukhothai (Wat Mahatard) :-
  1) Inscription no. 1 , the of 1st Thai alphabet inscription
    of King Ramkamhaeng
  2) Inscription no. 4 of King Li Thai, in Khmer language
  3) Inscription of King Ramkamhaeng
          Sukhothai Kingdom
Sukhothai , a capital city of Sukhothai Kingdom
Lasted for 140 yrs (1238 – 1378 / 1438)
King Sri Indraditya
- The 1th King of Sukhothai
- Khun Bang Klang Haw & Khun Pa Maung took over
  the city from Khmer ruler
- City plan the same as Angor Thom plan, Wat
  Mahathad in the center of city
- Theravada Buddhism from Sri Lanka
            Sukhothai Kingdom
King Ramkamheang The great (1279-1299)
- The most glory period of Sukhothai
- Created the 1st Thai Alphabets in1283
- Inscription no. 1 in Thai, the oldest one (1292)
King Lithai (1347-1368)
- Grandson of King Ramkamheang
- The 2nd great king of Sukhothai
- The most support & devoted himself to the advancement
   of Buddhism in this land
- Pra BuddhaChinnaraj, Chinnasri (Phitsanulok)
             Sukhothai Kingdom
- The decline of Sukhothai was dued to the unfruitful,
   dry soil & surrounding
- King Lithai moved the capital city to Phisanulok
  & focused on developing Buddhism
- King Lithai asked for Muang Pra Bang back from
   King U-Tong
- The people migrated to Pra Bang ( Nakorn Sawan)
- Sukhothai was under Ayudhaya in King U-Tong/King
   SaiLeThai period & became the vassal state of Ayudhaya
   in 1438 (King Sam Praya)
              Ayudhaya Kingdom

- Lasted long period for 417 yrs, 1350 - 1767 AD
-   King U - Tong , the 1st king
-   Means : City Never Caption/Attacked
-   Ayudhaya : Ayodhya
-   Ruled by 5 Dynasties
       Ayudhaya Kingdom

The Ayuddhaya 5 Dynasties, 33 Kings
1)   U-Tong
2)   Suphanburi
3)    Sukhothai
4)    Prasart Thong
5)    Baan Plu Luang
          Ayudhaya Kingdom
The Important Kings
- King U-Tong , U-Tong Dynasty
- Khun Laung Ph-ngua , Suphanburi Dynasty
- King Ramesuan *
- King Indraja
- King Choa Sam Phraya
- King BaromTrilokanart
- King Ramadhibodi II
              Ayudhaya Kingdom
-   King Chairaja
-   King Mahachakapat
-   King Mahinthara , lost the I freedom in 1569
-   King Mahathamaraja , Sukhothai Dynasty
-   King Naresuan the Great
-   King Ekatotsarot
-   King PrasartThong , PrasartThong Dynasty
-   King Narai the Great
            Ayudhaya Kingdom

The 4th   Theory
 King U-Tong was from small town “Baan Rai Rod”
- By Prof. Jean Boisselier
- Baan Rai Rod is in Don Jedi district, Suphanburi
- Found a lot of Terracotta & Ornaments in a
  period of 1350 - 1767 AD
             Ayudhaya Kingdom


-   King Phetracha , Baan Plu Laung Dynasty
-   King Tiger
-   King Tay sa
-   King Baromakote
-   King Ekatat , lost the II freedom in 1767
           Ayudhaya Kingdom
King U - Tong
The origin of King U-Tong , has 4 Theories
  Prof. Jean Boisselier : French Scolar discovered
the references that U-Thong City ( Suphanburi) was
the battle town over 300 yrs before Ayudhaya period.

Then King U-Tong was not from U-Tong as previous
belief.
           Ayudhaya Kingdom

The 1st Theory
  King U-Tong was from Lopburi
- He sent Pra Ramesuan , his son, to rule Lopburi
- Lopburi was Vice Law City in his period
            Ayudhaya Kingdom
The 2nd Theory

 King U-Tong was from Ayodhya, the old big kingdom
- He moved the city ,assumed located around the
  junction of the Chao phya river, across PaSak river
  to the present location
- This theory was dropped
            Ayudhaya Kingdom
The 3rd Theory
 King U-Tong was Chinese Prince origin
- This assumption was written by the Dutch
   “Van Flit” came to Ayudhaya during King
    Prasart thong period
- He migrated from China , passed Petchaburi
  (Plibpli), settled town at Ayudhaya
- This theory was dropped, no reference support
          Ayudhaya Kingdom

