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      All injuries are preventable. The goal of zero accidents is realistic, not just theoretical.
      Supervisors and managers having primary responsibility for the well-being of their
      employees shall fully accept this principle.

      Management, from first line supervisor to the City Manager, has the responsibility for
      preventing injuries. All share equally in this responsibility.

      It is possible to safeguard against all operating exposures which may result in injuries.
      Preferably, the source of danger should be eliminated. But, where this is not possible,
      protective measures must be taken such as machine guarding, safety devices, personal
      protective equipment, physical fitness and administrative actions.

      All City employees will be trained to work safely and to understand that it is to their
      advantage, as well as the City’s to work safely. Management is responsible for the
      adequate safety training and education of employees. However, all employees must be
      convinced they are responsible for working safely and in doing so, the citizens, the City
      and themselves benefit.

      Safety is good business from both an efficiency and economic standpoint. Injuries are
      not only painful but cost significant amounts of time, money and energy, thus reducing
      the quality of life for the employee while decreasing the City’s ability to provide services.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                                1

      The main purpose of the City of Albany’s Safety Program is to prevent accidents, either
      to employees or our citizens. Our Safety Program will also produce some desirable

                                    Increased Productivity

                                  Enhanced Work Processes

                                 Improved Employee Morale

                                   Reduced Operating Costs

      It is imperative these objectives be kept in mind during the planning and day-to-day
      operation of the Safety Program.

1.3   POLICY

      1.3.1   Safety and loss prevention are not separate and apart from the job but an integral
              part of each assignment for all employees and shall be considered major elements
              in appropriate Job Performance Evaluations.

      1.3.2   All employees are expected to conduct themselves in a safe manner at all times.
              The employee must satisfy himself/herself before starting any job so that it can be
              done safely under existing conditions. Employees must not take chances or
              permit co-workers or citizens to do so.

      1.3.3   Safety and loss prevention are paramount considerations in providing tools,
              materials and equipment to accomplish the assigned job.

      1.3.4   Prompt disciplinary action shall be administered whenever a department head or
              supervisor determines that an employee has neglected required safety practices,
              deliberately disobeyed safety rules or through unsafe acts endangered his/her own
              health of safety and/or the health or safety of others.


      1.4.1   Risk Manager

              The Risk Manager is an advisory position and is responsible for: the development
              and distribution of a comprehensive Safety Program for all City of Albany
              employees; the development and implementation of policies and procedures;
              establishing reporting requirements and documents; preparation of various

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           2
           management reports to analyze Safety Program effectiveness; preparation of
           program recommendations and other administrative support functions. The
           Safety Program is a responsibility of each of us and is not centralized in one
           person or department within the City.

           The Risk Manager Shall:

           a.     Determine and Monitor Safety Programs

                  The Risk Manager, who oversees the Risk Management
                  Department, is responsible for administering the Safety Program for
                  the City of Albany. This is the structure that holds the program
                  together and documents the existence of the Safety Program. It includes
                  the paperwork, planning and scheduling, coordination of various aspects
                  of the program, cooperation and communication of the Safety Program.

           b.     Emphasize the Importance of Safety

                    The Risk Manager’s objective is to promote safety in every aspect for
                    the well being of the City’s employees and the citizens of Albany. This
                    is done through advertisements and publicity related programs/materials
                    that solicit interest and awareness of safety objectives, practices and

           c.     Enforce Safety

                  The Risk Manager is responsible for ongoing searches for unsafe
                  conditions and practices to prevent accidents.

                  Sponsor training for new and existing drivers of City vehicles and
                  continuous monitoring of their performance in relation to safety standards.

           d.     Conduct Accident Investigation/Reporting

                  Gather facts regarding an accident, insuring the complete and accurate
                  reporting of all accidents to the proper authority.

           e.     Decision Making and Settlement Authority

                  When there is a third party entity, group, insurance company, etc.,
                  contracted by the City to process and settle claims for losses and damages
                  to others as well as to City property, the Risk Manager shall, along with
                  the third party, make settlement decisions that are in the best interest of the
                  City and are consistent with the policy for processing claims. All appeals

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          3
                    for denied claims should be made directly to the City Manager who has
                    final authority in the appeal process.

     1.4.2   Department Heads

             Department Heads are expected to breathe life into their safety programs. Safety
             goals should be communicated to staff of a continuous basis. Safety performance
             should be monitored and evaluated regularly. Supervisors should be given
             feedback regarding accident statistics. Department Heads should also review all
             accident reports within their department to gain a thorough understanding of how
             an accident occurred and identify trends. Training should be supported in all
             areas of safety. Just as the Department Head is responsible for overall program
             management, he/she has the ultimate responsibility for their employee’s health
             and safety. All achievement plans shall include safety within them.

             Each Department Head will be accountable for:

             a.     Determining Internal Training Needs

                    Department Heads are ultimately responsible for the training of staff.
                    With the assistance of supervisory staff and Department Safety
                    Representative, training requirements must be determined and a plan
                    implemented to meet the variety of training requirements necessary to
                    provide a safer work place. Each employee should have a training plan
                    that includes those hazards specific to his/her job.

             b.     Communicating Safety Goals

                    Department Heads should know what the goals of the safety program are
                    in the department. Department Heads must communicate these goals
                    on a regular basis at staff meetings, safety meetings, etc. All employees
                    need to hear about the safety program from management on a regular

                    Safety cannot be discussed too much! Safety should be a regular topic at
                    every staff meeting. This not only shows employees the priority placed
                    on safety, but keeps it fresh in everyone’s minds, which is the first step in
                    accident prevention.

             c.     Reviewing Injury/Illness Information

                    Each Department Head is responsible for reviewing the types of injuries,
                    injury severity, costs, lost time and similar information. This information
                    is critical to the evaluation of injury trends, both within a department and
                    City-wide. All Department Heads should be familiar with the types of

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                              4
                    injuries occurring within their department and tailor training towards those
                    areas to help prevent future injuries.

     1.4.3 Supervisors

             Supervisors are the life blood of the Safety Program administration. Every
             supervisor must ensure job sites and work practices are regularly reviewed for the
             identification and control of hazards. Identified hazards should be eliminated to
             the extent possible and otherwise controlled to avoid accidents. Formal job safety
             procedures should be developed and comprehensive training on equipment and
             practices provided. Supervisors must provide leadership and set a personal
             example with respect to safety. Accidents that do occur should be thoroughly
             investigated and causes determined to prevent similar situations:
             Supervisors shall:

             a.     Ensure job sites and work practices are regularly reviewed for the purpose
                    of identifying and controlling potential hazards.
             b.     Ensure identified hazards are eliminated or controlled, using appropriate
                    techniques that those at risk are notified immediately and that outside
                    assistance is sought when necessary to remove or control a hazard.
             c.     Develop formal safety procedures for each position, working closely with
                    employees to identify hazardous operations and how to reduce the risks
                    involved in the work.
             d.     Provide leadership and set a personal example regarding safety.
                    Compliance will be monitored by supervisors and corrective actions taken,
                    including disciplinary action for non-compliance with job safety
             e.     Carry an ongoing, job specific training program as well as general safety
             f.     Investigate and report all injuries/accidents to higher levels.
             g.     Have employee’s safety performance evaluated by their supervisor on a
                    regular basis. This information will be included in regular performance
                    evaluations and manager’s achievement plans.

     1.4.4   Employees

             Employees are responsible for their safety as well as the safety of their peers and
             those they serve. Employees are accountable for learning to perform their jobs to
             prescribed standards while complying with all of the related safety rules and work
             practices. Employees are often in the best position to identify hazards, as well as
             come up with ideas on how to reduce the hazards; they have the responsibility to
             do so. All injuries and accidents must be reported immediately.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          5
              Every employee of the City of Albany is responsible for:

              a.     Reviewing work sites and procedures for the purpose of identifying
                     potential hazards and either eliminate them or report them to their
                     immediate supervisor.
              b.     Reporting all injuries and accidents to the appropriate authorities.
              c.     Assisting in the development of job specific safety standards.
              d.     Performing work in accordance with established job safety procedures.
              e.     Actively participating in all safety training provided;
              f.     Asking questions when uncertain about the safe way to perform an
                     assignment or operate equipment, and in no event, operating hazardous
                     equipment or operating equipment which constitutes a hazard.

      1.5.1 Accident and Loss Investigation

              The accident and loss investigation procedures to be followed throughout the City
              are outlined in Section 4, “Loss Prevention Enforcement Plan” of this manual.

      1.5.2   Accident Reports

              The Risk Manager shall quarterly summarize all City accidents and report
              summary results to the appropriate department heads and City Manager.

      1.5.3   Employee Training

              The Risk Manager shall evaluate the adequacy of departmental safety training
              procedures to insure that basic safety training practices and principles are being

              The Risk Manager will conduct training education seminars periodically for all
              employees to enhance the safety practices that are currently in place.

      1.5.4   Effective Communications

              A free flow of communication shall exist between all Department Heads and the
              Risk Manager. Items which affect departmental operating policies and/or
              practices shall be communicated to the appropriate department head and/or City
              Manager by the Risk Manager. Recommendations which affect City operating
              policies and procedures shall be communicated to appropriate individuals for
              approval and/or implementation.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                              6
      1.5.5   Claims Administration

              The Risk Manager shall promptly administer all claims where loss has occurred in
              order to assist in the reduction of insurance costs and related City expenses and to
              enhance public relations.


      1.6.1   A balanced, successfully operating Safety Program requires many elements being
              brought together in a combined effort. These elements shall be evaluated by the
              Risk Manager to establish objective levels of performance on an annual basis and
              will take into consideration progress made and future goals desired.

      1.6.2   Summary reports shall be maintained at each level of responsibility. The areas
              that shall be stressed are related to personal, vehicle and public liability accidents.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                               7



      The Employee Safety-Loss Prevention Orientation Check List (see Appendix for
      example) is designed to assist all supervisors in familiarizing their employees with
      information, practices, policies and procedures related to their Safety-Loss Prevention


      2.2.1   The immediate supervisor of each new employee and each employee who is
              transferred or changes job classification shall explain at a minimum each of the
              applicable items on the check list and indicate the date discussed. Items which
              are not applicable shall be marked “N/A” (Not Applicable).

      2.2.2   The supervisor shall insure that all employees understand all items on the check
              list. He/she may accomplish the orientation individually or in groups, but must
              question each employee individually as to his/her understanding of the


      Upon completion of the orientation procedure, the checklist forms shall be signed by both
      the SUPERVISOR and EMPLOYEE and shall be forwarded to the Human Resources
      Management Department for inclusion in the employee’s official personnel file.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            8



      The Office of Risk Management has implemented an incentive program to acknowledge
      any individual and/or department that has made a significant contribution to loss
      prevention. The program is designed for employees and/or departments that support the
      City's effort to establish programs to accomplish the highest standards for loss
      prevention. All personnel and departments are eligible for recognition under this

      3.1.1   Loss Prevention Recognition (Employees)

                 A heroic act or acts in saving life and/or property, while in the course and
                 scope of the job.
                 Developing a program that promotes safety awareness for all employees. This
                 does not include any required program by Federal, State or local entities.
                 Establish and/or install methods to reduce claims and insurance costs for the
                 Develop cost saving programs affecting one or more lines of insurance.

      3.1.2   Loss Prevention Recognition (Departments)

                 Must have continuously decreased the cost of and number of claims over the
                 past (5) years for one or more lines of coverage.
                 Must have implemented programs and/or activities that are unique within their
                 Must have developed or implemented programs that generate positive public
                 relations in promoting loss prevention. This includes participation in
                 community activities that have a direct impact on reducing the City’s
                 Must have rendered support to another department by providing a benefit or
                 service to one or more of the loss prevention programs. The service must not
                 have been normally provided to another agency and must not have been
                 considered mutual aid.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         9



Enforcement of Safety-Loss Prevention rules is not solely a matter of discipline. A supervisor’s
good example can greatly influence employee attitudes toward safety regulations. If supervisors
disregard the rules or fail to observe them consistently employees will feel entitled to do
likewise. Patience and perseverance should be exercised in all areas of enforcement. When
reprimands are required due to violation of Safety Policy, they shall be administered fairly and
consistently in all cases. Laxity in the enforcement of Safety Policy, and failure to act promptly
when violations occur shall not be condoned.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           10
4.1   Discipline Policy and Disciplinary Action

      The following discipline guidelines will encompass a three (3) year time parameter. The
      three (3) year period will be an inclusive period dating back in time from the most recent

      4.1.1   If an employee is involved in multiple accidents within the same time parameter
              of the convened Board, the accidents will be considered to be separate
              occurrences. The Board will rule on each separate accident in the chronological
              order of occurrence. The following forms of corrective/punitive discipline may
              be recommended:

                     a.     Written Reprimand
                     b.     Suspension
                     c.     Termination

              *Recommendation for Remedial Training may be issued with any of the above,
              except termination.

