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Performance Evidence Table. Assessment: Self Assessment Questionnaires (NPTF) Admissible articles that describe questionnaire selected performance variables are included in this table. Only significant values are listed and the following cut- offs were used: inter class correlation r = > .70; kappa > .40; p < 0.05; Cronbach’s alpha > 0.8. * Only performances measured by the author(s) are displayed. Author(s), Setting, Case Definition Performance* Year, Number (n) Enrolled, (Number) Language Validity -Construct / Gold Standard Study Design, -Content – Y / N Questionnaire -Predictive – Y / N Reliability Responsiveness to change Jordan, et al.; Setting – University Hospital, Case definition – Validity 1998 Department of Neurosurgery, Three groups Construct / Gold Standard – Correlation of disability scores out patient clinic Sample 1 – with doctor and patient global assessments and physical Reliabiltiy and random sample measures validity studySubjects – 3 samples; 39 from a mail patients who had neck surgery survey to all Sample 1 Copenhagen previously; 21 patients seeking patients who had Disability and pain r = .83 (p < .0001) Neck outpatient care for chronic neck cervical disc Functional pain; 102 patients who had been surgery from Disability and patient’s global assessment r = .89 (p < Disability part of a randomized clinical 1990-1994 at a .0001) Scale (CNFDS) trial for treatment of chronic specified hospital neck pain Sample 2 – Sample 3 consecutive Disability and pain r = .64 (p < .0001) n= 162 patients seeking care at a specified Content – Yes, good general agreement with the NDI Language - English clinics whose pain (headache, lifting leisure time) and disability levels were Reliability unchanged Short term test-retest between first and Sample 1 r = .99 (p = < .0001) and ICC 0.99 second visits Sample 2 r = .96 (p = < .0001) and ICC 0.95 Sample 3 – Participants in a Cronbach’s alpha (entire scale) 0.897 RCT for the treatment of Responsiveness to change chronic Very responsive to change in short and long term patient mechanical neck status pain at a specified Correlations of changes in disability scores to changes in hospital pain scores: at the conclusion of treatment r = .49; p < .0001); at 4 month follow up r = .48 (p < .0001); at 12 month follow up r = .54 (p < .0001) Hains, et al., Setting – Chiropractic college Case definition - > Validity 1998 outpatient clinic and private 17 years old with Construct / Gold Standard – Pain Intensity Visual Analog chiropractic clinics, Canada neck pain (acute, Scale – Question 1 (neck pain intensity) on the NDI and the Cross-sectional subacute and total NDI score were jointly predictive of Pain Intensity study Subjects – Those with neck pain chronic) VAS seeking chiropractic treatment Neck Disability Reliability Index (NDI) n= 237 Cronbach’s alpha 0.92 Language - English Responsiveness to change Not measured No evidence of response set or item order bias – that is, the order of the items or the order of the response categories did not influence the total score or scores on individual items BenDebba et Setting – Hospital Neurosurgery Case definition – Validity al., 2002 and Orthopedic Clinics convenience Construct / Gold Standard – Oswestry Disability Index sample of possible (ODI) and SF-36 - Although some correlations were shown Cross sectional Subjects – convenience sample anterior fusion all values fell below 0.70 However some interesting clinical study of possible surgical out-patients surgical patients patterns of correlations [<0.70] generally supported with neck pain with neck pain construct validity. For instance, CSOQ pain correlated most Cervical Spine highly with SF36 pain (r=-0.50 and -0.57), CSOQ physical Outcomes n= 216 symptoms correlated most highly with SF-36 physical Questionnaire function (r=-0.50), and CSOQ psychological distress (CSOQ) Language - English correlated most highly with SF36 mental health (r=-0.61), vitality (r=-0.59) and aggregate mental component score (r=-.065). Reliability Test-Retest ICC for each of the six composite measures correlating 3 month and 6 month scores: neck pain severity (0.80); shoulder arm pain severity (0.80), functional disability (0.85), psychological distress (0.82), physical symptoms other than pain (0.86), health care utilization (0.75) Responsiveness to change Large and significant differences between improved and unimproved in all composite scores except health care utilization Williams et al. Setting – Outpatient clinic Group 1 (n=10) Validity 2001 Patients Construct / Gold standard – SF-12 (physical and mental) – Subjects - patients attending an an inverse correlation (all values are negative) was expected 3 groups - outpatient musculoskeletal clinic Group 2 (n=15) and shown because SF-12 scores increase with improved n=10, 15, and Researcher’s health while Aberdeen Pain Scales decrease with improved 512 n= 249 colleagues health. Neck APS and SF-12 Aberdeen