King Khun Luang Ph-ngua
 - Invaded to Sukhothai again
 - Sukhothai was completely under Ayudhaya
   in 1378
 - The 1st King in Suphanburi dynasty
         Ayudhaya Kingdom
 King Ramesuan
- Son of King U-Tong
- Had the 2nd throne for 7 yrs
 King Indraja
- Had 3 sons, Chao Ey , Chao Yi , Chao sam
- Chao Ey & Chao Yi had battle (flighting) on the
  back of elephant and both were killed in the same
  time
- Chao sam became “King Chao Sam Phraya”
             Ayudhaya Kingdom

 King Sam Phraya
- Constructed Wat Rajburana for Chao Ey & Chao Yi
  ( later 50 yrs ago , found the crypts contained ash of
  them & their father inside Prang - now displayed
  at Ayudhaya National Museum )
- Married to Sukhothai Princess => son
     => King BaromTrilokanart ( Prince Ramesuan)
             Ayudhaya Kingdom
King BaromTrilokanart
 - Had great war between Ayudhaya & Lanna,
   he went to Phisanulok to control the battle gate
 - Was a monk for 8 months at Wat Chulamani,
   followed the development & immitation of
   King Li Thai in Phisanulok
 - Issued Civil Laws
 - Set & divided into 4 parts ruler management,
 Weing - Wang- Klang - Na , remained till King Rama V
           Ayudhaya Kingdom

 King Ramadhibodi II
- Son of King BaromTrilokanart
- Pra Srisanphet & Prang(1&2) & Wat Pra SiSanphet
  ( Sanphet = who know everything)
- His son built for him, Prang (3)
           Ayudhaya Kingdom

 King Chairaja
- Young son with Tao Srisudachan, was throned
- Khun Vorawongsa
- The king’ brother , Pra Thienraja=> King Maha
  chakapat
              Ayudhaya Kingdom

    King Mahajakapat + Queen Sri Suriyothai
-   Ayudhaya was attacked by Burmese, King Pae
-   Queen Suriyothai was killed on the elephant
-   The cremation took place at Wat Sop Sawan
-   The stupa was built late Ayudhaya at this Wat
-   Pra wisutkasat, daughter, married to King
    Thammaraja
         Ayudhaya Kingdom
King Mahinthara
- Son of king Mahajakapat
- Ayudhaya lost the freedom to Burmese (I) in 1569
  (2112 B.C.)- King Bayingnong
King Mahathammaraja
- Under surveillance of the Burmese officials
- Had 2 sons => King Nareuan the great
             => King Ekatotsarot
             Ayudhaya Kingdom

 King Naresuan the Great
- 25 January 1584, proclaimed the independence of
Ayudhaya at Kreang town (Thai Military day-present)
King Ekatotsarot
- Western countries & neighbour => trading,
relationships, friendship ( Dutch ,English, Japanese,
Protuguese, Philippines …) came to Ayudhaya
- Period to reach the peak of revolution
            Ayudhaya Kingdom

 King Prasart Thong
- Founder of Prasart Thong Dynasty
- Coup d’ Etat - กู เด ต้ำ
- Build Wat Chaiwattanaram , outskirt/outside
  Ayudhaya city wall
- Expanded Royal palace
          Ayudhaya Kingdom
King Narai the Great
- Son of King Prasart Thong
- Had diplomat relationship betweeh Franch & Siam
- The Louis XIV , Christianity invasion
- In 1685, “Chevalier de Chaumont” –French
Ambassador visited King Narai, received him at
Sanphetprasart in Royal Palace/ Ayudhaya
- “Kosa Parn” & Siam envoy visited Franch, were
received at Hall of Mirros, Versailler Palace in Paris
             Ayudhaya Kingdom
King Phetracha
- The 1st King of Baan Plu Luang Dynasty ,
   Coup d’ Etat
- 12 Siam student sent to Franch by King Narai were
 asked to back home, discontinue relation with French
- Chased away 500 French soldiers
- Destroy 1 frontage on the right side at the beginning
of Chao Phya river, now left only Vichiyen frontage
(Pom Vichiprasit)
            Ayudhaya Kingdom

King Baromakot ,
- One son called Chaofa Kung, the Great poet of
  Ayudhaya, was killed by King’s order
King Ekatat
- Ayudhya lost freedom to Burma (II) in 1767
- Ayudhaya city was completely destroyed, on fire
& burnt for all 7 days & nights by Burmese troop
              Thonburi Kingdom