      4.1.2 Following a “FINDING OF FACT” by the Accident Review Board, the following
            actions will be implemented:

              A.     UNAVOIDABLE ACCIDENT – No action will be taken; a written
                     finding of fact will be provided to the employee and to his/her personnel


                     1st Offense    Written reprimand
                     2nd Offense    Suspension of 1 to 3 days, depending on severity of
                                    the damages and circumstances.
                     3rd Offense    Suspension of 10 to 15 days, to termination,
                                    depending on severity of the damages and
                     4th Offense    Termination


                     1st Offense    Written reprimand to suspension 1 to 5 days
                     2nd Offense    Suspension 5 to 30 days
                     3rd Offense    Termination

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         11

      4.2.1   Each occupational, personal and public liability accident and each violation of
              safety rules or practices shall be reviewed by the involved employee’s
              Department Head or by the person in the next level of supervision above the
              involved employee’s immediate supervisor. Department Heads will be reviewed
              by the Safety Steering Committee.

              All motor vehicle accidents shall be submitted to the Accident Review Board for
              review. All reviews shall reflect the following considerations:

              a.     Was there negligence, carelessness or inattention as opposed to an error in
              b.     Was there willful or knowing violation of an established rule or common
                     sense rule?
              c.     Had the necessary applicable safety instruction been given?

      4.2.2   Accident Review Board (ARB)

              The purpose of the City of Albany Accident Review Board shall be to establish a
              standardized, unbiased system for evaluation of all accidents involving City
              Personnel in City vehicles and/or vehicle related equipment investigated by any
              law enforcement agency.

     Violation Procedure

                     The Accident Review Board shall convene to hear testimonies, view
                     evidence, render a judgment and recommend discipline for the following
                     law enforcement investigated accidents (with the exception of Department

                        Accidents involving City vehicles.
                        All “on duty” personnel accidents involving City vehicles;
                        All personnel involved accidents involving take-home City vehicles
                        that are in “extra-duty” or “off-duty” status at the time of the accident;
                        All personnel involved in accidents where personnel are not engaged
                        in department activities at the time of the accident, i.e., lunch hours,
                        All personnel involved in accidents while operating privately owned
                        vehicles in the performance of official duties.

     The Board will make comments and ask questions of the accident
                      investigator, involved employee and/or witness(s).

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           12
    The Board will hold discussion of the presentations, the two (2) votes will
                     be held, with a simple majority being required for a determination. The
                     two (2) votes will be made in the following order to determine:

                    Avoidable / Unavoidable / No Accident
                    Poor Judgment / Negligent (as necessary)

    The Board will then vote by simple majority as to which form, if any, of a
                     disciplinary range to be recommended to authorized supervisory

    The Board will then make written notification via the Risk Manager to the
                     applicable Department Head and authorized supervisor in one of the
                     following formats:

                    Finding of “NO ACCIDENT”
                    Accident ruled “UNAVOIDABLE” (written finding exonerating
                    Accident ruled “AVOIDABLE-POOR JUDGMENT”
                    Accident ruled “AVOIDABLE-NEGLIGENT”

    The Department Head will send a copy of the letter of issued discipline to
                     the affected employee, Risk Manager and the employee’s personnel file.


      The Safety Steering Committee will review all Department Head motor vehicle accidents.

      Violation Procedure

      For accidents reviewed by the Accident Review Board the Risk Manager shall prepare a
      letter/memorandum to the employees Department Head of the findings of the review,
      reviewing cause and effect and stating for necessary disciplinary action. A copy of the
      letter/memorandum is forwarded to the Department Head, the employee’s personnel file
      and members of the Accident Review Board.

      For additional information regarding vehicle accidents please review the Accident
      Review Board Manual.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         13



      The following procedures are established and shall be followed whenever an on-the job
      injury occurs.


      If an on-the-job injury results in a death the Risk Manager/Risk Management Service
      Division and Human Resources Director shall be notified immediately.

      Please notify the Human Resources Management Department of any work related injuries
      needing medical attention so that authorization may be given for treatment.

      Medical Service Locations for Injured Employees:
      Currently, medical treatment for injured employees will be referred to:

                               Turpin & Turpin Optometrist
                                 2007 East Broad Avenue
                                    Albany, GA 31701
                                     (229) 439 - 8056
                                     Monday - Friday
                                       8:30 – 5:30

                                  Orthopedic Associates
                               2002 Palmyra Road, Suite 100
                                    Albany, GA 31701
                                     (229) 883 – 4707
                                   Monday – Thursday
                                        8:00 – 5:00
                                        8:00 – 2:00

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         14
                             Occupational Medicine
                                  Phoebe East
                              2410 Sylvester Road
                               Albany, GA 31705
                                (229) 312 – 9220
                               Monday – Friday
                                   8:00 – 4:00

                           Phoebe Family Care Center
                              2336 Dawson Road
                               Albany, GA 31721
                                (229) 312-8800
                               Monday – Friday
                                8:00 – 4:00 PM

                 Southeast GA Ortho & Sports Medicine Center
                              2709 Meredyth Drive
                                     Suite 450
                                Albany, GA 31707
                                  (229) 889-0018
                Do not take walk-ins. Must call for an appointment

                           The Hughston Clinic, P.C.
                           1505 B West Third Avenue
                              Albany, GA 31707
                                 (229) 483-0055
                               Monday – Friday
                                   8:30 – 4:30

                                 Dixon Eye Care
                         Dr. El Roy DeCourtenay Dixon
                           806 North Jefferson Street
                               Albany, GA 31707
                                 (229) 446-1990
                                Monday - Friday
                                   8:30 – 5:00

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                15
Medical treatment facilities (continued)

                                 Albany Dermatology Clinic
                                 Dr. Melinda F. Greenfield
                                    426 Second Avenue
                                     Albany, GA 31701
                                      (229) 883 – 1130
                                    Monday – Thursday
                                         8:30 – 5:30
                                        8:30 – 12:30

                                    Albany Primary Care
                                    Dr. H.S. Prabhakara
                                   Dr. Shylaja Prabhakara
                                     2025 Palmyra Road
                                     Albany, GA 31701
                                        (229) 888-7332
                                    Monday – Thursday
                                          9:00 – 5:00
                                         9:00 – 12:00

                              Albany Arthritis & Ortho Center
                                 Dr. Roberts S. Pilcher, MD
                                    1909 Aberdeen Road
                                     Albany, GA 31701
                                       (229) 446-1990
                                      Monday – Friday
                                         8:30 – 5:00

Employees who are treated for job related injuries must be treated by a doctor or clinic named
on the provided list only. Employees who self-procure treatment from other than designated
medical providers will be responsible for payment of expenses incurred.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            16
For after hours treatment or if any injury requires extensive/emergency medical treatment, i.e.,
hospitalization or surgery, employees may be seen at:

                                   Phoebe Putney Memorial
                                      417 Third Avenue
                                         Albany, GA
                                       (229) 312 - 1000

                                    Palmyra Medical Center
                                      2000 Palmyra Road
                                       Albany, GA 31701
                                        (229) 434-2000


        5.2.1 Supervisors – Seek immediate medical services for the injured employee.

        5.2.2 Inform the emergency room staff that the injured employee is a City of Albany
              employee and that follow-up care must be referred to a panel physician after
              emergency treatment has been performed.

        5.2.3 Inform the Department Head and /or your immediate supervisor of the accident as
              soon as possible and complete and file an accident investigation report within 24

        5.2.4 All job related injuries will require a drug and alcohol screening.


       5.4.1   Employee must report the accident/injury to his/her immediate supervisor as soon
               as possible but no later than the end of the day’s shift.

       5.4.2   Supervisor and/or designated representative shall assist employee in receiving
               treatment from a panel physician or if appropriate on weekends, holidays or
               nights from an emergency room.

       5.4.3   All job related injuries that are of a non-emergency nature and occur during
               normal office hours should be referred to a doctor or clinic on the provided list.

       5.4.3   If appropriate, the supervisor and/or the designated representative shall
               accompany the injured employee to the physician’s office or emergency room.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                               17
      5.4.4   Provide the injured employee with a medical authorization form to be presented
              by the employee to the authorized treating physician. The completed form is to
              be returned to the supervisor by the employee after visiting the physician.

      5.4.5   If an employee is referred to a panel physician and then to a specialist for follow-
              up treatment, the specialist becomes the authorized treating physician.


      Supervisors are responsible for directing the employees to the proper location to seek
      treatment. Supervisors will be held accountable for employees who are directed to the
      emergency room for non-emergency care during normal working hours.


      5.6.1   For minor injuries treated either at the doctor’s office/clinic or the emergency
              room (after hour care) the employee is expected to return to work as soon as the
              treatment has been given.

      5.6.2   For injuries treated by a panel physician or a referral specialist, the authorized
              treating physician will make a medical determination of the employee’s return to
              work status and will give the employee a written slip to be given by the employee
              to his supervisor or Department Head.


      5.7.1   Ask the employee (or his/her co-workers if the employee is unable to make a
              statement) to explain to you how the injury occurred if you did not witness the

      5.7.2   Forms to be Completed

              A.     Supervisors – Complete and sign the Employee Incident/Accident Report
                     and submit it with the First Report of Injury (WC-1).

              B.     The designated department contact who handles Workers’ Compensation
                     will sign the Employee’s First Report of Injury Form and make any
                     clarifications necessary at the bottom of the form.

              C.     Employee Acknowledgement Form for Workers’ Compensation.

              These forms must be completed for all on-the-job injuries regardless of
              whether the injured employee receives medical treatment.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            18


The purpose of a safety committee is to study, evaluate and solve safety issues. Members of the
committee should be dedicated to making the working environment healthier and safer for fellow
employees…others are counting on them to do so.

The Safety Committee is formed to develop safety standards and to ensure compliance to the
Safety Rules set forth by the City of Albany. This will be accomplished with the assistance of all
City Departments and personnel.

In addition, the committee will provide information and assistance regarding available safety
initiatives and acceptable industrial safety practices to allow departments to initiate and maintain
proper procedures, thereby ensuring worker health and safety.

This is your committee. Your department has a representative in this committee, so if you have
any concerns related to safety, bring them to your representative’s attention. The committee is
action oriented and will successfully make changes to your environment to make it safer.

If you are interested in becoming a member of the Safety Committee, talk to your supervisor or
contact the Risk Management Department.


CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             19
Membership carries responsibility, including:

      Attending all scheduled and special meetings.
      Creating and maintaining an interest in safety to prevent accidents.
      Reviewing accident reports and helping with ideas to prevent future accidents.
      Participate in on-site inspections, both announced and unannounced.
      Conduct regularly scheduled meetings to discuss accident prevention, training, etc.
      Act as the representative to your department regarding matters of safety.
      Review departmental accidents and be prepared to discuss at meetings.
      Serve on at least one subcommittee to provide in-depth program enhancements.


             Safety inspections are the constant searching for, finding and correcting unsafe
             conditions and practices before they result in accidents. These inspections are the
             responsibility of every supervisor and take place at all levels of the organization.
             These inspections are mandatory and are to be performed by “qualified personnel.”
             Experienced operating personnel are the most qualified to conduct such inspections.
             Experts should be consulted for various inspections, such as fire hazards, electrical
             inspections, etc.


            A. Composition

                 Below lists the structure and rules of the Safety Committee:

                 1.     At least 50% of the members must be non-management workers.

                 2.     The worker members must be selected by the workers they represent.

                 3.     The City of Albany shall select the remaining members.

                 4.     The committee members will fill this role for a minimum 1 year term.

                 5.     Where there are more than 2 members and the term of office is longer than
                        1 year, an attempt will be made to have overlapping terms of office, so
                        that continuity can be maintained.

                 6.     The names and work location of all safety members must be posted at the

                 7.     At least two members of each Safety Committee must be certified. One
                        representing the workers and one representing management.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            20
            8.     One worker co-chairperson will be selected by the worker members of the
                   committee and one management co-chairperson will be appointed by the
                   management members of the committee.

       B.   General Duties of the Committee:

            Follow the guidelines outlined below:

            1.     Develop publish and post, at the beginning of each calendar year, a
                   schedule for the monthly safety workplace inspections for the year.

            3.     Workplace inspections will be conducted monthly, by trained, appointed
                   members, and all Sub-standard acts and working conditions will be
                   documented on a “WORKPLACE INSPECTION REPORT” with one

                  (a)     Posted
                  (b)     Forwarded to each Safety member
                  (c)     Forwarded to the area Supervisor and Director
                  (d)     Kept in the minutes manual at each workplace

            4.     Review all completed “EMPLOYEE ACCIDENT/INCIDENT
                   REPORTS”, analyze information and make recommendations to
                   management to reduce recurrences.

            5.     Designate a committee member to investigate any accident in which a
                   person is killed or critically injured, where possible, a Certified Member.

            6.     Obtain information regarding:

                  (a)     Hazardous materials, processes or equipment;
                  (b)     Designated substances and the respective control-program reports;
                  (c)     Workplace testing that is being carried out for health and safety

            7.     Receive and respond to any health and safety concerns not resolved
                   between the worker and the immediate supervisor.

