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					                                    The City of Manchester

Manchester is a relatively new city; born of the Industrial Revolution, it took the lead in the world's
textile manufacture and production in the late 18th century, a position it held until its decline in the
1960s. Leaders of commerce, science and technology, like John Dalton and Samuel Arkwright,
helped create a vibrant and thriving economy - most of the nation's wealth was created in this
region during Victorian times. But it was undoubtedly textiles, and other associated trades, which
dominated and created a young dynamic city, whose very symbol is the worker bee - an emblem
repeated in mosaics all over the floor of the Town Hall.

There have, (arguably) been 2 Manchesters. The first, the Roman fort at Castlefield, and the
second, around the Cathedral and Chetham's Music School, which formed the medieval town of
Manchester. By the time of the Norman Conquest of Britain in 1066, the region was clearly Anglo-
Saxon, and their name for the town was "Mameceaster". (It was not to be until the 17th century
that the name "Manchester" would come into popular usage). In early times, Manchester was a
little-known hamlet adjacent to, and belonging to the then noble town of Salford.

Manchester is one of the largest metropolitan conurbations in the United Kingdom, justly proud of
its history and heritage, its culture, enterprise and its entrepreneurial spirit. In more recent times,
it has had to reconfigure its traditional manufacturing base to develop thriving new technologies. It
has rebuilt itself as a leading centre of modernist architecture since the terrorist bombing of the
city in 1996. This new sense of vigour and dynamism is evident in the appearance of an ever
increasing number of city centre hotels, luxury apartments and self-catering accommodation. It is
a tribute to its people and planners of Manchester that the city arose again out of the ashes of this
atrocity, phoenix-like, to become a thoroughly modern city - a leading light of the 21st century.

The Historic Town of Manchester

The original Manchester was an old town which has been inhabited since Roman times, when
General Julius Agricola built a fort just north of the site of present day city, though it was not until
the 18th century that this hitherto remote and inconspicuous little medieval township sprang into
the forefront of world attention, and not until the mid-19th century that it became a city. Actually, it
was the neighbouring City of Salford that dominated the region, and the Salford Hundred covered
all lands between the River Ribble to the north and the Mersey to the south, and to this day the
sovereign still bears the title of Lord of the Manor of Salford. Not until the 19th century, after many
protests and petitions to parliament, notably by the Chartists, did Manchester gain the status of a
city.

When General Julius Agricola, (40 - 93 AD), the commander of the invading Roman legions,
arrived at a sandstone bluff overlooking the confluence of the Rivers Irwell and Medlock on a
major roadway from the Roman settlement at Deva (Chester) to Eboracum (York), he saw
instantly that it was, potentially, an excellently defensible position against the native Celtic tribe,
the Brigantes, (perhaps where the word "brigand" comes from), who were (to put it mildly) less
than pleased by the uninvited occupying force's arrival in their ancestral territories.
Agricola immediately set about building a wooden fortress. He called the place "Mamuciam"
(ssosmetimes spelt 'Mamucium' - meaning "a breast shaped hill") because of the then distinctive
shape of the outcrop. The site of this encampment is marked today by Camp Street (actually in
Salford).


Agricola's original fort covered some 5 acres and was then surrounded by woods where deer and
wild boar were still to be found. Eventually, the Brigantes were won over and even Cartimandua,
their queen, was to become a firm friend of Agricola.
The original garrison was probably populated by legionaries from Spain and Romania, and it must
have seemed a very dark, cold and damp outpost at the very edge of the Roman Empire in
comparison to the sunny climes of their native lands. An inscription on the reconstructed North
                                                    http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/history.html
                                    The City of Manchester

Gate of the present Fort, (as it would have appeared around 200 AD), commemorates troops
from the provinces of Rhaetia and Noricum (roughly approximating to modern Austria), and their
centurion is identified as Lucius Senecianius Martius.

Over the next 3 centuries, a stone fort was built further downstream at what was to become
Castlefield (simply known by medieval times as the "castle in the field"), and the inevitable small
encampment (or vicus - a place to live) grew around it - at its height it is estimated that some
2000 people lived within its walls, including soldier's wives and families together with craftsmen
and traders. Many of these would have been Britons who eventually intermarried with Roman
legionaries. This was the origin of Manchester, and the people became the Romano-British.
The later stone fort was built at the present day site, where the 1970 excavations and
reconstruction is visible, and well worth a visit. In summer, two tour guides dressed as Roman
legionaries, conduct guided tours around the fortress.
A Roman exhibition can also be seen in the nearby Castlefield Visitors' Centre. Many valuable
archaeological finds exist, including fragments of Spanish pottery and a word square bearing the
words "Pater Noster" (Latin = "Our Father" - the beginning of the Lord's Prayer) - these two are
dated at between 170-175 AD, the oldest known Christian relics in Great Britain.

