Portable Mass Driver Presentation by: Brad Garrison Overview: Mass Drivers Classificationof devices that use electromagnetic forces to propel an object More efficient than existing means of propulsion. A Brief “History” of Mass Drivers Current Development: Navy/Army Research Amateur Research Future Possibilities Peaceful Uses Military Uses Ground Based Mass Drivers Rail Guns Orbital Mass Drivers Electro Thermal Chemical Guns Spacecraft Based Mass Drivers Types of Mass Drivers Rail Coil Gauss Disk Project Motivations Interest in electromagnetism Little research being conducted Current designs are repetitive Project Goals To construct a Gauss/Coil Gun that is portable and easily operated For the projectile to have a muzzle velocity of approximately 50m/s All components will be powered by a single rechargeable battery High rate of fire (60rpm) Extremely durable Completely safe for anyone to use Possible Designs Coil Gun Rail Gun Rail Gun Limitations High “recoil” force Extremely high temperatures Armature vaporization Expensive materials More applicable to larger designs Coil Gun Lower operating temperatures than Rail Gun No projectile vaporization Lower, more manageable “recoil” forces Coil Parameters ► NL : Number of Layers > 30 -- Inductance will be unreasonably large. ► LL : Low Inductance, < 5 uH -- Unusually low inductance because the wire resistance had to be small in order to get the target current. This happens when the goal is very high current with a low voltage. ► TC : Time Constant > 2.0 msec -- Current rise time is too slow. ► OR : Outer Radius > 1.5 inches -- Too many layers of large wire. A smaller wire size will give a higher current density in a smaller space. ► CD : Current Density > 1000 MA/m^2 -- Practical value for copper wire to limit the heating. Start Position Coil Cutoff Coil Shielding Projectile Design Maximum Volume with Minimum Mass Ferromagnetic Silicon Steel: the ideal material Drawbacks of Existing Designs Most are driven off of AC power making portability impossible. DC designs operate at a much reduced power. All have a very low rate of fire Most are dangerous to use All are very fragile Capacitors used are expensive and heavy Preliminary Design Complications Barrel must be strong enough to withstand compressive force of the coil Capacitor banks can not provide pluses fast enough for the desired rate of fire Capacitors may fail after repeated use Heat build up Initial Design Initial Design Complications Induction coil produces high voltage pulses not high current pulses Electromagnets will drain the battery even in standby mode Optical gates will further drain battery and introduce more fragile components into the design Microprocessor vulnerable to magnetic fields and heat Second Design Induction coil replaced with photo capacitors Electromagnets replaced with permanent magnets utilizing principals of the Gauss Rifle This eliminates the need for photo gates as well Second Design Charge Booster (example is using a bank of 20 1.2V 0.25Amp AA batteries) Charge indicator ► Theindicator will signal when the capacitor is fully charged Parallel Charging Resonance Charging ► Resonance charging will be used to conserve energy and to decrease the charging time Possible Problems ► Fragilityof permanent magnets ► Resistive heating of the coil ► Over working the capacitors ► Battery life Future Improvements ► Optimized coil ► Heatsinks ► Improved indicators Conclusion ► Coilguns are not practical for portable designs. ► Superconductors ► Specialized Capacitors/Semiconductors ► New coil designs ► Advanced batteries References 1. anothercoilgunsite.com 2. coilgun.com 3. powerlabs.com 4.mgc314.home.comcast.net 5. scitoys.com Questions?
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