            8.     Provide advice and recommendations to management on health and safety
                   programs in general, as outlined below:

                  (a)     Recommendations to management from the Safety Committee, for
                          any items not already identified on the “WORKPLACE
                          INSPECTION REPORT”, are to be submitted in writing, with the
                          following information:

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                        21
                        (i)      Nature of concern with background information and
                        (ii)     Recommended remedial action, listing suggested solutions
                                 and methods of implementation.
                       (iii)     Date
                 (b)     The co-chairpersons are responsible to ensure that the written
                         recommendations are delivered to the management team
                         responsible for the reply.
                 (c)     Management will respond to the recommendations, in writing
                         within 21 days, with:
                         (i)     Timetable for implementation, if the employer agrees with
                                 the recommendation;
                         (ii)    Reasons for disagreement, if the recommendation is not
           9.     Encourage fellow employees to work safely and to report hazardous or
                  unsafe conditions immediately to their supervisors.
           10.    Identify areas of health and safety training for all employees.

     C.    Meetings and Minutes:

           1.     Committee members may meet monthly, by mutual agreement, but must,
                  as a minimum, meet once every 3 months.
           2.     Members are responsible for making arrangements with their supervisor
                  for attendance at the safety meetings and for preparation time prior to the
           3.     A schedule of safety meetings for the year is to be developed, published
                  and posted at the beginning of each calendar year, listing the date, time
                  and location.
           4.     An agenda is to be developed by the co-chairpersons for each meeting and
                  circulated at least one week in advance of the meeting.
           5.     Written minutes of the meeting are to be taken, outlining the following:
                 (a)     The date, time, and location of the meeting held
                 (b)     The names of all members and other persons present
                 (c)     An item by item record of all items discussed, and the outcome:

                         - Reports presented and by whom
                         - Problems identified
                         - Agreed upon recommendations
                         - Any action to be taken by individual members
                         - Business committee has agreed to discuss at next meeting

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         22
                             - Any response by management to the committee
                             - Any discussion with respect to the above
                             - Date, time and location of the next meeting

                           Sample Safety Committee Meeting

Safety Committee Meeting


Distribution List: (insert member names)

                                    PROPOSED AGENDA

1.     Minutes of Last Meeting

2.     Unfinished Business

3.     Regular Reports
       (a)   Workplace Inspections
       (b)   Accident Reports
       (c)   Recommendations

4.     Update on Past Recommendations

5.     New Business
       (a) Reading of Correspondence

6.     Next Meeting
       (a) Date, Time, Place (b) Agenda Items

       Note: Minutes are to be signed by the co-chairpersons and circulated within a week, with
       one copy:

       (a)    Posted
       (b)    Forwarded to each Safety Committee Member
       (c)    Forwarded to the area supervisor and Director
       (d)    Kept in the minutes manual at each workplace
       (e)    Senior management who normally review committee recommendations
       (f)    Maintenance, personnel, medical or safety departments (where appropriate)

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                        23


Each department responsible for effective utilization of motor vehicles and/or powered mobile
equipment must develop controls necessary to assure the safe, efficient and economical operation
of this equipment.

All drivers must comply with all traffic laws and applicable City regulations. Every driver is
required by law to wear a seat belt/shoulder harness while vehicle is in motion and must require
passengers to do so as well. A valid driver’s license, appropriate for the vehicle operated, must
be in the possession of the operator any time a city vehicle is operated.

Driving a City vehicle adds responsibilities. Remember at all times you are using someone
else’s property…you are borrowing it to help in doing your job, but it belongs to the people of
Albany. Also, City vehicles are highly visible and they serve as a reminder to many that some
City service is in progress.


Vehicles are to be maintained in a safe operating condition. Unsafe vehicles are not to be driven,
and you, the driver, are responsible for inspecting the vehicle prior to starting operation.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             24

      Each personal, automotive or liability accident involving a City employee shall be subject
      to an investigation.

      Each investigation shall be directed toward determining the cause or causes (direct or
      indirect) of the accident. Establishing personal responsibility and preventing similar
      accidents in the future is of utmost importance.

      A thorough investigation of every accident immediately after its occurrence will make
      possible the following:

      1)     Dissemination of information to personnel on how to best avoid each particular
             type of accident.
      2)     Compilation of accident causes to identify major safety categories that need to be
      3)     Provision of basic information from which safer practices and work surroundings
             may be developed and provided to employees.


      All vehicle accidents, regardless of the extent of personal injury or property damage, or
      the location of the accident must be reported immediately.

      If there are injuries involved, they must be attended to first. Render first aid if you are
      able to do so, and request an ambulance if needed. Unless necessary to prevent further
      accident or injury, do not move vehicles until directed to do so by law enforcement.
      Place warning triangles and/or traffic cones to protect the scene.

      Make no comment or statement regarding the accident, or any injury or damage, except
      to law enforcement personnel, your supervisor, or an identified representative of the City
      of Albany.

      Any vehicle accident causing injury or damage to property must be reported immediately
      as follows:

      A.     Notify the Police Department by radio (if available) or by phone. If on a state
             highway or in another locality, the highway patrol or local police should be

      B.     Indicate if there are injuries and if an ambulance is necessary.

             You or the Police Officer must obtain the following information from the
             driver(s), passenger(s), and witnesses:

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                               25
                 Name(s), addresses and phone numbers
                 Driver license numbers (from drivers)
                 Vehicle license numbers (if applicable)
                 Insurance carrier

              If you happen to hit an unoccupied vehicle, and the owner can not be located,
              leave a note on the damaged vehicle stating your vehicle is owned by the City of
              Albany, your name, city address and city phone number. Do not leave the scene
              until law enforcement arrives to make a report on the incident. Then report to
              your supervisor as soon as possible, giving the location, make, model, type and
              color of vehicle, extent of damage and license number of the struck vehicle.

              Vehicle accidents are reported on the Supervisor’s Accident Report which is
              reviewed by Department Head and the Accident Review Board. If you were
              injured you will also need to complete a Worker’s Compensation Claim Form.

              Department Heads who are involved in vehicle accidents will be reviewed by the
              Safety Steering Committee.

              The Supervisor’s Accident Report, Worker’s Compensation Claim form (if
              applicable) and a copy of the police report of Case Number must be forwarded to
              the Department Head and the Risk Manager.


      1) Immediately proceed to the scene of the accident, if possible.

      2) Notify the Risk Manager IMMEDIATELY regarding damage to a vehicle or
         property, injuries and/or any fatalities.

      3) Notify the Department Head or person in the next higher level of supervision.

      4) Review the items on the Supervisor’s Accident Report completed by the employee.


      If a City employee is injured, follow procedures outlined in Section 5, “On-The-Job

      7.4.1   Employee - Supervisor’s Accident Report

              The employee (driver) shall complete applicable items on the Supervisor’s
              Accident Report Form and sign and submit the report to his/her immediate

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                        26
     7.4.2   Immediate Supervisor - Supervisor’s Accident Report

             Prepare and submit the following documentation to the Department Head:

             1) An independent statement of the facts and cause of the accident, whether or
                not the employee appears to have caused the accident, and whether or not
                he/she violated a rule, order or procedure. This statement may be reported on
                the reverse side of the Supervisor’s Accident Report form or by separate
                memo or letter.

             2) Review the items on the Supervisor’s Accident Report completed by the
                employee, add any comments, and sign and submit the report along with the

     7.4.3   Division Head/Next Level of Supervision

             The division head of person in the next level of supervision above the
             employee’s immediate supervisor shall submit to the department head a review as
             indicated in Section 4.3 “Accident and Violation Procedure”, paragraph 4.3.1.

     7.4.4   Police Department

             The Police Department shall attach a copy of the investigating officer’s accident
             report, pictures (if applicable), etc. to the Department Head within 24 hours after
             the accident.

     7.4.5   Department Head

             The department head shall review all reports, statements and memos pertaining to
             the accident, add any comments to the Supervisor’s Accident Report and forward
             all information including the Supervisor’s Accident Report, investigating officer’s
             Accident Report, pictures, statements memos etc, to the Risk Management Office
             within 48 hours after the accident.

     7.4.6   Risk Manager

             The Risk Manager shall review all accidents. The Department Head must submit
             all pertinent documentation to the Risk Manager including but not limited to, the
             Supervisor’s Accident Report, investigating officer’s Accident Report, statements,
             memos, etc. Once the Risk Manager reviews the documentation he/she will
             submit the information to the City Wide Accident Review Board/Safety Steering

             *The reports need to be reviewed in a timely manner. Therefore, all of the
             corresponding documentation for the accident must be submitted to the Risk
             Manager within 48 Hours.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          27


Defensive driving is defined as: Driving to prevent an accident in spite of the incorrect action of
others and/or adverse driving conditions.

Vehicle accidents are classified as either “avoidable” or “unavoidable”. An avoidable accident is
one in which the driver failed to do everything reasonably necessary to prevent the accident. An
unavoidable accident is one in which the driver does everything reasonably necessary to prevent
the accident but is unable to prevent the accident.

In general, reasonable actions to prevent collisions include:

       Courtesy – Conceding the right of way, proper signaling, proper turning maneuvers and
       proper parking.
       Following rules – Right of way, lane position and speed
       Control of the vehicle at all times
       Foreseeing and anticipating driving situations
       Adjusting speed to vehicle condition, traffic, weather, road conditions, visibility, driver
       conditions, etc.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            28

      Recognize the hazard…observe traffic flow, the road and weather conditions. Know
      your vehicle, learn to anticipate accident-producing situations and learn to avoid them.
      Act in time. Slow down before the situation becomes critical, check your vehicle, and
      plan your trip.

      1) Aim high in steering: Aim your vehicle to the center of your lane, well.

      2) Get the big picture: Observe all the traffic around and ahead of you. This will enable
         you to react in time should an emergency develop.

      3) Keep your eyes moving: Avoid a fixed stare. Look around to see what is going to
         affect your vehicle or your movements.

      4) Leave yourself an out: Give yourself space to stop, to turn and to avoid other

      5) Make sure they see you: Get eye contact. This doesn’t mean bluffing. It means
         being sure other drivers are aware of your vehicle and your intentions.

      6) Be courteous: Courtesy is contagious. Let other drivers in…give them space. “Right
         of Way” is a legal term, not a courtesy or accident prevention method.


      Most accidents are caused by the following operator errors:

      1) Following too closely

      2) Improper lane changes

      3) Improper backing

      4) Improper parking

      8.2.1   Following Too Closely

              This dangerous habit results in the most serious of accidents. Injury to the back
              and neck, often irreparable is common in these types of collisions.

              City vehicle operators must be aware of their situation at all times, looking
              forward and providing adequate spacing for other vehicles. A good driver plans

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             29
     8.2.2   Improper Lane Changes

             The lane change is always a rather hazardous movement. It should only be done
             with extreme caution and alertness.

             Traffic laws generally give the vehicle in a lane the right of way over other
             vehicles. Always use your mirror and back it up with a head check to see around
             any blind spots.

     8.2.3   Improper Backing

             Backing up is generally considered the most dangerous maneuver in vehicle
             operation. Thorough training is needed on all aspects of backing, including
             backing from a parking space, proper use of mirror, proper clearance and general

     8.2.4   Parking

             All City vehicles will be properly parked in legal spaces, except in an emergency
             situation or when necessary for service or repair work. Vehicles are not to be left
             running or have keys left in the ignition when they are unattended. Also, doors,
             toolboxes, etc. are to be locked.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         30

      The Defensive Driving Program is a means by which the City can reduce its accident and
      injury liability; therefore, all employees including regular full-time and part-time
      employees who are required or allowed to drive a City vehicle must participate in the
      City’s Defensive Driving program within six months following his/her hire date or date
      of appointment to a position requiring or allowing City vehicle operation.

      In order for employees to maintain their driving privileges with the City, all employees
      are required to attend the Defensive Driving Program every three years.

      8.3.1   Requirements

              Only those employees who meet both of the following requirements shall be
              authorized to operate a City vehicle:

              1)     Possession of a valid Georgia Driver’s License.

              2)     Possession of a certificate for satisfactory completion of the City’s
                     Defensive Driving Program. The Defensive Driving Program certificate
                     must be updated every three years.

      8.3.2   Objectives

              The objectives of the Defensive Driving Program are:

              1)     Reduction of vehicle accident frequency.

              2)     Reduction of personal injuries, disabilities and property damage resulting
                     from vehicle accidents; and reduction of associated direct and indirect
                     costs commensurate with the frequency of such accidents.

              3)     To provide a means by which City employees will become known as safe,
                     courteous drivers, always yielding the right-of-way in order to prevent
                     accidents thereby enhancing the City’s public image.

              4)     To provide first aid training for new employees and retraining at
                     prescribed intervals for all regular full-time and part-time employees.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            31
     8.3.3   Follow-Up

             This phase of the Defensive Driving Program is most important in minimizing the
             recurrence of City vehicle accidents. The immediate supervisor must
             enthusiastically pursue the following:

             1)     Observation of employees to ensure safe vehicle operation at all times.

             2)     Investigation of City vehicle accidents with regard to the concepts of
                    preventability and recommended preventive measures. All investigations
                    must be thorough, analytical, conclusive and properly reported. High
                    priority must be placed on conducting investigations in order to indicate to
                    employees the importance of the City’s Defensive Driving Program.

