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Atoms_ Isotopes and Ions

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Atoms_ Isotopes and Ions Powered By Docstoc
					                                                               Name_____________________________
Atoms, Isotopes and Ions
                                                                Class__________________Date________
Atoms are the basic building blocks of all substances. Yet atoms_are composed of small particles such as
protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are about equal in mass and are found in the
nucleus, a small dense region of the atom. Electrons have negligible mass and are found orbiting the nucleus
in an electron cloud.

All atoms contain the same subatomic particles but may differ in the number of each subatomic particle.

Objectives:
    Understand the composition and structure of atoms, isotopes and ions.
    Identify number of protons, neutron and electrons in an atom, ion or isotope.
    Relate subatomic particles to atomic number, mass number, charge, symbol and name of element.
    Use symbols to represent atoms, ions and isotopes.
    Distinguish between atoms, ions and isotopes.

Examine the following models closely.

Model 1: Nuclear Symbols

      Mass number                         4 He                     Element symbol
      Atomic number                       2
    Number of protons +
    number of neutrons
                                           4 He                          Element symbol
    Number of protons
                                           2
Model 2: Diagrams of Various Atoms (Note: Diagrams are not to scale, the nucleus is much smaller.)

                        Proton              1.0073 amu       +1 charge
                        Neutron             1.0087 amu       0 charge
                        Electron            0.0005 amu       -1 charge
                              1 amu = 1.6606 x 10-24 g



                                                                                    1
                                                                                    1H
                                                                             Hydrogen atom
                                                                         1.0078 amu




1
         2
         1H
     Hydrogen atom
      2.0140 amu


        1 
        1H
      Hydrogen ion
       1.0073 amu

     12
      6C
      Carbon atom
    Exactly 12.00 amu



       13
        6C
      Carbon atom
      13.0034 amu


     13 
      6C
       Carbon ion
      13.0039 amu



     16
      8O
      Oxygen atom
      15.9949 amu




2
                                                                             18
                                                                              8O
                                                                           Oxygen atom
                                                                           17.9991 amu



                                                                           16 2 
                                                                            8O
                                                                            Oxygen ion
                                                                           15.9960 amu



Questions:
1. What are the three particles that comprise a carbon atom?

2. Which particles contribute most of the mass of the atom and where are these particles found?

                                   16   15   18        16 2
3. How many protons are found in    8 O, 8 O, 8 O, and 8 O     ?

                                     16   15   18        16 2
4. How many neutrons are found in     8 O, 8 O, 8 O, and 8 O     ?

                                     16   15   18        16 2
5. How many electrons are found in    8 O, 8 O, 8 O, and 8 O       ?


Activity 1: Building Atoms
Based on the model and the sheet provided work with your group to build the following atoms using:
                White beans to represent protons
                Red beans to represent neutrons
                Black jimmies to represent electrons.
Once built, draw a diagram of your model in the space provided and answer the questions.
Atom 1:
Nuclear Symbol:



Name of element:                                                             nucleus



#p+ = ________
#n0= ________
#e-= _________
atomic # = ____
mass #= ______

3
Atom 2:
Nuclear Symbol:



Name of element:
                         nucleus

#p+ = ________
#n0= ________
#e-= _________
atomic # = ____
mass #= ______


Atom 3:
Nuclear Symbol:


Name of element:
                   nucleus
#p+ = ________
#n0= ________
#e-= _________
atomic # = ____
mass #= ______



Atom 4:
Nuclear Symbol:



Name of element:

                              nucleus
#p+ = ________
#n0= ________
#e-= _________
atomic # = ____
mass #= ______




4
Atom 5:
Nuclear Symbol:


Name of element:

#p+ = ________
                                                                                 nucleus
#n0= ________
#e-= _________
atomic # = ____
mass #= ______




Atom 6:
Nuclear Symbol:


Name of element:

                                                                                 nucleus
#p+ = ________
#n0= ________
#e-= _________
atomic # = ____
mass #= ______



Questions:
1. What are the three particles that comprise a silver atom?


2. Which particle(s) contribute(s) most of the volume of the atom and where are they found?


                                    40
3. How many protons are found in    18   Ar, 7 Li,
                                             3
                                                     18    3
                                                      8 O, 1H    and 136 Ag ?
                                                                      47




                                     40
4. How many neutrons are found in    18   Ar, 7 Li,
                                              3
                                                      18    3
                                                       8 O, 1H    and 136 Ag ?
                                                                       47




                                     40
5. How many electrons are found in   18   Ar, 7 Li,
                                              3
                                                      18    3
                                                       8 O, 1H    and 136 Ag ?
                                                                       47




                                     40
6. What are the atomic numbers of    18   Ar, 7 Li,
                                              3
                                                      18    3
                                                       8 O, 1H   and 136 Ag ?
                                                                      47



5
                                  40
7. What are the mass numbers of   18   Ar, 7 Li,
                                           3
                                                   18    3
                                                    8 O, 1H   and   136
                                                                     47 Ag ?




