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Chapter 5_ Electrons in Atoms_ 116-149

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Chapter 5_ Electrons in Atoms_ 116-149 Powered By Docstoc
					Name                                                            Date                        Per.    No.


                                              Chemistry 12
        Electrons in Atoms: How are electrons arranged in an atom and how does
                    that arrangement play a role in chemical behavior?
                                 (Chapter 5: Electrons in Atoms, 116-149)


                                                  REVIEW

5.1    Light and Quantized Energy (pages 117-126)

       Read the “Summary” for “5.1 Light and Quantized Energy” at the end of the chapter on page
       145. Reread it to be certain you understand the key concepts for this section.

       A. The Nuclear Atom and Unanswered Questions—What was inadequate about Rutherford’s
           atomic model? (pages 117 and 118)

           1. Why did Rutherford’s atomic model need to be replaced?


       B. Wave Nature of Light—How is light wave-like? (pages 118-121)

           2. Use a diagram to illustrate each characteristic of a wave.

               a. wavelength
               b. amplitude
               c. cycle

           3. How are wavelength and frequency of light related?


           4. Arrange the following in order of decreasing wavelength.

               a. infrared radiation from a heat lamp
               b. dental X rays
               c. signal from a shortwave radio station

           5. Solve “Mastering Problems,” 65, 66 and 68, on textbook page 147.


       C. Particle Nature of Light—How is light particle-like? (pages 122-124)

           6. What is a quantum of energy? Explain how quanta of energy are involved in the amount of
              energy matter gains and loses?

           7. Compare the wave and particle models of light. What phenomena can only be explained by the
              particle model?

           8. Solve “Mastering Problems,” 72-74, on textbook page 147.



       D. Atomic Emission [Line] Spectra—What causes atomic emission spectra? (pages 125 and 126)

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           9. Describe the cause of atomic emission spectrum of an element.


           10. Explain the difference between the continuous spectrum of white light and the atomic emission
               spectrum of an element.


           11. Solve “Mastering Problems,” 71, on textbook page 147.

5.2    Quantum Theory and the Atom (pages 127-134)

       Read the “Summary” for “5.2 Quantum Theory and the Atom” at the end of the chapter on page
       145. Reread it to be certain you understand the key concepts for this section.

       A. Bohr Model of the Atom—What was the new proposal in the Bohr model of the atom?
           (pages 126 and 127)

           13. What was the basic new proposal in the Bohr model of the atom?

           14. The energies of electrons are said to be quantized. Explain what this means.

           15. How can electrons move from one energy level to another?

           16. According to the Bohr atomic model, why do atomic emission spectra contain only certain
               frequencies of light?

           17. Describe Rutherford’s model of the atom and compare it with the model proposed by Niels Bohr.


       B. The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom—What does the quantum mechanical model
           determine about the electrons in an atom? (pages 129 and 130)

           18. What does the quantum mechanical model determine about electrons?


       D. Hydrogen’s Atomic Orbitals—How do sublevels of principal energy levels differ? (pages 132-134)

           19. How do two sublevels of the same principal energy level differ from each other?

           20. How many orbitals are in the following sublevels?

               a. 3p sublevel      b. 2s sublevel      c.   4p sublevel

               d. 3d sublevel      e. 4f sublevel




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5.3    Electron Configurations (pages 135-141)

       Read the “Summary” for “5.3 Electron Configurations” at the end of the chapter on page 145.
       Reread it to be certain you understand the key concepts for this section.

       A. Ground-State Electron Configurations—What are the three rules for writing the electron
           configurations of elements? (pages 135 and 136)

           21. Summarize the three rules for writing the electron configuration of elements.


       B. Orbital Diagrams and Electron Configuration Notations—How can orbital diagrams and electron
           configuration notations be used to represent an atom’s electron configuration? (pages 136-139)

           22. Solve “Mastering Problems,” 77-78, on textbook page 147.

           23. Explain why the actual electron configurations for some elements differ from those assigned
               using the aufbau principle.

       C. Valence Electrons—What are valence electrons? (pages 140 and 141)




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