             3)     Periodic checking to insure that employees required to operate a City
                    vehicle posses a valid Georgia Driver’s License and a valid Defensive
                    Driving Program certificate of completion.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         32


Safety rules have been developed from experience such as preventing the loss of a life,
disfigurement and/or loss of function. Safety rules have been developed in order to prevent
similar accidents and injuries from occurring. Training should be conducted on a regular basis
covering these rules. What follows are General Safety Rules…specific rules which apply to our

Employees are encouraged to make suggestions for changes to these rules. Any suggestions
should be made to either a supervisor or a member of the department, the Risk Management
Department or the Safety Committee. These suggestions will be reviewed by the appropriate
committee and recommended for approval. If changes are made, all employees will receive
training on those changes.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                       33

      1)   Any injury, no matter how slight, shall be reported at once to a supervisor.

      2)   Any vehicle accident, regardless of the extent of injury or damage to the
           vehicle(s) must be reported immediately.

      3)   Damage to any City property must be reported to a supervisor immediately.

      4)   Consumption of alcoholic beverages and/or non-prescribed controlled substances
           on the job or during working hours is expressly prohibited. Any employee
           reporting to work under the influence of such beverages or substances as
           described in the Human Resources Management Systems Policy during working
           hours shall be subject to disciplinary action.

      5)   Work at a speed consistent with safety. Briskly walking and/or running in
           passageways or on stairs is extremely dangerous.

      6)   Do not jump from elevated places such as tables, benches, platforms, etc., as
           serious injury may result.

      7)   Any unsafe condition or practice shall be reported at once to a supervisor.

      8)   Work areas shall be maintained in a clean and orderly manner, also:

           a. Housekeeping practices shall be the responsibility of all employees.
           b. Debris and litter shall be placed in appropriate waste receptacles.
           c. Waste receptacles will be kept in convenient locations, but out of the way of
              foot traffic.
           d. Broken glass, pins or other sharp objects should be wrapped and marked for
              the custodial staff.
           e. Trash build up is a bad housekeeping practice and a violation of fire codes.
              Always empty trash before receptacles overflow.
           f. Work areas must be kept free of tripping, slipping and obstruction hazards.
           g. Storage areas must be kept orderly and materials securely piled or stacked
              with heavier items on lower shelves.
           h. Horseplay is prohibited.
           i. Barriers, warnings or signs shall be installed whenever temporary or
              permanent uncorrectable hazards exist. Employees shall follow such posted

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                      34


Most employees forget that offices can be hazardous, but many accident claims arise from office
injuries. Office workers and those who frequently visit office spaces must be aware of hazards
that exist even in these seemingly safe areas.

   Desks, file cabinets and other equipment should be arranged based on efficiency,
   convenience and SAFETY.

   Office equipment should be placed only on solid surfaces.

   Heavy equipment and files should be placed against walls or columns and bolted in place if

   Desk and file drawers should have safety stops so they do not come out unexpectedly.

   Do not open more than one drawer of one file cabinet at a time. Drawers are to be closed
   after items have been retrieved. DO NOT LEAVE FILE OR DESK DRAWERS OPEN.

   Handling of materials (lifting and carrying), slips, falls and dropped objects cause most office

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           35

       Falls cause cuts, bruises, sprains, strains, broken bones and back injuries—plus loss of
       work time and wages.

       Reasons for slips, trips and falls:

            Slippery surfaces, such as grease or water;

            Hurrying or running, especially on slick surfaces;

            The wrong kind or size of shoes.

       Ways to avoid these problems:

       1)      Clean up spills right away;

       2)      Do not let grease build up on the floor near machinery;

       3)      Practice safe walking skills, especially on smooth flooring.

       10.1.1 Safety rules to avoid trips:

               1)      Make sure you can see where you are going. Only carry loads you can see

               2)      Keep work areas well lit. Replace burned out bulbs and use a flashlight
                       when light is poor.

               3)      Clean up any clutter. Store tools and materials off the floor when not in

               4)      Remove furniture off walkways and foot traffic areas.

               5)      Tape down extension cords or remove them from walkways.

               6)      On loading docks, store gangplanks and ramps properly.

               7)      Report loose or broken carpeting, flooring, stair steps and/or handrails.

               8)      Do not jump off trucks, work stages or loading docks. Lower yourself

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                              36
     10.1.2 Special Hazards

           Ladders can be a great help on the job, extending our reach when we have to. But
           what goes up must come down, with great force if the climber is not careful. Here
           are some tips for the safe use of ladders:

           1)     Do not build “ladders” from chairs, benches or boxes.

           2)     Do not place a ladder on boxes or blocks to make it taller.

           3)     Do check all ladders for loose, broken or missing parts before you climb.

           4)     Face front and use both hands as you climb.

           5)     Do not overreach from a ladder. If your belt buckle is higher than the top
                  of the ladder, you’re up too far. Get off of the ladder and move the ladder
                  to get closer to the job.

           6)     Hoist tools or materials after you’ve climbed up.

           7)     Only one person on a ladder.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                     37


Aside from the accident prevention benefits, good housekeeping contributes to efficient
performance. When tools, equipment and materials are returned to the proper place after use,
they are easier to find and inspect for damage and wear.

Many painful and sometimes disabling injuries are caused when employees are struck by falling
objects. Many injuries and property damage stem from fires caused by poor housekeeping
practices and improper storage of flammable materials. The best protection against these hazards
is good housekeeping.

Accidents are prevented when materials are stored properly allowing clearance to work within
the storage area and/or adequate space to move through the storage area. Tripping hazards can
be avoided and many sprains, fractures and bruises that result from falls can be prevented if time
is spent preplanning a job before beginning to work.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           38
The following suggestions are offered for good housekeeping:

1)     Keep work areas and storage facilities clean, neat and orderly.
2)     All aisles, stairways, exits and access ways should be kept clear of obstructions at all
3)     Do not place supplies on top of lockers, boxes or other movable containers at a height not
       visible from the floor.
4)     Lay extension cords and hoses in such a way as to minimize tripping hazards or
       obstructions to traffic.
5)     Extension cords shall not be run across aisles or through oil or water. Inspect cords
       before each use for kinks, worn insulation and exposed strands of wire.
6)     When piling materials for storage, be sure the base is firm and level. Keep piles level and
       do not stack too high. Keep aisles clear with adequate space to work in them.
7)     Materials stored by suspension from racks or hooks shall be adequately secured in a
       manner that will prevent them from falling. Route walkways a safe distance from the
       surfaces beneath suspended materials.
8)     When storing materials on overhead balconies, provide adequate toe boards to prevent
       objects from rolling over the edge.
9)     Do not allow soft drink bottles, soiled clothes, etc. to accumulate in lockers and work
10)    Return tools and equipment to their proper storage place after each use.
11)    Clean up spills immediately to avoid hazards. In the event of clean up delay, the area
       must be appropriately guarded, posted or roped off.
12)    Sharp or pointed objects should be stored to prevent persons from coming in contact with
13)    Nail points, end of loop or tie wires, etc. shall not be left exposed when packing and
       unpacking boxes, crates, barrels, etc. Nails shall be removed as soon as lumber is
14)    Oily and greasy rags shall be placed in a special metal container designed for this
15)    Employees shall not handle food, tobacco, etc. with gasoline on their hands.
16)    Gasoline shall not be handled by any employee whose hands are cut or scratched.
17)    Adequate lighting in obscure areas shall be secured for the protection of both employees
       and public.
18)    All packing material should be disposed of immediately.
19)    Waste baskets should be emptied into approved containers.
20)    All switches or drives on machinery should be shut down, locked and properly tagged
       before cleaning, oiling or repairing.
21)    Electrical panels and fuse boxes should be kept closed at all times and the surrounding
       area kept clear.
22)    A fuse that blows repeatedly is an indication of an overload or short. This condition
       should be reported to your supervisor.
23)    Keep electrical equipment properly oiled and free of grease and dirt.
24)    To prevent static sparks, keep drive belts dressed. Also, check belts for proper tension in
       order to prevent overloading motors.
25)    Fire inspection and prevention measures shall be maintained.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          39
26)   Floor care counts - Many slip accidents are caused by unsafe floor cleaning and care.
      Here are some problems—and their solutions:

      1) Overwaxing. Too much wax buildup makes for a slippery surface.

      2) Overpolishing. Especially with modern “clear” (acrylic) polishes.

         Safety experts agree that the best way to clean floors is with clean water. If soaps or
         wax stripping chemicals are used, be sure to film remains when the floor dries.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          40



       Every employee in the City is responsible for fire prevention. Preventing fires saves loss
       of property, injuries and possibly life. Prevention centers around the control of the
       elements of heat, fuel, oxygen and their resulting chain reaction.

       Heat is the most common cause of fires. Common sources of heat are:

       1)     Electricity – sparks, short and overloads
       2)     Smoking – improper disposal of cigarettes
       3)     Friction – bearings machine parts and motors
       4)     Hot materials/surfaces – light bulbs, driers, ducts and abnormal temps
       5)     Burner flames – incinerators, torches
       6)     Welding/cutting
       7)     Spontaneous ignition – oily rags
       8)     Mechanical or static sparks – spontaneous or from impact
       9)     Lightning

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          41

       The following safety procedures are established and shall be followed:

       1) Fire equipment shall be prominently displayed, labeled for usage and easily
          accessible at all times.

       2) Know the location of fire extinguishers and how to use them. Report each use of an
          extinguisher immediately to your supervisor so that a replacement may be obtained or
          the extinguisher recharged.

       3) Do not use water type extinguishers on electrical fires because of the dangers of
          electrocution and equipment damage. These extinguishers are intended for use on
          Class “A” fires only (flammables such as wood, paper, rags, etc.)

       4) Oily rags and other flammable wastes shall be placed in covered metal containers.
          Such debris shall be removed from buildings as soon as possible and under no
          circumstances left unattended in a building overnight.

       5) Flammable cleaning solvents with a flash point below 140 degrees shall be kept in
          approved safety containers and properly labeled. Use of gasoline for cleaning parts,
          floors or any part of buildings is prohibited.

       6) Small quantities of gasoline used for fueling engines being repaired, tested, adjusted,
          etc., shall be dispensed and handled in the smaller (one gallon) approved and properly
          labeled safety containers.

       7) Fueling any type of motorized equipment while the engine is running is prohibited.
          When transferring flammable liquids, be sure the filler nozzle touches the container
          being filled in order to guard against the buildup of static electrical charge.

       8) Never overfill a tank, but rather under fill it to allow room for expansion of the liquid.

       9) No artificial light, except UL approved electric flashlights, shall be used near
          escaping gasoline or other flammable vapors or when entering an enclosure suspected
          of containing such gasoline or vapors. Stay out of the area completely and call the
          Fire Department.

       10) Basements, cellars and other dark places shall not be entered without proper light.
           The use of matches for lighting purposes is strictly forbidden.

       11) The use of fuel oil or kerosene for starting fires is allowed only in outside areas.
           Extreme caution must be observed. Fuel oil or kerosene shall not be used for starting
           fires in stoves. Under no circumstances shall gasoline be used for starting fires.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            42
       12) “No Smoking” shall be enforced in all areas where hazardous substances are stored or
           used and in any other area where posted.

       13) Fire exits shall not be locked or chained from the inside.

       14) The cabs of all heavy equipment shall be equipped with a “dry chemical” fire

       15) The Fire Department shall be responsible for inspecting all fire extinguishing
           equipment on an annual basis. Each department shall have a designated person to
           inspect fire extinguishers on a monthly basis. Any damage or defective fire
           equipment shall be reported to the department head that is responsible for having the
           damaged unit repaired or replaced.


       Shops and fixed activities that contain potential fire hazards shall have a plan to combat
       fire. The plan shall include:

       1)     Adequate warning measures for altering all persons in the area of the existence of
              a fire.

       2)     Rapid reporting to the Fire Department.

       3)     Evacuation of affected personnel from areas involved in a fire.

       4)     Procedures for containing the fire in so far as it is safe to do so and, particularly,
              only to the extent that it is possible to maintain safe exit for all personnel engaged.

       5)     Instruction of regular personnel in the duties they are to perform in given fire

       6)     Adequate fire extinguishing equipment that has been regularly inspected by a
              responsible authority.


       Each City of Albany building shall have an emergency fire plan. The Fire Department
       offers a source of knowledge and assistance to departments for establishing an emergency
       fire plan.

       The City of Albany conducts routine fire drills under the direction of the City of
       Albany Fire Department. When the fire alarm rings employees are to immediately
       proceed to the nearest stairwell and exit the building.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             43
       For the safety of the employees and citizens of the City of Albany, all buildings are
       equipped with Fire Alarms. Do not treat a Fire Alarm lightly. The fire alarm is an
       imminent sign to leave the building immediately.


       Some basic rules should be followed in order to prevent fires:

       12.5.1 Clean The Clutter

               Fire feeds on junk…scraps materials, grease and oily rags. Clutter can trip you
               when trying to escape a burning room. Make sure your workplace is clean.