Manchester & the Industrial Revolution

During the Industrial Revolution the powerhouse that was Manchester became the hub of a wide
network of many small Lancashire townships - "little Manchesters" as they were sometimes
known - towns that serviced the city's massive cotton industry. Places like Blackburn, Burnley,
Bolton, Wigan, Salford, Oldham and Rochdale, (to name but a few) sent their woven and spun
produce to the Exchange in Manchester and from thence to the world via the newly created
Manchester Ship Canal, and received raw materials which were distributed out from the city and
its well established system of canals and railways.Steam power drove the Victorian city, with
water from the many local rivers like the Irwell, Medlock, Irk and Tame, and coal from Worsley via
the Duke of Egerton's Bridgewater Canal to Castlefield, or other coal pits around Wigan.
The City of Manchester and innumerable small satellite towns and villages surrounding it saw the
rapid growth of factories manufacturing merchandise for cotton weaving and spinning, dyeing,
fulling and all apects of the textile industry. Manchester was nicknamed "Cottonopolis" where
'King Cotton' ruled. Even today, Manchester is marked by its many fine surviving warehouses
(now mostly hotels and executive apartments) and mills (now frequently relegated to small
industrial units). It held onto its reputation as the prime source of world textiles until its decline in
the 1950s, when cheaper foreign imports sounded the death knell for the region's pre-eminence.

On visiting Manchester in 1825, the German architect Karl Schinkel wrote of his visit that "the
enormous factory buildings are seven to eight storeys high...where three years ago there were
only meadows". He went on to say that the buildings were so black that they looked as if they had
stood already for a hundred years.

Thanks to the infrastructure of a well connected canal system, the coming of the railways, and
later, the Manchester Ship Canal, Manchester was ideally placed to receive incoming raw
materials, had the large workforce required to process them, and the means of distribution for
finished goods. It was, in many ways, the warehouse of the western world.
So the city built warehouses - many of them - fine and architecturally elegant pioneering buildings
which often belied their purpose. They were also structurally advanced, being the first large scale
commercial use of cast iron frameworks - then a revolutionary new material whose integrity was
largely untried. Thankfully, due to the enduring quality of the building method, many still survive
intact today -some have found new functions, as in the originally Watts Warehouse, now the
Britannia Hotel.



                                                     http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/history.html
                                   The City of Manchester


Greater Manchester

In the 1970s, Greater Manchester was born - a still controversial grouping of 8 boroughs and 2
cities, which were subsumed into one large administrative connurbation, the Metropolian County
of Greater Manchester. Two of these, Tameside and Trafford, were newly created (again, quite
controversially) for the purpose, while other former County Boroughs like Bury, Oldham and
Rochdale (in Lancashire) and Stockport (in Cheshire) lost their administrative independence to a
large degree to the new Metropolitan County. This "county" still produces more than half of
Britain's manufactured goods and consumables, though manufacturing continues its steady
decline.
Greater Manchester is a big place. While 2.6 million people live within its actual boundaries, over
7 million others live in the wider region, making it second only to London in Great Britain. For 11
million people living within 50 miles of the City of Manchester, it is the place where they come to
work, or to shop or to visit the many attractions and entertainments which only a large dynamic
city such as this could hope to offer.

Manchester is an international centre.

"The Times" newspaper places 80 of its top 100 companies in the city and over 60 Foreign and
International Banks operate from here. Some 46,000 students currently study for Higher
Education at its colleges and universities. More than 90 world airlines fly into Manchester Airport
from 165 destinations world wide. In 1993 over 13 million people passed through the airport
terminal, and that figure is soon expected to surpass 22 million.

The Metropolitan County of Greater Manchester has the most extensive motorway network in the
United Kingdom. It is accessible by road, rail and air. Manchester is 2½ hours from London by
Intercity trains, of which there are on average 17 departures every day. The city has the UK's first
modern street operating rail system - Metrolink - which other UK cities are eager to emulate.

It is cosmopolitan - it offers more than 30 styles of foreign cuisine, with distinctive Chinese and
Asian areas of speciality. It has 80 golf courses, more theatres than any other city outside
London, two Premier League football teams, two major television companies, three Universities,
two symphony orchestras, and many small chamber ensembles. It leads the field in music. Since
the mid-1980s, Manchester popular music has dominated music charts.