Language - English Group 3 (n=512) Physical -0.62; Mental -0.44 Spine Pain Consecutive Scale (APS) patients with Upper back APS and SF-12 neck, upper or Physical –0.67; Mental – 0.33 lower back pain Lower back APS and SF-12 Physical – 0.58; Mental – 0.33 Content – Questions were correlated with the total score omitting that question (correlations > 0.2 remained in the questionnaire). Three versions of the questionnaire: Neck (21 questions) – correlations for 19 questions ranged between 0.21-0.66) Upper back (25 questions) - correlations for 24 questions ranged between 0.24-0.70) Lower back (34 questions) - correlations for 33 questions ranged between 0.23-0.64) Reliability – Reported as mean change in scores test-re-test with (95% CI) for patients who reported no change on global health assessment Pre-treatment: Neck 4.7 (2.6-6.8) Upper back 2.5 (0.2-4.9) Lower back 3.5 (1.5-5.4) Hoving et al., Setting – Hospital research unit Case definition – Validity 2003 WAD with no Construct / Gold standard – Problem Elicitation Technique Subjects – Patients with varying history of neck (PET) Cross sectional degrees of WAD who attend pain prior to the NDI and PET r = 0.57 p < 0.01; study physical therapy MVA, inability to NPQ and PET r = 0.56 p < 0.01 read English or Neck Disability n= 71 concussion at the Correlation of NDI and NPQ r=0.88 p < 0.01 Index (NDI), time of the Northwick Language - English accident Content – NDI and NPQ did not measure emotional and Park Neck Pain social function, which is measured by PET Questionnaire (NPQ), Problem Elicitation Technique (PET) Chiu et al. Setting – Seven outpatient Case definition – Validity 2001 physical therapy departments patients with neck Construct / Gold standard - Current Perceived Health 42 pain seeking (CPH42) and the Verbal Numerical Pain Scale (VNPS); Prospective Subjects – Consecutive patients outpatient Cross sectional construct validity r= 0.58-0.59; cross sectional with neck pain attending physical therapy Longitudinal construct validity r= 0.50-0.51 study physical therapy treatment Content – as evaluated by ten physiotherapists and ten neck Northwick n=594 (not all subjects used for pain patients was considered good to very good Park Neck Pain each analysis) Questionnaire Reliability (NPQ) Language – Chinese Test-Retest ICC 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.96); Cronbach’s alpha = 0.83-0.87 Responsiveness to change Change in questionnaire scores from baseline to six weeks (expressed as Effect Sizes): Northwick Park Pain Questionnaire 1.11; CPH42 0.79; VNPS 1.03 In those who reported improvement: Northwick Park Pain Questionnaire 1.36; CPH42 0.92; VNPS 1.23 Gonzalez, et Setting – not defined Case definition – Validity al., 2001 Patients with neck Construct / gold standard - Correlation between Neck Pain Subjects – Outpatients with pain longer than 4 VAS and NPQ: Cross sectional chronic non-inflammatory neck months, without Baseline r = 0.51 p = 0.0001; study pain (more than 4 months history of neck Retest (one week after baseline) r = 0.74 p = 0.0001; duration) surgery, After treatment r = 0.60 p = 0.0001 Northwick neurological Park Neck Pain n= 58 deficits, Questionnaire malignancies or (NPQ) Language - Spanish inflammatory Reliability arthritis Test-Retest ICC =0.63 (range of ICC for each of the 9 sections of the questionnaire) = 0.42 – 0.85 Internal Consistency – Author reports some discrepancy between certain variables (numbness, carrying, work) and pain intensity, however full analysis not reported Responsiveness to change Comparing pre-treatment to 3 months post-PT-treatment: All sections except driving show significant improvement over time via t-test Bicer et al., Setting – Hospital outpatient Case definition – Validity 2004 Physical Medicine and Outpatients with Construct / gold standard – Correlation with Pain VAS Rehabilitation Department neck pain > 6 (0.45), Pain Disability Index (0.51) and Hospital Anxiety Cross sectional months who and Depression Scale (depression scale 0.35, anxiety scale study Subjects – Chronic neck pain applied or referred 0.33) (more than 6 months) to the PMR Neck Pain and department, Reliability Disability n= 61 without Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 (p < 0.0001) Scale (NPDS) comorbidities, Language - Turkish neck surgery within the previous 3 months, or pregnant Pinfold et al. Setting – Outpatient physical Case definition – Validity 2004 therapy private practices patients receiving Construct / gold standard – no information provided outpatient Cross sectional Subjects – patients with WAD physical therapy Content – no apparent floor or ceiling effects noted study treatment for n= 101 whiplash injuries, Reliability Whiplash at least 18 years Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96 Disability Language - English old Questionnaire (WDQ) Wlodyka- Setting – Hospital in- and out- Case definition – Validity Demaille et al., patient and PT departments 18 – 70 year old Construct / gold