       12.5.2 Handle Flammables Safely

               Solvents, fuels and cleaners…all burn when lit. They also give off dangerous
               vapors that build at floor level all over the area. One spark from a hand tool or a
               tossed cigarette can ignite a fire.

       12.5.3 Matching Fire With Extinguisher

               In most workplaces, the key tool for fighting fire is the fire extinguisher. Check
               your extinguisher. You’ll notice it’s marked with a letter code either A, B, or C.
               The code matches the kinds of fires the unit is matched to fight. Some
               extinguishers carry the letters ABC. These are multi-purpose units suitable for
               fighting all three types of fire.

               There are right and wrong ways to use an extinguisher. The difference can be one
               of life or death.

               1) Hold the unit upright, pull the pin and aim for the base of the fire from 8 to 10
                  feet away.
               2) Sweep the base of the fire from side to side. Aiming at the flames or smoke
                  does not work. You need to snuff out the fire at the source…its base.
               3) Act fast! Most units have just 8-10 seconds of operating time before they run
                  out of agent.

 If there’s any doubt as to what the fire is, or if the fire is anything but small, or if there’s any doubt
 whether you are trained or able to handle it, GET OUT AND SOUND THE ALARM! It’s the best
 thing you can do for yourself and co-workers.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                               44

     Most fire deaths are not caused by burns, instead, smoke enters the lungs and causes the
     victim to black out. Then death is caused either from poisons in the smoke or because the
     fire consumes all nearby oxygen, leaving the victim to choke before the flames every
     reach him/her.

     For these reasons, it’s vitally important to learn these tips to protect yourself from smoke
     and fumes:

            If trapped in a burning building, shut all doors within reach. Then crawl to the
            nearest exit on your hands and knees. Smoke and fumes rise rapidly, and staying
            low will mean you breathe less of these harmful substances.

            Use a blanket, tarp, coat or other large cloth as a shield, throwing it over your body.
            A wet cloth or handkerchief over your mouth and nose will help reduce inhaled

            If you have access to a face respirator, (by all means) use it!

            Once outside the building, move away from the smoke. The threat to your lungs is
            present as long as smoke and fumes are about, indoors or out.


       Your job as an employee is to know the hazards of the chemicals you use, so you can
       properly act to prevent the danger. Here are some of the dangerous properties of
       chemicals that relate to fire:

       1)     Flammability – chemicals catch fire very easily. Keep far from flames and heat!

       2)     Reactivity – chemicals can burn, explode or release poisons if exposed to air or
              water. Chemicals must be kept tightly sealed in its container.

       3)     Explosives – a chemical produces large amounts of heat and gas in a sudden,
              damaging way. These chemicals are extremely dangerous and may explode.
              Handle with extreme care!

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            45



       Many occupational injuries can be attributed to the handling of materials (lifting,
       pushing, etc.). The most common injuries are overexertion or muscle strain. Injuries
       may also come from dropping objects on feet or hands, getting hands, arms or legs caught
       between objects and striking other persons or objects. To prevent injury and accidents
       follow the following rules:

       1) Before moving any object(s), size up the load. Be aware of your capacity--
          strength, grip, reach, height. Any load near your capacity, or one that is awkward
          because of shape or weight distribution may require assistance. IF IN DOUBT, GET

       2) Consider available mechanical aids, such as hand trucks, dollies, rollers, carts, hoists,
          cranes, jacks, forklifts, etc.

       3) If mechanical aids are unavailable use helpers. Teamwork is essential in moving
          objects…coordinate and communicate! One person should be designated to call
          signals, i.e. when to lift, direction of movement, etc.

       4) When handling materials:

          a.      Move smoothly. Jerking greatly increases the stress on the body and potential
                  for mishaps.

          b.      Make sure you have a good grip on the object, preferably with two hands.

          c.      Watch your step and be sure of your footing.

          d.      Watch clearances in every direction.

          e.      Make certain you have on suitable shoes/boots.

          f.      Avoid bending, twisting or leaning when lifting or carrying. Keep the load as
                  close to your body as possible.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            46

             STEP 1 – GET READY

             Size up the load. If it is too heavy or bulky, play it
             smart – get help!

             Check the load and remove protruding nails,
             splinters, sharp edges, oil, grease or moisture.

             Wear gloves if the surface is rough.

             Wear safety shoes to help prevent foot injuries.

             Know where the load is going and where you are
             going to put it down.

             Be sure the path you take is clear of obstacles.

              STEP 2 – PICK IT UP

              Get a firm footing and good balance; place feet about
              shoulder width apart.

              If the load is below waist level, bend your knees to get
              into position. Keep your back as straight as possible.

              Grip the load firmly.

              Lift the object to carrying position; keep it close to the
              body. Let the legs and arms do the work.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                      47
               STEP 3 – CARRY IT CAREFULLY

               Be sure you can see where you are going.

               When changing directions, be careful not to twist
               your body -- turn your body with changes of the
               position of your feet.

               Use extra caution in tight places so as not to smash
               your fingers or hands.

             STEP 4 – PUT IT DOWN

             If the receiving surface is about waist high, place the
             load on the edge of the surface and then push it

             If you lower the load to the floor, bend your knees,
             keeping your back as straight as possible and the load
             close to you body.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                  48

       In addition to knowing the proper technique for lifting, employees shall follow the
       established material handling procedures listed below:


       1) Four wheeled hand trucks with swivel axles and tongue are to be pulled; all other
          trucks are to be pushed.

       2) Use the right type of hand truck for the material you are handling. Special purpose
          trucks (such as a drum or drawbar) should be used when handling materials for which
          they were designed.

       3) Watch where you are going when pushing or pulling a hand truck and slow down at

       4) Allow clearance for your hands when moving through doorways or past other objects.
          Use truck handles.

       5) Secure help when moving hand trucks up or down inclines in order to prevent losing
          control of the truck.

       6) When using trucks, stop at all blind intersections before proceeding through the area.

       7) Always park trucks where people will not stumble over them; leave handles in a
          vertical position.

       8) Report hand trucks with broken wheels, splintered handles and other defects to your

       9) All hand truck operators are advised to wear steel toed shoes.

       10) When using hand trucks, be sure to watch the floor ahead in order to avoid people,
           bumps, cracks, uneven surfaces, etc.

       11) Pile loads evenly. An unbalanced load may shift causing the hand truck to overturn.


       1) The maximum load height for power trucks in transit is six inches above the floor.
          Never lift or lower a load while the truck is in transit.

       2) Power trucks shall be handled only by properly trained and authorized employees.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           49

     All hoists have a rated load capacity posted on the exterior of the hoist. Employees shall
     not exceed the specified limit.


     1) The area where materials are to be piled shall have a safe base (solid, smooth and
        level surface). If the floor or ground is not level, use dunnage, bearing strips or
        timber to secure the pile from shifting. Barrels and other materials that may roll or
        slide should be cocked at the base.

     2) Pile materials to a safe height – not so high that the pile will be unsteady. The total
        weight of the piled material shall not exceed the floor load limit and 18 inches shall
        remain between the top of the pile and any roof or sprinkler heads.

     3) Cross tie each layer so that unsteady stacks are within the pile. Piles should also be
        stepped back to insure stability.

     4) Maintain aisle space for workers and fire equipment. Materials should not protrude
        beyond the face of the pile.


     1) The protective valve cap shall be removed only when a cylinder is to be used and
        shall be replaced over the valve immediately after each use.

     2) Never wear gloves or allow grease or oil to be on your hands when handling gas
        cylinders. Keep hands away from oxygen cylinder controls.

     3) Lifting cylinders is always a job for two employees. Move cylinders with a cylinder
        dolly if available.

     4) Keep cylinders on end and strapped or chained securely so they cannot fall.

     5) Store cylinders away from salt, acids, films or other corrosive substances.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             50



       The variety of work operations performed by the City of Albany employees
       involves many industrial hazards. The tasks performed range from custodial services to
       heavy construction activities. In all tasks, however, there are safety measures which are
       put in place to protect employees from accidental injuries.

       These safety measures include but are not limited to:

          Face and Eye Protection
          Hand Protection
          Foot Protection
          Ear Protection
          The use of Protective Clothing
          Respiratory Protection
          Other Protective Equipment
          Head Protection

       The City is committed to the safety and well-being of its employees and citizens. Thus,
       the City enforces the following safety protective clothing and equipment which will
       help protect employees from bodily harm.

       Each employee is responsible for obtaining the proper clothing and equipment associated
       with his/her job. All employees are responsible for wearing protective clothing and
       equipment to protect the employee from serious and/or life threatening injuries.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          51

       Eye injuries are serious and can involve objects striking the eye, including materials
       being worked on, tools, swinging ropes, chains, etc. Also, eye injuries are caused by
       contact with chemicals. Here are some of the causes of eye accidents in detail and some
       workplace operations where they are often found.

       1)     Flying objects or particles, often from caulking, chiseling, grinding, hammering
              and metalworking.

       2)     Dusts or powders, fumes and mists that come from scaling, light grinding,
              spotwelding and woodworking.

       3)     Gases, vapors and liquids. Workers handling acids or caustics or doing welding
              are often in this group.

       4)     Splashing metal. Some sources are babbitting, casting and dipping in hot metal

       5)     Heat, glare, infrared and UV (ultraviolet). These waves of “hot” energy can be
              produced in welding, metal cutting and furnace tending.

       6)     Electrical hazards and lasers. Sparks often occur with electrical problems.
              Depending on the type of laser, workers may need special kinds of eye protection.

       14.2.1 How To Protect Your Eyes

              There is a wide variety of safety equipment and procedures for use in protecting
              your eyes.

              1)     Safety Glasses

                     Safety glasses are the first line of defense towards protecting your eyes.
                     The model you wear will depend on the work you do. Some choices:

                     a.   Lenses with tints, anti-glare and anti-fog coatings
                     b.   Frames made to resist heat and impact
                     c.   Plastic frames to avoid making sparks near explosives
                     d.   Models with safety side shields or eye cup side shields

              2)     Goggles

                     Similar to safety glasses, goggles fit closer to the eyes. They provide
                     added protection around liquid splashes, fumes, vapors and dust. Goggles
                     can be worn over regular prescription eyeglasses.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             52
            3)      Face Shields

                    These protect the entire face against splashes and can be ordered to attach
                    to a hard hat or to wear directly over the head.

                    Importantly, face shields should always be used with other eye protection,
                    such as goggles or safety glasses.

                    Face shields should be worn when handling acids, caustics and other
                    harmful dusts, liquids or gases.

                    A face shield with the proper filter or welder lenses or welder’s goggles
                    shall be worn when performing all welding and cutting operations.

            4)      Electric Arc Welding

                    A welder’s helmet with proper filter lenses shall be worn when performing
                    electric arc welding.

                    Portable welding screens shall be used to protect the eyes or others in the
                    vicinity whenever potential exposure to others exists during electric arc
                    welding procedures.

                    Helpers and observers shall wear safety glasses, goggles or hand held
                    shields with proper filter lenses when in an area where electric arc welding
                    is being performed.

            5)      Gas Welding and Cutting

                    Welder’s goggles with proper filter lenses shall be worn when performing
                    gas welding and cutting operations.

                    Portable welding screens shall be used to protect the eyes of others in the
                    vicinity whenever potential exposure to others exists during gas welding
                    and cutting operations.

     14.2.2 Safety goggles or safety glasses with temples shall be worn when:

            1)   Grinding, cutting, milling or drilling with power tools.
            2)   Using impact wrenches and compressed air tools.
            3)   Chipping, scraping, or scaling paint, rust, carbon or other materials.
            4)   Using punches, chisels or other impact tools.
            5)   Cutting rivets.
            6)   Cutting or breaking glass.
            7)   Cutting or threading pipe.
            8)   Chipping or breaking concrete.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           53
           9) Using paint remover.
           10) Using power activated tools.
           11) Soldering.
           12) Cleaning dust or dirt from vehicles, machinery, etc.
           13) Performing sand blasting or air cleaning operations.
           14) Using metal cutting lathes, shapers, drill presses, power back saws and other
              metal working tools.
           15) Using power woodworking machinery both fixed and portable.
           16) Tree trimming, brush chipping or removing stumps.
           17) Using brush cutters.
           18) Steam cleaning.
           19) Washing vehicle parts with soap or solvents.
           20) Working under vehicles.
           21) Using push type rotary lawn mowers.
           22) When within the working area of trash compaction operation.

     14.2.3 Care for your Eyewear

           You should clean your safety glasses, goggles or face shield regularly. Dirty,
           scratched, or cracked lenses cut vision and reduce protection. Replace damaged
           eyewear immediately.

     14.2.4 Equipment Guards

           Machines that can cause eye injuries usually have guards, screens or shields to
           prevent flying particles or splashing liquids. Be sure to use them!

     14.2.5 Contact Lenses

           Contacts present no problems on most jobs. But, below are some simple rules to

           1) Do NOT wear contacts around chemical fumes, vapors, high heat, splashes or
              molten metals.

           2) Remove contacts immediately in case of redness of the eye, blurred vision or

           3) Tell your supervisor that you wear contacts and carry an extra pair, should the
              need arise.

