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Chapter 4 – Chemical Foundations_ Elements_ Atoms_ and Ions

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									Chapter 4 – Chemical Foundations: Elements, Atoms, and Ions

KEY TERMS:

Law of constant        Atomic number          Noble gases             Diatomic
composition            Mass number            Halogens                molecule
Electron               Periodic table         Transition              Ion
Nucleus                Groups                 metals                  Cation
Proton                 Alkali metals          Metals                  Anion
Neutron                Alkaline earth         Nonmetals
Isotope                metals                 Metalloids

STATE STANDARDS:
     C.1.32: Describe the possible subatomic particles within an atom or ion.

OBJECTIVES:
     a. To learn about Dalton’s theory of atoms.
     b. To understand and illustrate the law of constant composition.
     c. To learn about the internal parts of an atom.
     d. To understand Rutherford’s experiment to characterize the atom’s
        structure.
     e. To understand some important features of subatomic particles.
     f. To learn about the terms isotope, atomic number, and mass number.
                                                A
      g. To understand the use of the symbol    Z   X to describe a given atom.
      h.   To learn about various features of the periodic table.
      i.   To learn some of the properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
      j.   To learn the natures of the common elements.
      k.   To understand the formation of ions from their parent atoms and learn to
           name them.
      l.   To learn how the periodic table can help predict which ion a given element
           forms.

ASSIGNMENTS:

   1. Pages 115-118; #15,21,25,31,33,35a-d,37,39,41,43,45,49,51
   2. Pages 118-119; #55,57,59,65,67,69,73,75,77
   3. Isotope Worksheet
4.3 – Dalton’s Atomic Theory

Law of constant composition =




Suppose I have a sample of water from New Albany. The sample contains 1 gram of
hydrogen for every 8 grams of oxygen. If I found a sample of water from
Indianapolis, how many grams of hydrogen and oxygen would the sample contain
according to the law of constant composition?




In your own words, list the five statements of Dalton’s atomic theory.

1.




2.




3.




4.




5.
Which one of Dalton’s statements turned out to be false? Why?




4.5 – The Structure of the Atom

Electron =




Who discovered the electron? How did he/she do it?




What is the plum pudding model of the atom? Why was it called this? Draw a
diagram of it below.
What was the alpha particle experiment? Who did it? How did this experiment have
major implications to the structure of the atom? Draw a diagram below of what the
atom looked like after this experiment.




Nucleus =




Proton =




Neutron =
4.6 – Introduction to the Modern Concept of Atomic Structure

If the nucleus of an atom was the size of a grape, how far away would the electrons
be on average?




If all atoms are composed of the same components, why do different atoms have
different chemical properties?




4.7 – Isotopes

Isotope =




Atomic number =




Mass number =




                                     AX
                                     Z
What does each of the letters in the symbol above stand for?

A = __________________________

Z = __________________________

X = __________________________
Example 1: Determine the number of each of the three types of subatomic
particles for the of the following.

     60
a.   27   Co
           electrons = ___________
           protons   = ___________
           neutrons = ___________

     37
b.   17   Cl
           electrons = ___________
           protons   = ___________
           neutrons = ___________

     238
c.    92  U
           electrons = ___________
           protons   = ___________
           neutrons = ___________


Example 2: Write atomic symbols for each of the following numbers of subatomic
particles.

     a. 12 p+, 12 e-, 12 n0          = ___________________
               +      -      0
     b. 15 p , 15 e , 17 n           = ___________________
     c. 82 p+, 82 e-, 127 n0         = ___________________


4.8 – Introduction to the Periodic Table

Periodic table =




Who was the first person to arrange elements in a periodic table? How did he/she
arrange the elements?




Groups (families) =
Alkali metals =




Alkaline earth metals =




Noble gases =




Halogens =




Transition metals =




Metals =




Nonmetals =




Metalloids =
Where are metals, nonmetals, and metalloids located on the periodic table?




4.9 – Natural States of the Elements

Are most elements in nature found in their pure form? Why?




Which elements are called the noble metals? Why?




What is so special about the noble gases?




Diatomic molecules =


Which elements are considered diatomic?



Which two elements are liquids at room temperature? Which other two elements
almost qualify as liquids?
4.10 – Ions

Ion =




Cation =




Anion =




Are cations bigger or smaller than their parent atoms? Why or why not? What about
anions?




Example 1: Write the atomic symbol for each of the following.

     a. 35 p+, 36 e-, 45 n0               = _____________________
                  +       -       0
     b. 8 p , 10 e , 10 n                 = _____________________
                      +       -       0
     c. 13 p , 10 e , 14 n                = _____________________
     d. 26 p+, 24 e-, 31 n0               = _____________________
                      +       -       0
     e. 56 p , 54 e , 81 n                = _____________________


Example 2: Determine the number of each of the three types of subatomic
particles for the of the following.

a.
     37
     17   Cl 1
            electrons = ___________
            protons       = ___________
            neutrons = ___________


b.
     25
     12   Mg 2
            electrons = ___________
            protons       = ___________
            neutrons = ___________
c.
     33
     16   S 2
            electrons = ___________
            protons   = ___________
            neutrons = ___________


d.
     40
     19   K 1
            electrons = ___________
            protons   = ___________
            neutrons = ___________


e.
     15
      7   N 3
            electrons = ___________
            protons   = ___________
            neutrons = ___________

								
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