standard – Patient’s opinion – improved, 2004 adults able to remained stable, deteriorated. For all scales best correlation Subjects – patients with non- speak/read French with patient opinion of neck disorder NPDS (r = 0.59); for Observational inflammatory neck pain > 15 with neck pain or opinion of patient perceived handicap NPDS (r = 0.58) prospective days seeking outpatient cervical neuralgia study treatment >15 days, without arthritis or Responsiveness to change Neck Disability n= 71 inflammatory Expressed as Effect Size (ES) and Standardized Response Index (NDI), disease, Mean (SRM) Neck Pain and Language – French tumor/metastasis, Disability myopathy, severe Significant differences noted for patients who improved on Scale (NPDS), psychiatric all measures: Northwick disorder NDI ES 0.55; SRM 0.55 Park Neck Pain NPDS ES 0.46; SRM 0.38 Questionnaire NPQ ES 0.70; SRM 0.81 (NPQ), Visual VAS P ES 0.82; SRM 0.56 Analog Scale - VAS H ES 0.74; SRM 0.68 Pain (VAS P) and Handicap Significant differences noted for patients who deteriorated (VAS H) on NDI, NPDS and NPQ: NDI ES -0.67; SRM -0.77 NPDS ES -1.06; SRM -1.14 NPQ ES -0.56; SRM -0.64 VAS P ES -0.31; SRM -0.32 VAS H ES 0.08; SRM 0.10 No significant difference for patients who remained stable on any of the measures NDI ES -0.25; SRM -0.34 NPDS ES -0.25 ; SRM -0.26 NPQ ES -0.06; SRM -0.08 VAS P ES 0.12; SRM 0.13 VAS H ES 0.22; SRM 0.30 NPDS scores significantly different between patients who deteriorated and who improved (P = 0.0001) and between Riddle et al., Setting – 4 PT out-patient clinics Case definition – Validity 1998 Patients referred Construct / gold standard – Active range of motion, work Subjects – patients with cervical for PT due to status, litigation status, and the two scales were compared to Cross sectional spine pain referred for outpatient problems in the each other study PT cervical spine only; patients with Weak correlations (ranging from 0.12 to 0.36) between Neck Disability n= 146 other conditions AROM and both the SF-36 and NDI. Index (NDI) or problems that and SF-36 Language - English may effect Patients working had significantly higher scores on SF-36 [PCS (physical functional status MCS, SF-36 PCS and NDI as compared to patients not component were excluded working as per a priori hypotheses. summary) and MCS (mental Patients not involved in litigation had significantly higher component scores on SF-36 MCS and NDI (as per a priori hypotheses), summary] but not on SF-36 PCS Correlation between NDI and SF-36 (MCS 0.47 and PCS 0.53) and correlation between SF-36 MCS and SF-36 PCS was low at 0.08 as hypothesized Responsiveness to change Both scales were responsive to change over time. The NDI and SF-36 PCS were able to differentiated between levels of goals attained (met versus not met) and change in work status; NDI and SF-36 MCS were able to differentiate between levels of litigation. Considerable overlap suggests use of only one of these scales would be sufficient for patients with cervical spine problems Chiu et al., Setting – seven PT outpatient Case definition - Validity 2005 departments >18 years old, Construct / gold standard – Numerical rating scale (NRS); consecutive adult rank correlation between the CPH and the NRS done at Prospective Subjects – Chinese consecutive patients with neck entry to study and at 6 weeks (0.41 and 0.49) observational patients with neck pain referred pain referred to study for outpatient PT PT by a medical Reliability practitioner, Test–Retest reliability ICC 0.91; Current n= 472 without metastasis Cronbach’s alpha 0.90 Perceived or infection, Health 42 Language - Chinese concurrent MS Responsiveness to change (CPH42) problems, pending CPH 42 comparison between beginning of treatment and litigation, week 3 Standardized Response Mean (SRM) = 0.33 and at compensatory week 6 SRM = 0.36; NRS comparison between beginning claims of treatment and week 3 SRM = 0.38 and at week 6 SRM = 0.50 Kaale et al. Setting - Primary care, Western Case definition – Validity 2005 Norway 92 WAD 2 patient Not measured 12-16 weeks after Reliability Subjects – Controls: A random a motor vehicle Not measured sample of 30 subjects drawn accident Responsiveness to change from a list of 300, treated by NDI – Control group 20.3 SD 15.6) and WAD 2 42.6 (SD physical therapists for problems 18.0) unrelated to neck pain NDI – significant changes in NDI scores noted with MRI WAD 2: A random sample abnormalities of the alar ligament (mean difference between drawn from a list of 297 from control and WAD 12.0 (95% CI 4.4-19.6); WAD patients seven communities with several abnormal (grade 2-3) lesions had higher disability scores than those with few or no abnormal n= 122 structures with some gender variation noted Language - Norwegian Reference List Bendebba M, Heller J, Ducker TB et al. Cervical spine outcomes questionnaire: its development and psychometric properties. Spine. 2002;27:2116-23. 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