It is also, by virtue of its central location within the British Isles, an excellent base for tourism.
Within 1 hour's drive are 3 major National Parks (the Lake District, the Peak District, and the
Snowdonia National Park). Also within an hour's drive are the seaside towns of the Fylde coast of
Lancashire (Blackpool, Lytham St Annes, Southport, Morecambe, Fleetwood), as well as the
great cities of Lancaster, York, Chester and Liverpool.

The City also has many fine listed buildings. Within the greater region are 170 tourist attractions
including some 34 historic houses, country parks, moors, plains, hills and 8 theme parks all within
an hour's drive away. For people in the locality, Manchester is a place to live - for some it is a
place to do business - and for others it is increasingly becoming a place to visit as a Tourist.




                                                   http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/history.html
                                   The City of Manchester


Facts and Figures

Health & Life Expectancy in Contemporary Manchester

The following table contains statistics for Manchester as a whole. Explanations of the indicators
used are given at the end of the table


                                                                         England
Indicator                               Period       Manchester
                                                                         & Wales
Life expectancy in years: men           2001-03          71.8              76.1

Life expectancy in years: women         2001-03          77.8              80.7

Low birthweight births                  2001-03          9.3%             8.0%
Number of live births                    2003           5,956            621,469
General fertility rate                   2003           56.4%             57.1%
Births outside marriage                  2003           53.0%             41.0%
Stillbirth rate                          2003            7.7%             5.7%
Abortion rate                            2002           18.9%             16.2%
Infant mortality rate                   2001-03          8.4%             5.4%
Under-18 conception rate                2000-02         65.9%             43.1%
Child dental decay                      2003-04         60.3%             39.6%
Limiting long term illness               2001           21.5%             18.2%
General 'poor' health                    2001           12.5%             9.3%
Smoking prevalence                       2003           31.6%             22.0%
Mortality rate: all cancers
                                        2001-02         175.5             126.0
(0-74 years)
Mortality rate: heart disease, stroke
and related diseases                    2001-02         172.4             106.3
(0-74 years)
Mortality rate: accidents               2001-02         22.2%             16.0%
Mortality rate: suicide                 2001-02         12.0%             8.8%
Serious accidental injuries             2001-02         369.4             313.9


Explanations of Life Expenctancy Table

The mortality figures shown in the table above are based on the 2001 Census. These are the only
population figures currently available. There is a probable shortfall of approximately 6.6%
between the official Census count and subsequent mid-year estimates, and you are therefore
advised to bear this factor of inaccuracy in mind n when using the above table.



                                                  http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/history.html
                                             The City of Manchester

          Low weight births: the percentage of live and stillborn infants born with a birth weight of
           less than 2,500 grams.
          Limiting long-term illness (LLTI): the number of residents having a limiting long-term
           illness, health problem or disability expressed as an indirectly standardised ratio. A ratio
           of 150 means that there were 50% more people with a LLTI than were expected.
           Conversely a ratio of 50 means that there were only half the expected number of people
           with a LLTI.
          "Poor" health: the number of residents reporting that their health in the last 12 months
           was "not good" or "poor" expressed as an indirectly standardised ratio. A ratio of 150
           means that there were 50% more people in "poor" health than were expected.
           Conversely a ratio of 50 means that there were only half the expected number of people
           in "poor" health.
          Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR): The ratio of the actual number of deaths for selected
           causes in an area compared to the number of deaths that would have been expected if
           the population had the same age and sex specific death rates as England and Wales. A
           ratio of 150 means that there were 50% more deaths than were expected. Conversely a
           ratio of 50 means that there were only half the expected number of deaths.

Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS); North West Public Health Observatory.




Working Population in Particular Industries in Manchester
         Percentage of the working population in particular industries 1998
Industry                                                                      Males   Females
Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing                                     0.2%     0.2%
Mining and quarrying (inc. gas and oil)                                        0.4%     0.3%
Manufacturing                                                                 29.4%     11.8%
Electricity, gas and water                                                     1.0%     0.4%
Construction                                                                   7.5%     1.5%
Distribution, hotels and catering                                             20.6%     25.6%
Transport, storage and communication                                           8.1%     3.0%
Financial and business services                                               14.1%     16.8%
Public administration and defence                                              5.7%     6.1%
Education, social work and health services                                     9.0%     29.7%
Other                                                                          4.0%     4.6%
Source: Office of National Sstatistics "Regional Trends" 2000.




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The City of Manchester




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