           4) Never wear contacts without additional eye protection.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                        54
     14.2.6 What To Do In An Eye Emergency

           1)    Know the location of the closest eyewash station.

           2)    If an object enters the eye, go directly to the eyewash. Flush until the
                 harmful object has been washed out. Don’t rub or scratch the eye! This
                 can force the object further in. If the object won’t wash out, bandage
                 loosely and get medical help.

           3)    If a chemical splashes the eye, look directly into the stream of water and
                 flush for at least 15 minutes with the fingers used to hold the eyes open. It
                 is normal to want to shut your eyes tightly when something gets in your
                 eyes but in this instance it is important to flush the eye out immediately
                 with the eye(s) wide open.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                       55

       Unfortunately, there are an abundance of hand and arm injuries each year. Some of the
       hazards your hands are exposed to are:

       14.3.1 Hand Hazards

              1)       Machine injuries, including cuts, punctures, crush injuries and abrasions.

              2)       Extreme heat or cold.

              3)       Electrical shock or burns.

              4)       Skin irritation from chemicals or germs.

              To cut down on these types of injuries:

              1)       Never remove machine guards or change other safety features on
                       machines or in work processes.

              2)       Rings should be removed or not worn to work if there is the slightest
                       chance of getting the ring caught in any hook, tool or piece of machinery.

              3)       Practice good housekeeping! Clean up the clutter of tools and work
                       materials that leads to splinters, cuts and other hand injuries. Look out for
                       worn electrical wires and plugs.

              4)       Use wash stations and skin cleansers to remove chemicals, grease and oil
                       from the skin. DO NOT USE GASOLINE.

              5)       Use Protective Equipment and gloves when needed.

       14.3.2 Gloves

              Gloves are most commonly used for hand protection. It’s important to use the
              type of glove that is associated with your job type. DO NOT substitute gloves.
              Gloves that are not associated with your job type may not protect the employee’s
              hands and cause injury to the hand(s).

              Gloves that are too small can tire the hands. A size that is too large is clumsy to
              work in. Wear gloves that fit.

              Of course, proper care is important. Clean often and check regularly for changes
              in shape, hardening, stretching or rips.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             56
     14.3.3 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

            CTS is a nerve problem of the hand and wrist. Early signs are numbness and
            tingling in the fingers. As the problem worsens, there may be swelling, loss of
            strength, wrist pain and log term disability.

            CTS can be caused by certain repeated forceful motions of the hand and wrist,
            often performed by assembly line workers. People who work on computers are
            also at risk.

            Minor cases of CTS may be cured by a few days of rest. But if the problem is
            more serious, splints, drugs, or expensive surgery may be needed. A better
            approach is prevention. Here are some tips to avoiding this more and more
            common problem:

            1) Keep the wrist in a straight position whenever possible, and reduce the force
               and speed of movement involving the wrist.

            2) Take short, frequent breaks from repetitive tasks. Exercise the wrist, elbows
               and shoulders to get blood flowing and help the body recover from repetitive

            3) Grasp items with the whole hand if possible.

            4) Avoid watches, bracelets and tight clothes that cut down on blood flow to the

            5) Look for tools and keyboards made to ease strain on the wrist.

     14.3.4 Hand Injuries

            1)     For cuts, control the bleeding by pressing down on the cut.

            2)     For broken bones, keep the hand from moving.

            3)     For chemicals or heat burns, flush under running water for 10-20 minutes.
                   Watch out for chemicals that react with water. Check the label of the
                   chemical packaging.

            Every hand injury should be taken seriously. Report it to your supervisor

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         57

          Feet can be hurt by skin diseases, cuts, punctures, burns, sprains and
          fractures…broken bones, etc.

          But, the most common injury is sharp or heavy objects falling on the foot. Other
          hazards are:

             The foot or toe is squeezed between objects or rolled over.

             A sharp object like a nail punctures the sole of the shoe.

             Falls, often on slippery oils, chemicals or wet floors.

             Electricity, often from power tools.

             Chemicals and solvents that “melt” even a safety shoe.

             Extreme heat or cold.

             Dampness, which leads to fungal infections.

       14.4.1 Safety Shoes

             Safety shoes are made to protect those parts of the foot most likely to be hurt.
             Different properties some safety shoes and boots might feature include:

             1)   Safety toe that protects against falling objects or crush injury.

             2)   Cushion between toe cap and foot for comfort and warmth.

             3)   Steel insole plate to keep sharp nails from poking through.

             4)   Slip-proof soles and heels.

             5)   Extra insulation, waterproofing and materials that are not easily hurt by

       14.4.2 Mandatory Wear of Safety Boots

             Safety Boots are for your protection. If your job requires the use of Safety
             Boots, the boots must be worn at all times. If you have any questions regarding
             the required Safety Boots consult your supervisor.

 CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          58

       Noise is a real workplace hazard that causes not just hearing loss, but stress and other
       health problems.

       Loud sounds do more damage if you are exposed to them over hours or days. Hearing
       loss is not the only danger. High noise levels can also make you tired, jumpy and quick
       to anger. You also may not be able to hear important work or safety instructions. This
       can cause an accident.

       The City is concerned and will take steps to help you, but hearing protection is really
       your job. Wear your ear protection as needed. Spend no more time around excessive
       noise than needed. And watch noise away from the job, too. Even overly loud stereos,
       riding in motor boats, shooting guns etc., can do damage.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             59

       1) For your safety and comfort, invest in work clothes that are sturdy, that fit well and
          are washable.

       2) The wearing of loose, flowing or ragged clothing on or near moving machinery or
          equipment is prohibited.

       3) Rolled up sleeves are dangerous because they have flapping ends and because the
          added thickness of the cloth can pull an arm into a machine before the cloth tears. Do
          not roll up sleeves.

       4) Pant legs should be cut to ankle length with any cuffs sewn up. Rolled up cuffs
          collect dirt and may unroll causing you to fall.

       5) Shoes with run down heels or torn soles are hard on the feet and can cause falls.
          Keep your shoes in good repair.

       6) Do not wear rings, necklaces, metal identification bracelets and other jewelry near
          electrical equipment or equipment with moving parts. Jewelry increases the danger
          of electric shock and can cause fingers to be badly injured.

       7) Work clothes should be washed frequently as a safeguard against skin infections and

       8) Smocks, overalls and aprons should be worn whenever possible to keep work clothes

       9) For outdoor work in winter weather it is best to wear loose, warm and fairly
          lightweight clothing. Wear layers of clothing so you can take them off for inside
          work and put them back on when you have to go outdoors.

       10) Oil soaked clothes are a serious fire hazard. Keep your clothes free from oil.

       11) An orange warning vest shall be worn by all employees working in or alongside any
           public right of way.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                              60

       There are many tasks in municipal employment involving exposure to fumes, gases,
       mists, chemical dusts, etc., that are harmful to the human respiratory system and exposure
       to environments containing insufficient oxygen to support human life.

       Accidents and injuries resulting from these hazards can be avoided by use of the
       appropriate filter action breathing masks, self-contained breathing apparatus, etc. Safe
       job performance is achieved through adequate knowledge of noxious or toxic effects of
       substances being handled, the circumstances under which harmful atmospheres may exist
       in the work environment, adequate testing procedures to determine the nature of the
       environment before entering it, the type of equipment that will provide adequate
       protection and through proper training in the correct use of protective equipment.

       The following rules for respiratory protection are listed for the information and guidance
       of all concerned:

       1) Supervisors shall instruct all employees whose work assignments may involve
          exposure to atmospheres containing noxious or toxic substances or oxygen deficiency
          about the properties of such atmospheres, the potential hazards, the circumstances
          under which these atmospheres are to be entered, and the proper type of protective
          breathing apparatus to use and how to use it.

       2) Suitable breathing apparatus shall be conspicuously placed near work environments
          where the possibility of exposure to harmful atmosphere exists. The apparatus shall
          be kept sterile and used only for the protective function intended.

       3) Each time respiratory equipment is used, a report shall be made to the supervisor of
          the reason for its use and the amount of time it was in use.

       4) Respirators

          Approved respirators shall be worn in the following instances:

              a. When welding on brass, bronze or galvanized iron in confined areas where
                 ventilation is limited.
              b. When entering a manhole, sewer, vault, boiler or other confined space where
                 test indicate the presence of a noxious atmosphere after attempts have been
                 made to purge and ventilate such atmosphere.
              c. When determined by a supervisor to be advisable due to the known or
                 suspected presence of hazardous substances or lack of oxygen in the
                 environment concerned.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            61
     5) Fresh Air Masks

        The following is a list of regulations and requirements for the use and maintenance of
        fresh air masks:

            a. The masks shall be used whenever and wherever chlorine, ammonia or other
               hazardous gas leaks are suspected or detected.
            b. The masks shall not be worn when conditions prevent a good face seal. Such
               conditions may be a beard, sideburns, temple pieces on glasses or a cap that
               projects under the face base. It is essential that employees be able to obtain a
               good face seal on short notice. Check the mask frequently to insure that no
               interference from the above conditions exists.
            c. Before entering a potentially hazardous area, be sure the mask is functioning
               properly and the face seal is secure. Notify at least one other employee to
               stand by in case of emergency.
            d. If the anticipated total amount of time required to correct the hazardous
               condition exceeds the capacity of one fresh air tank (30 minutes), notify the
               Fire Department immediately to furnish additional respiratory equipment and
            e. Wearing contact lenses with fresh air masks in contaminated atmosphere is
            f. The masks shall be cleaned and disinfected after each use. Disinfection is
               accomplished by wiping the mask inside and outside with a cloth moistened
               with denatured alcohol. The denatured alcohol is then removed by wiping the
               surfaces with a cloth moistened with a mild detergent and water. Be sure the
               eye pieces are cleaned also.
            g. The masks shall be periodically checked for defects and low air supply. Air
               supply shall be recorded on the appropriate chart in the carrying case. Low air
               supply and defects shall be reported immediately to the supervisor.

     6) Face masks connected to respirators shall not be bent in such a manner that air will
        pass around the mask instead of through the filter.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          62

       The many construction and maintenance activities performed by municipal employees
       involve working above or below ground levels, movement of material overhead, or
       working near construction machinery. In such operations the hazards of being struck by
       machinery and falling objects constantly exist. Hard hats shall be used to prevent head
       injuries resulting from being struck by machinery and falling objects and from bumps
       against objects when working in confined spaces. The proper protection is provided
       when the head harness is adjusted so that there is approximately 1 and 1 ½ inches
       clearance (plus or minus 1/8 of an inch) between the skull and the inside of the hat when
       it is worn. It is a generally accepted practice for personnel engaged in the following
       types of activities to wear hard hats, however, hard hats shall be worn as prescribed by
       the department concerned.

       1) Engineering personnel while on the job site for any public service, construction or
          maintenance project.

       2) Environmental Services personnel assigned to operation of heavy equipment and
          related land fill operations at the City disposal area.

       3) Wastewater Treatment Plant personnel when working below other employees.

       4) Traffic Signal Maintenance personnel while on the job site for installation,
          construction or maintenance of street lighting and traffic control facilities. Equipment
          shall meet approved standards for dielectric properties.

       5) Water Filtration personnel when working below ground, in booster stations or
          beneath other employees.

       6) Inspection personnel when inspecting work projects involving any of the above

       7) Any other employee when working with or near construction equipment such as
          digging, hoisting or towing equipment.

       8) All personnel working with high voltage electrical hazards.

       9) Due to the possibility of contacting overhead transmission facilities, all personnel
          engaged in climbing tasks or working from aerial lifts shall wear head protection
          equipment that meets approved standards for dielectric properties.

       10) Supervisors may designate additional areas where hard hat usage is required as the
           need arises.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            63

       A safety belt with a lifeline shall be worn by any employee working in a closed tank or
       other confined space where the employee’s position is obscured or where the air supply
       may be inadequate. An attendant worker shall be stationed outside the work area to tend
       to the lifeline.

       Safety seat belts shall be properly fastened whenever a motor vehicle is equipped and is
       in motion.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         64

SECTION 15.0          HAND TOOLS


       As every worker knows, tools are great time and work savers. But they can be extremely
       dangerous if used in an unsafe way. The tool can hurt you. And because the tools are so
       powerful, the injuries tend to cause a lot of damage.

       Hand and finger injuries resulting from improper use and/or care of hand tools are a
       common occurrence. The following safety procedure information provided in this
       section will help employees prevent injuries from the use of tools.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         65
     You do have the power to protect yourself. Here’s how:

     1) Keep work area clean, well lit and dry. Sawdust, paper and oily rags are a fire hazard
        and can damage the tool.

     2) Select the right tool for the job.

     3) Before using any hand tool check the handle for tightness.

     4) Keep tools sharp, well-oiled and stored in a safe, dry place.

     5) The head of all hand tools (hammers, chisels, punches, malls, etc.) shall be checked
        before each use for burrs, chipped edges and mushroomed conditions. Do not use the
        tool if such conditions are present and have the tool dressed if it is mushroomed.