8. What is true about the number of protons found in an atom?




Activity 2: Building Isotopes
Based on the model and the sheet provided work with your group to build the following atoms using:
                White beans to represent protons
                Red beans to represent neutrons
                Black jimmies to represent electrons.
Once built, draw a diagram of your model in the space provided and answer the questions.
Atom 1A:     Nuclear Symbol:                                   Atom 1B:         Nuclear Symbol:




                    nucleus                                                       nucleus




#p+ = ________        atomic # = ____                          #p+ = ________       atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                                                  #n0= ________
#e-= _________       mass #= ______                            #e-= _________       mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                                           Name of atom or ion:




6
Atom 1C:         Nuclear Symbol:      Atom 2A:      Nuclear Symbol:




                  nucleus                                nucleus




#p+ = ________      atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________       atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                         #n0= ________
#e-= _________      mass #= ______    #e-= _________       mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:

Atom 2B:   Nuclear Symbol:            Atom 2C:         Nuclear Symbol:




                  nucleus                                nucleus




#p+ = ________      atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________       atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                         #n0= ________
#e-= _________      mass #= ______    #e-= _________       mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:


7
Atom 3A:         Nuclear Symbol:      Atom 3B:      Nuclear Symbol:




                  nucleus                                nucleus




#p+ = ________      atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________       atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                         #n0= ________
#e-= _________      mass #= ______    #e-= _________       mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:

Atom 3C:   Nuclear Symbol:            Atom 4A:         Nuclear Symbol:




                  nucleus                                nucleus




#p+ = ________      atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________       atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                         #n0= ________
#e-= _________      mass #= ______    #e-= _________       mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:


8
Atom 4B:          Nuclear Symbol:                            Atom 4C:               Nuclear Symbol:




                    nucleus                                                                nucleus




#p+ = ________        atomic # = ____                        #p+ = ________                 atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                                                #n0= ________
#e-= _________        mass #= ______                         #e-= _________                 mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                                         Name of atom or ion:

Questions:
1. What do all isotopes of the same element have in common?

2. How do isotopes of the same element differ?

3. How many isotopes of any particular element can there be?

                                   40      42      44      31     26            46
4. How many protons are found in   20 Ca , 20 Ca , 20 Ca , 15 P , 15 P,   and   15 P ?


                                     40      42      44      31     26            46
5. How many neutrons are found in    20 Ca , 20 Ca , 20 Ca , 15 P , 15 P,   and   15 P ?


                                     40      42      44      31     26            46
6. How many electrons are found in   20 Ca , 20 Ca , 20 Ca , 15 P , 15 P,   and   15 P ?


7. Describe how you might separate isotopes of the same element from a sample.

8. Does changing the number of electrons in an isotope change its mass. Explain your answer.

9. Using a grammatically correct sentence, define an isotope.




9
Activity 3: Building Ions
Based on the model and the sheet provided build the following pairs of atoms and ions using:
                White beans to represent protons
                Red beans to represent neutrons
                Black jimmies to represent electrons.
Once built, draw a diagram of your model in the space provided.
Atom 1A:       Nuclear Symbol:                         Atom 1B:           Nuclear Symbol:




                    nucleus                                                nucleus




#p+ = ________        atomic # = ____                  #p+ = ________        atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                                          #n0= ________
#e-= _________        mass #= ______                   #e-= _________        mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                                   Name of atom or ion:


Atom 2A:     Nuclear Symbol:                           Atom 2B:        Nuclear Symbol:




                    nucleus                                                nucleus




10
#p+ = ________     atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________         atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                        #n0= ________
#e-= _________     mass #= ______    #e-= _________         mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:
Atom 3A:      Nuclear Symbol:        Atom 3B:     Nuclear Symbol:




                 nucleus                              nucleus




#p+ = ________     atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________     atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                        #n0= ________
#e-= _________     mass #= ______    #e-= _________     mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                 Name of atom or ion:




11
Atom 4A:         Nuclear Symbol:                                     Atom 4B:                      Nuclear Symbol:




                    nucleus                                                                           nucleus




p+ = ________        atomic # = ____                                 p+ = ________                     atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                                                        #n0= ________
#e-= _________        mass #= ______                                 #e-= _________                    mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                                                 Name of atom or ion:




Critical Thinking Questions:
1. What distinguishes a neutral atom from an ion?

2. How is the charge on an ion determined?

3. What is the charge on an atom with the same number of protons and electrons?

4. What notation is used in the nuclear symbol to indicate the charge of the ion?

5. How many protons are found in   75
                                   33   As,     75
                                                33   As 3  ,   88
                                                                38 Sr ,   and   88
                                                                                38 Sr
                                                                                      2
                                                                                           ?

6. How many neutrons are found in    75
                                     33   As,    75
                                                 33   As 3  ,    88
                                                                  38 Sr ,   and   88
                                                                                  38 Sr
                                                                                        2
                                                                                               ?

7. How many electrons are found in   75
                                     33   As,    75
                                                 33    As 3  ,   88
                                                                  38 Sr ,   and   88
                                                                                  38 Sr
                                                                                        2
                                                                                               ?