Thonburi, a capital city, located on the both bank of
Chao Phya river (1767 – 1782),
- Established by King Tak Sin (King Borom Racha IV)
- The Palace was built on the left bank
- The north part covered with Olive tree (Makok)
- Wat Makok => Wat Arun (Temple of Dawn), temple
 in Royal Palace at that time - no monk residence
             Thonburi Kingdom
- During 15 yrs of King Tak Sin ,had battles all the time
- Attacked Vientian , moved The Emerald Buddha to
Thonburi
- Chao phaya Mahakasatsuk (Chao phya Chakri)
official serving for restoration & prevention of country
independence. Attacked Khmer, Lao
- Late Thonburi period, King TakSin concentrated in
Buddhism
       Rattanakosin / Bangkok Kingdom

  Started in 1782 A D. - present
“ Bangkok”, new capital city moved to the right bank
of the Chao phaya river
- The Thonburi has river pass through city, difficult to
  prevent from enemies
- On the left bank is curve, the land eroded
- Royal Palace was built by copy the plan of Ayudhaya
    palace
             Rattanakosin Kingdom
Chakri Dynasty
Chao phaya Mahakasatsuk (Chao phya Chakri) =>
King Rama I ( King Pra Phuttayodfa)
- Royal Palace was built as Ayudhaya lay out , divided
into 3 sections :-
      1) For the ministry in the North
      2) For performing ceremonies
      3) For Royal resident – Outer,Inner(Women allowed)
               Rattanakosin Kingdom
King Rama I
-Royal Palace was renamed by King Rama VI =>
“Grand Palace”
-Wat Po, the Great stupa in green was built covered
Pra SriSanphet, ruined Buddha image from Ayudhaya
-The Emerald temple , in Royal Palace East corner,
no monk , The Emerald Buddha was moved here
                Rattanakosin Kingdom

- Wat Suthat , Seated Buddha image from Sukhothai
-Late or King Rama I , sent the troops to protect th attack
from Burma successfully (K. Bawdawpaya)
-Chinese group built China town nearby The Chao phya, later
on moved to the present location
                  Rattanakosin Kingdom
King Rama II
- Move the resident from Thonburi Palace to Royal Palace
- The Great Thai poet, composed :-
Ramayana(Thai version), I Nouw, Sang Thong,
Maneephichai ,etc.
- The Great Artist :- Door panel of Wat Suthat, Right garden
artificial water fall in Grand Palace- the most beautiful in Asia
                  Rattanakosin Kingdom
King Rama III
- Prince Tap , Kom. Jedsadabodin, son of King Rama II &
Chao jom
- A lot of temples were built
- Prince Mongkut in monkhood (Wat Samorrai), found
Pra Pathomjedi, Stone Inscriptions no. 1 of K .Ramkamheang,
no. 3 of K. LiThai
                Rattanakosin Kingdom
King Rama IV
- Prinece Mongkut , son of Rama II & the queen
- Translated 17 lines of Stone Inscription no. 1
- Opened the country & accept Western countries &
technology
- Lost the Khmer land to France 2 times; in Rama IV & V
- Father of Science
              Rattanakosin Kingdom


- Constructed in white “ White Palace” at Khao Wang,
Petchburi
- Passed away in 1868 after came back from Wah Kor,
Solar eclipse inspection
              Rattanakosin Kingdom
King Rama V (1868-1910)
- Prince Chulalonngkorn , son of Rama IV
- Throned at 13 yrs old, Chao Phaya Prayunrawong, regent
till aged 20 yrs
-Went to India , Indonesia- British Architect designed
Western style palace “Chakri Mahaprasart Palace”. Later
changed the roof to be Thai style by Prince Naris
               Rattanakosin Kingdom
-Went to Western countries 2 times
-Dusit Palaec was built after came back , the road between
Royal Palace -> Dusit Palace => King’s Road
-Bangkok city was expanded as much as present from this
period
               Rattanakosin Kingdom
King Rama VI
- Prince Vajirawuth , son of Rama V
- WW I
- Phayathai Palace
              Rattanakosin Kingdom
King Rama VII
- Prince Prachadhipok , son of Rama V
- 1932 AD Coup d’ Etat
- 1934 to England & passed away there
             Rattanakosin Kingdom
King Rama VIII
- Prinec Anan , grandson of Rama V
- Chaged Siam => Thailand
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