     6) Regularly inspect tools and cords. Do NOT try to service the tool unless you are
        trained. A fire or injury could result.

     7) Choose tools with safety equipment, including 3-prong plugs, double insulation and
        safety switches.

     8) Make sure machine guards are in place! Use safety glasses, ear plugs, double
        insulation and safety switches.

     9) Never wear clothing or jewelry that could get tangled in the machines.

     10) Never carry a tool by its cord. Keep all cords clear and free from kinks.

     11) Size the tool to the job. Never force a small tool to do a big job.

     12) Return tools to their proper place after each use in order to prevent their falling from
         elevated places and to prevent tripping and other hazards.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           66

       Impact Wrenches

       These use electricity or air pressure to deliver a powerful, hammer like blow for
       loosening or tightening bolts. Do not use standard hand sockets or drivers with an
       impact tool; they can’t take the blows. Don’t force the wrench to do a bigger job that it
       is made for and do not reverse direction or rotation while the trigger is pulled.       Soldering Irons or “Guns”

                      Always treat as if dangerously hot! Rest it on its rack or a metal surface.
                      Never swing an iron to remove solder. Use pliers to hold small jobs, do
                      not use your hands. Store the tool in its proper place.       Propane and Gas Torches

                       Never use a flame to test for leaks! Store and use only in well vented
                      areas. Avoid breathing the fumes torches produce.       Glue Guns

                      Avoid contact with the hot nozzle or the glue, which may be as hot as

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           67



       The use of power tools substantially increases the number and types of hazards to an
       employee. Hazards range from electrical shock of a short circuit to being struck by
       chips, shavings and other debris during operation of such tools.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         68

       1. All electrical tools shall be grounded by connecting a three wire cord with a polarized
          three prong plug to a properly grounded three hole receptacle, if possible.

       2. Electrical tools and machinery shall be visually inspected for damaged cords and
          ground connections before each use. The most common defects occur at points where
          the cord is attached to the tool or where the cord is attached to the plug. Be sure to
          check for a secure connection that allows for an insulation plate on the inside portion
          of the plug.

       3. When electrical equipment is to be used at a wet location, use low voltage equipment
          and wear rubber boots and rubber gloves.
       4. Never operate power tools without the protective guards provided.


       1. Grinding wheels shall be mounted only by those employees who are familiar with the
          mounting procedure. A ring test shall be performed on each new grinding wheel
          before installation. A ring test is made by supporting the wheel freely on a rod
          through the arbor hole and tapping it lightly with a wooden object. A clear metallic
          ring indicates absence of cracks.
       2. The wheel must fit easily onto the spindle -- loose or too tight is dangerous...
       3. After the wheel is mounted, stand aside out of danger while allowing it to develop full
          operating speed for at least one minute.
       4. Grinding wheels are most subject to breakage when they are cold; therefore, apply
          work gradually to a cold wheel at the beginning of each work period.
       5. Never store a grinding wheel on damp or cement surfaces. Do not put oily rags on
          the wheel.
       6. Every grinding tool must be securely fastened to the shaft before beginning work.
       7. Grinding wheels shall not be operated in excess of the maximum operating speed as
          given by the wheel manufacturer on the wheel label.
       8. The work rest on all stationary grinders shall be securely adjusted to approximately
          1/8 inch from the wheel. Never attempt this adjustment while the machine is in
       9. Do not use the side of an emery wheel for grinding unless it is specifically designed
          for side grinding. Side grinding weakens the ordinary wheel and may cause it to burst
       10. Use the cutting surface of a grinding wheel uniformly. A grooved cutting surface can
           dangerously weaken the wheel.
       11. Grinder bearings shall be kept properly oiled and adjusted. This will help prevent hot
           bearings and spindles which are sometimes responsible for melted bushings.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            69
       12. Do not abuse the wheel by applying excess pressure.
       13. Be particularly careful when grinding narrow tools or other objects as they are easily
           caught between the work rest and the wheel.
       14. The operator’s eyes shall be protected with safety goggles at all times when the
           grinder is in use.


       1. Adjust the work table to allow plenty of room for the jig and keep hands away from
          the revolving drill. Never run the point of the drill into the table.
       2. Be sure that both the chuck and the drill are tight on the spindle and that any circular
          tables are tightened before beginning to drill.
       3. A sluggish drill is usually the result of incorrect grinding. Be sure the drills are
          sharpened properly for the particular material to be drilled so that the cut will be the
          right size.

       4. Materials shall be clamped or otherwise fastened to the drill press bed -- not held in
          the hand.

       5. Never run a drill faster than the rated speed as this may result in broken drills,
          damaged material and/or serious injury.
       6. Do not remove broken drill pieces with a center punch and hammer. For further
          details, see your supervisor.

       7. Never leave the key in the chuck after tightening a drill. Report any protruding set
          screws to your supervisor so that the drill may be repaired or replaced.

       8. Lower the spindle close to the table before removing the chuck so that it will not
          cause injury or damage to the material as it falls.

       9. Reduce the pressure if there is any back 1ash in the spindle. Listen carefully for the
          distinctive noise made when the drill comes through work so that you can ease the
          pressure when necessary.

       10. The safety stop shall be set to prevent the over arm of a radial drill from swinging out
           where it may cause an injury.

       11. Wearing gloves and loose clothing while operating a drill press is prohibited.


       1. Lathe tools should be ground so that the chips will break off instead of curl. Only
          lathe dogs that are equipped with safety set screws shall be used.
       2. Be sure that all gear and belt guards are in place. This includes backgears and ingears

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                              70
       3. Whenever chucks or face p1ates are changed, they shall be started on the spindle by
          hand power. Keep hands off chuck rims when the lathe is in motion.

       4. Be sure to remove the chuck wrench immediately after adjusting a chuck. Also be
          sure that the tailstock, tool holder and material are properly clamped before turning
          on power.

       5. For external work, never set the lathe tools below the center of the work being turned.

       6. Use a brush to remove chips. Do not use compressed air.

       7. When near the chuck end or head stock, file with the right hand over the lathe stock
          instead of the left hand, holding the file in such a position that in case it is forced
          back, the handle will not be forced against the body.

       8. Do not wear long sleeves while operating a lathe.

       9. The operator’s eyes shall he protected with safety goggles during all lathe operations.

       1. The use of compressed air for c1eaning purposes is prohibited. Brushes should be
          used for cleaning machinery.
       2. Check the air hose of compressed air equipment before each use for leaks, tears or
          other defects. Do not use defective equipment and report any defects to your
       3. Remove the piston or tool of an air hammer whenever it is not in use to avoid the
          danger of it flying out and striking someone.
       4. Always close the valve on the air line and release the air from the hose before
          cleaning, repairing, inserting any tool or leaving any air powered unit.
       5. Maintain a secure hold on the handle of the air motor to prevent it from flying around
          and striking you.
       6. Be sure the discharge end of an air hose is secure before releasing compressed air into
          it so that it will not swing around and cause injury.
       7. The use of safety goggles and hearing protection in the form of ear muffs is required
          when operating compressed air equipment.


       1. Machine guards on woodworking machinery shall be permanently attached.
       2. When running short or narrow stock, use a block to protect your fingers.
       3. Before using a circular saw, check all materials for possible warping. If a concave
          edge is found, place it away from the straight edge guide of the table saw.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                               71
       4. If a saw binds in a cut, the saw shall be turned off before attempting to dislodge the
       5. A rip saw shall not be used for crosscutting nor shall a crosscut saw be used for
          nipping. A spreader and kickback fingers are required when using a rip saw. A
          spreader is required when using a crosscut saw.
       6. Learn to stand clean of possible “kick backs” and to avoid danger of being struck by
          small pieces that are frequently thrown from a circular saw.
       7. Safety glasses shall be worn by any employee operating woodworking machinery.


       1. All gas welding equipment and connections shall be kept free of grease and oil.
          Oxygen will explode upon contact with oil or grease. Oily and/or greasy gloves may
          bring about the same effect, and cause difficulty in handling the cylinders.

       2. Never roll tanks on the floor. Do not attempt to carry them by hand or hoist unless
          properly secured. Use the skid provided when unloading cylinders from the truck.
          After unloading tanks, the cylinders must be securely chained.

       3. Acetylene and oxygen tanks shall be securely fastened with a chain in an upright
          position where there is no danger of their falling or being bumped.
       4. Use only standard green oxygen hose with right hand couplings and red acetylene
          hose with left hand threads.
       5. Blow out the tank valve before attaching the regulator. Never use compressed air for
          blowing out equipment as it may contain some oil and moisture. Use oxygen to blow
          out oxygen hoses and acetylene to blow out acetylene hoses.
       6. When exchanging an empty tank for a full one:

           a. Shut off the valve on the empty tank.
           b. Release the thumb screw on the regulator.
           c. Disconnect the regulator, blow out the tank valve and connect the
              regulator to the full tank.
           d. Stand on the opposite side of the tank and point the acetylene valve outlet
              away from the gauge while opening the tank valve.
           e. Adjust the thumb screw on the regulator to the proper pressure making
              sure there is no excess oxygen which causes unnecessary sparks in
       7. Clean the end of the torch before lighting it. Use only friction lighters.
       8. Do not place materials in a position that will permit sparks, hot metal, or a served
          section of metal to fall on the gas supply hose or the feet of any employee.

       9. At the completion of the work, the welder shall make a careful inspection of the job
          site to insure that hot articles which may develop into a fire have not been left

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                              72
       10. Proper safety goggles and gloves shall be worn when performing gas welding


       1. Whenever possible, welding operations shall he performed inside a regular welding
          booth. If work must he performed outside a booth, the arc shall be effectively
          screened to prevent injury to eyes and other parts of the body.

       2. Before entering a welding area be sure the operator is aware of your presence (shout,
          if necessary) so that the operator can guard against sudden flashes and injury to you.

       3. Any person entering a welding area shall wear required eye protection.

       4. When welding galvanized material, the operator shall use a specially designed airline
          respirator which fits under his/her helmet.

       5. Deposit short ends of welding rods in containers provided for that purpose in order to
          prevent burning holes in shoes and/or starting fires.

       6. When not in use, place the electric holder where it cannot cause an arc.

       7. Prevent injury to yourself and others from short circuits by using only welding cables
          that are in good condition.

       8. Only properly authorized operators shall use welding equipment. Never attempt to
          repair welding equipment and report defective equipment to your supervisor.

       9. Proper helmets and shields shall be worn during all electric arc welding operations.
          Do not remove your helmet while bending over a hot weld.


       1. No employee shall be assigned to work in a tree unless he/she has been trained as a
          climber and is:

           (1)     Able to use a climbing rope and saddle.
           (2)     Able to tie all necessary knots.
           (3)     Able to use necessary hand tools.
       2. Before beginning any tree operations check the trees in the surrounding area for any
          dangerous conditions.
       3. Except in cases of emergency, tree work should be avoided when trees are wet,
          during high winds, or during extreme low temperatures.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            73
     4. Only physically fit employees shall be allowed to climb.
     5. Tree trimmers should ask for assistance from other members of the crew only -- never
        from bystanders.
     6. Danger signs and barriers shall be placed around areas where tree work is to be done.
     7. The supervisor is responsible for instruction to the crew members, inspection of tools,
        and enforcement of all safety rules and determination of suitable clothing for work
     8. Ropes shall be used for raising and lowering tools.
     9. Ropes of suitable strength shall be used for lowering large limbs.
     10. Safety or climbing ropes shall not be used for lowering limbs.
     11. Ladders shall not be used unless they can be set on a firm foundation.
     12. Ladders shall be frequently inspected for damage. All additional safety rules
         regarding ladders shall be adhered to.
     13. Climbers shall always call a warning before dropping limbs.
     14. Never leave hangers or tools in trees during lunch hour or overnight
     15. Special precautions shall be taken when working near live wires.
     16. All wires broken or damaged during tree work shall be reported to the proper utility
     17. Fallen wires shall be guarded until service workers arrive.
     18. Do not touch a victim who has come into contact with a live wire. He/she must be
         separated from the wire by the use of nonconductive materials. Call for assistance at
     19. Pull ropes shall be used to guide the fall of large trees. Once the notching has begun
         the tree must not be left unguarded.
     20. One-man saws shall only be used in trees. All chain saws shall be roped with their
         own rope. Either a taut line hitch or a ground person shall secure the rope during tree
         trimming operations.
     21. Turn the saw motor off and point the guide bar to the rear before walking or changing
         work locations.
     22. Never walk or change work locations while the saw motor is running.
     23. Always stand behind the saw when cutting -- never at the side.
     24. Avoid using the tip of the saw for cutting.
     25. Never replace the chain in the guide rail groove while the saw motor is running.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           74
     26. Clean and check saws thoroughly and lubricate as required. Maintain proper tension
         on the chain. Always inspect the saw for sharpness as a sharp saw will reduce
         maintenance costs and provide faster, safer and easier cutting.
     27. Refuel the saw before it runs out of gasoline to avoid a “bound saw” which is difficult
         to refuel and start, and to avoid the danger of fire when starting a saw at the refueling
     28. Hard hats and safety goggles or glasses shall be worn when performing tree trimming
         and chain saw operations. Steel toed shoes should also be worn.