8. Using a grammatically correct sentence, define an ion.




12
Activity 4: Atoms, Isotopes or Ions:
Based on the model and the sheet provided build the following sets of atoms, isotopes and ions using:
                White beans to represent protons
                Red beans to represent neutrons
                Black jimmies to represent electrons.
Once built, determine if the particle is an atom, isotope or ion. Draw a diagram of your model in the space
provided.
1A: Nuclear Symbol:                                     1B:       Nuclear Symbol:
Atom or Isotope or Ion                                  Atom or Isotope or Ion




                     nucleus                                                  nucleus




#p+ = ________     atomic # = ____                      #p+ = ________     atomic # = ____
  0                                                       0
#n = ________                                           #n = ________
#e-= _________     mass #= ______                       #e-= _________     mass #= ______
Name of atom or ion:                                    Name of atom or ion:




13
1C: Nuclear Symbol:                   2A:       Nuclear Symbol:
Atom or Isotope or Ion                Atom or Isotope or Ion




                  nucleus                              nucleus




#p+ = ________      atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________     atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                         #n0= ________
#e-= _________     mass #= ______     #e-= _________     mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:

2B: Nuclear Symbol:                   2C:      Nuclear Symbol:
Atom or Isotope or Ion                Atom or Isotope or Ion




                  nucleus                              nucleus




#p+ = ________      atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________     atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                         #n0= ________
#e-= _________     mass #= ______     #e-= _________     mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:

14
3A: Nuclear Symbol:                   3B:       Nuclear Symbol:
Atom or Isotope or Ion                Atom or Isotope or Ion




                       nucleus                           nucleus




#p+ = ________      atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________      atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                         #n0= ________
#e-= _________     mass #= ______     #e-= _________     mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:

3C: Nuclear Symbol:                   4A:       Nuclear Symbol:
Atom or Isotope or Ion                Atom or Isotope or Ion




                  nucleus                               nucleus




#p+ = ________      atomic # = ____   #p+ = ________      atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                         #n0= ________
#e-= _________     mass #= ______     #e-= _________     mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                  Name of atom or ion:


15
4B: Nuclear Symbol:                                             4C: Nuclear Symbol:
Atom or Isotope or Ion                                          Atom or Isotope or Ion




                     nucleus                                                                 nucleus




#p+ = ________         atomic # = ____                          #p+ = ________                atomic # = ____
#n0= ________                                                   #n0= ________
#e-= _________         mass #= ______                           #e-= _________                mass #= ______

Name of atom or ion:                                            Name of atom or ion:

Questions:

                                    27         35     27   3  127 125            131 
1. How many protons are found in    13   Al,   13 Al, 13 Al , 53 I, 53 I    and    53 I ?


                                     27         35     27   3  127 125            131 
2. How many neutrons are found in    13   Al,   13 Al, 13 Al , 53 I, 53 I   and     53 I ?


                                                            3  127 125            131 
3. How many electrons are found in 27 Al,
                                   13
                                                35     27
                                                13 Al, 13 Al , 53 I, 53 I   and     53 I ?


4. What do all atoms or ions of the same element have in common?


5. How could they be different?


6. What feature of an atom or ion identifies it as a particular element?


7. What information about the atom or ion is provided by the atomic number?


8. How is the mass number determined?




16
9. Why does the mass number not always match the mass found on the Periodic Table for a particular
element?


10. How do isotopes of a particular element differ?


11 How are isotopes of a particular element alike?


12. Write the symbol for a species that has 9 protons, 10 neutrons and 9 electrons. What is the atomic
number? What is the mass number? What is its charge?

13. Write the symbol for a species that contains 52 protons,75 neutrons and 54 electrons. What is the
atomic number? What is the mass number? What is its charge?

14. Write the symbol for a species that has an atomic number of 10 and a mass number of 22. How many
protons are present? How many neutrons? How many electrons? What is its charge?




17
                                      Building Atoms, Iostopes and Ions

# protons + # neutrons =   Mass number
                                                          4
         # protons =       Atomic number                  2   He                  Element symbol


                                                                          Note: Not drawn to scale.
                                                                          The nucleus should be much
                                                                          smaller.




                                                Nucleus




18
             1       14       24    
             1H       7N
     12
                              11 Na
      6C

      7      40      107      24
      3 Li   18 Ar    47 Ag   11 Na


     40      42      44       23
     20 Ca   20 Ca   20 Ca    11 Na

     31      46      26       32
     15 P    15 P    15 P     16 S

     54      56      58       32 2 
     26 Fe   26 Fe   26 Fe    16 S


     35      36      37       34
     17 Cl   17 Cl   17 Cl    16 S

19
     39      36         41      27
     19 K    19 K       19 K    13 Al

     24      32         26      35
     12 Mg   12 Mg      12 Mg   13 Al

             131 1
     127
      53 I    53 I
                        125
                         53 I
                                27
                                13 Al3 

     19      19 1      75      75   3
      9F      9F        33 As   33 As


     79                               1
     34 Se
             79
             34 Se 2   64
                        29 Cu
                                64
                                29 Cu



                                     3
     88
     38 Sr
             88
             38 Sr 2   70
                        31Ga
                                70
                                31Ga


20

				
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