     1.   A power lawn mower shall not he left unattended while the motor is running.
     2. Safety goggles or safety glasses with temple shall be worn by any employee engaged
        in the operation of a push type rotary lawn mower.
     3. Areas to be mowed shall be inspected for foreign objects. Wires, stones, bottle caps,
        sticks, etc., shal1 be removed before mowing.
     4. Bystanders shall be warned by the operator of the danger of flying objects. Extreme
        precautions shall be taken when there are children in the immediate area.
     5. Operators shall keep hands and feet away from the undercarriage of the mower.
     6. The spark plug wire shall be disconnected from spark plug during maintenance
     7. After mowing is completed, disconnect the spark plug wire from the spark plug,
        remove dirt, grass, etc., from the top of the mower and store the mower in a dry
        location under a protective cover.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          75


17.1    GENERAL
        Municipal employees are often involved in tasks related to the heavy construction
        industry. Heavy machinery is employed in public works projects to save time and
        labor, however potential hazards to inexperienced or untrained workers are multiplied
        in the process. The operators of construction machinery often do not have sufficient
        visibility to detect danger to nearby workers or the ability to avoid an accident by
        quick reversal of controls. The machinery is designed to handle extremely heavy
        work and usually does. Being struck by or caught in or between such machinery and
        its loads usually inflicts severe injuries.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                     76
         1 Public utilities are often installed in or near the work site area of projects to be
           completed by City employees. Contact with or damage to the other utilities may
           affect the safety of City employees and the general public and may interrupt
           essential utility services. Following is a list of most utilities a City employee must
           consider at job sites in the Albany area and fringe areas adjacent to other
           governmental units.
                        Electric Company                         Water Works
                        Gas Company                              State Highway Department
                        Telephone Company                        Fire Signals
                        Western Union                            Storm Drains
                        Sewers                                   Traffic Signals
                        Street Lighting                          Cable TV
         2. The daily familiarity with these services may make even experienced employees
            treat them too lightly until a. gas explosion, an electrocution, a cave-in, a loss of
            vital communication service or other serious accident occurs. Frequent work in a
            particular area may lead employees to believe they know what other services are
            there. This attitude must be consciously avoided at all times. The rapidly changing
            demands of today’s society leave no room for such assurance. Recent changes
            may have been made. Safety precautions must be a part of job planning. Overhead
            lines constitute a hazard that must be considered when operating machinery
            beneath them. Underground services constitute many hazards when damaged in a
            dig up.

         3. Contact with electrical service or rupture of a gas service are the most immediate
            dangers to City employees engaged in construction and maintenance activities.
            Such accidents can be prevented by advanced planning; however, should they
            occur, prompt reporting to the utility concerned is of prime importance. Escaping
            natural gas constitutes an explosion potential and the leak must be stopped by a
            trained personnel as soon as possible. Contact with a primary electrical circuit
            constitutes a shock hazard. If an injured employee is still at the point of contact
            or rescuers are attempting to remove the victim, the reactivation of the circuit
            poses additional hazards. An immediate report to the utility affected will avoid
            compounding the hazard.
         4. Some of the principal hazards affecting employees and/or public safety are:
            a. Dig ups resulting in gas explosion, electrocution, flash burns, etc.
            b. Rupture of gas, water, and sewer facilities from using mechanical
               compaction, boring, or digging equipment.
            c. Electrocution resulting from contact with overhead electrical wires.
            d. Interruption of electrical service or communication lines from dig ups, pole
               collapse, etc.
            e. Fractures, contusions, crushes, etc. from being struck or caught in materials
               and/or machinery.
            f.   Fractures, strains, dislocations, etc. from cave-ins.
            g. Strains from lifting and materials handling tasks.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          77
            h. Eye injuries from dust and debris propelled by machinery and tools used in
         5. Construction accidents can be prevented by constantly including consideration
            of necessary safety precautions in planning every job, coordinating with other
            utilities to locate services near the job site, instructing workers about the hazards
            involved as each job is explained to them, using approved protective clothing
            and equipment and adhering to approved safe job procedures.
         The following safety procedures are established and shall be followed.

        1. Before Work Is Begun

            a. Check plans to see what utility services are located on or near the job site area.
            b. Contact other utilities having services in the job site area to secure assistance
               in locating and protecting all underground or overhead service that may be
            c. Make a personal inspection of the job site area to identify what signs, post
               markers, overhead electrical lines, etc., are in the area and inform the crew of
               this information.
            d. Obtain the service and repair telephone number of all utilities having services
               in the job site area so an immediate report may be made to them if accidental
               contact is made.

        1. Supervisors shall inform all crew members of locations and depths of buried
        2. Supervisors shall consult the local gas utility if buried pipelines closely parallel or
           cross the job site area.
        3. Supervisors shall specifically instruct equipment operators to avoid contact with
           buried lines. Digging shall be done by hand when in close proximity to buried
        4. Employees shall know the proper compaction procedures before using mechanical
           compaction equipment on backfill over buried pipelines.
        5. Do not use drop--weight type concrete over buried pipelines.

         1. Immediately call the gas utility service and repair office to report the damage.

        2. Shut off all motors in the area.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           78
         3. Remove all flares and/or lanterns.

         4. Enforce NO SMOKING in the area.
         5. Do not cover a damaged pipeline.

         6. Do not operate gas valves.

         7. Check buildings in the immediate area for gas odors.

         8. Request occupants to leave the area if gas odors are detected.

        9. Reroute traffic from the immediate area and notify the supervisor, department
           head, and Safety Director of the situation.

        10. Stay near the area until relieved by Police or Gas Company Personnel.


        1. Accurately locate any electrical service in the work area and contact the Electric
           Department when work is to be done near any such service.
        2. When excavating near a pole or guide wires avoid the possibility of damage to
           cables or collapse of a pole line exists, contact the Electric Department.
        3. Before excavating beneath buried conduit or cables, arrangements concerning
           maintenance of electrical services, proper support of exposed conduit, and/on
           suitable compacting of backfill shall be planned in advance with the proper utility
        4. All wires and conduit shall be considered energized and dangerous.
        5. Booms and protruding parts of construction machinery shall not be operated
           closer than 10 feet from overhead electric power lines. When construction
           machinery is operated in close enough proximity to energized lines that a full
           traverse of the moving parts could result in contact, a single person shall be
           provided to direct the operator. Signal persons shall watch carefully and give
           signals to the operator to prevent movement of the machinery any closer than the
           10 foot minimum clearance described above.
        6. Employees in contact with machinery and/or handling suspended loads, slings, or
           cables are in a most hazardous position to come in contact with energized
           electrical lines. Supervisors shall repeatedly warn ground crews of this hazard and
           ground crews shall be especially careful to prevent such contact.


        1. Immediately contact the Electric Department.

        2. The operator should attempt to swing the boom clear.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                       79
        3. Persons on the rig are usually safe. If necessary to leave the rig, jump entirely
           free being careful that no part of the body is in contact with the machine and the
           ground at the same time.

        4. When jumping clear of energized equipment, try to land on dry ground.

        5. Once clear of energized equipment, do not return to it and keep others away from


        1. Notify the telephone company when work is to be done near any telephone
           service. Telephone circuits operate on low voltage and are not an electrical hazard
           in themselves; however, they can become energized with higher voltages when
           accidentally crossed with power lines at points which may be far removed from
           the job site. Consider ALL lines hazardous.
        2. Do not cut or disturb guide wires. Sudden release of tension may cause an entire
           pole line to collapse.
        3. Underground telephone cable is usually buried with a minimum cover of 24
           inches. Subsequent grading may reduce this minimum. Pipe pushers, trenchers,
           boring tools, air hammers, pins for paving and curb forms, etc., shall not be used
           until determining the location and depth of any buried telephone cables and
           conduit in the work area.


         1. Approved guards such as cribbing, barricades, warning signals, or flag persons
            shall, be in place when workers are engaged in any street , excavation or street
            repair work , or when removing or replacing manhole covers. Open manholes
            shall be properly guarded with warning devices.

         2. A signal person shall be posted on the surface of the excavation to assist the
            machine operator. This person shall be stationed where he/she can be easily seen
            by the operator (outside the range of movement and hazardous area of loads), and
            shall warn the operator of the presence of others who enter the area.

        4. Manhole covers not equipped with lifting devices shall be raised slightly on one
           edge and slid off the hole. Reverse the procedure to replace the cover.

        5. All tools, materials, and equipment shall be kept a reasonable and safe distance
           from the edge of trenches, curbs or embankments.

        6. When chains, ropes, cables, slings, etc., are placed under tension, employees and
           observers shall be warned to stay beyond the range of whipping strands should the
           chains, ropes, etc., break from the tension.

        7. The public shall be directed away from hazardous areas and materials piles.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          80

        1. When heavy objects are to he moved with a crane, be sure the load to be
           suspended is properly secured by slings and grips with sufficient strength to hold
           the load.
        2. Always use nonconductive rope or nylon tag lines when guiding a suspended
           load into position. This will reduce shock hazards if accidental contact with an
           electrical service occurs. The rope or tag lines shall be of sufficient length to
           maintain a safe working distance from the drop zone in case a suspended load
           should fall.
        3. Never crawl under mobile construction machinery during rest or lunch breaks.
        4. Avoid moving a suspended load over persons on the ground or above persons
           working in an excavation.
        1. Hazards: City employees use several kinds of mobile equipment that provides
           platforms or baskets on which they are mechanically lifted to work on things too
           high too reach from the ground. This equipment is used by line persons and tree
           trimmers and in various public service maintenance tasks. The hazards involved

             a.     Contact with electrically charged overhead wires.

             b.     Falls.

             c.     Dropping tools and other objects on workers below.

             d.     Being caught in, on, or between equipment parts.

        2.   Extreme care shall be exercised when operating this equipment near overhead
             lines. With certain exceptions, aerial platforms or baskets shall not be positioned
             closer than 10 feet to overhead lines. These exceptions are:

             a.     When maintenance personnel must work on overhead lines.

             b.     When traffic signal maintenance personnel must service a traffic signal
        3.   A raised platform or basket becomes a high unstable support if jarred by a
             collection to the base vehicle, jerky operation or failure of mechanical controls.
             To prevent falling hazards, any employee who works from an aerial platform or
             basket shall use a safety line strong enough to support his/her weight. The safety
             line shall be connected to a fitting or harness secured to the platform, basket, or
             boom, and to a safety belt or harness worn by the employee.

         4. Equipment used by City crews to operate outriggers, booms, power takeoffs, etc.,
            has controls located in various parts of the basic machine. There is little
            standardization even on equipment of the same general type. The operator who

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          81
            activates such controls shall be sure that all persons in the vicinity of the
            equipment are clear of any moving equipment before power is applied. The
            supervisor or lead person in charge of the crew is responsible for insuring that this
            precaution is taken and that appropriate warnings are given.

         5. Always lower outriggers before raising the basket. Most machinery now in use is
            equipped with an interlock which prevents raising the basket until outriggers are
         6. Before lowering outriggers, the operator shall give adequate warning to persons
            near the equipment. If the automatic audible signal is inoperative or unavailable,
            a verbal warning shall be given.


         Tree trimming, curb site planting, landscaping, tasks, utility service repair, street
         sweeper operation, trash pick-ups, light fixture cleaning, traffic signal repair, and
         other construction, maintenance, and repair activities often require municipal
         employees to work in or alongside rights of way normally used for vehicle or
         pedestrian traffic. These activities may interfere with normal traffic flow in the form
         of standing or slow moving vehicles and equipment or occasional movement of
         equipment into the normal right of way. The following safety procedures are
         established and shall be followed:

         1. An orange or green warning vest shall be worn by all employees working in or
            alongside any public right of way.

         2. Adequate warning signs and barricades shall be utilized whenever construction,
            maintenance, or repair work of City crews obstructs any public right of way.

         3. Whenever possible, some continued traffic flow providing the least possible
            interference with normal traffic patterns shall be maintained. Two safety
            considerations are involved.

            a.   Protecting employees from being struck by vehicular traffic.

            b.   Assisting the public to safely avoid hazards that interrupt the flow of both
                 vehicular and pedestrian traffic.
         4. The Police Department shall be notified before any City street is completely
            closed for maintenance or repair work.
         5. When a portion of a street has been closed and equipment must be operated in
            lanes left open to traffic, a flag person shall be provided to control traffic.

         6. When City work crews must perform emergency work in a posted traffic lane
            during peak traffic periods, the Police Department shall be notified of the work
            location, the time work began and the estimated time of completion.

         7. When road surfaces are to be repaired, manholes opened, or excavations dug,
            adequate hazard warnings shall be posted before work is begun. A minimum
            amount of the right of way (consistent with safety requirements) shall he blocked
            and that traffic efficiently rerouted.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           82
         8. If repair work obstructs a traffic lane and thus compresses several lanes of traffic
            into fewer lanes, adequate warning signs and barricades shall be placed so as to
            warn motorists well in advance of the obstruction. If manhole openings and
            excavations constitute a hazard to pedestrians, adequate barricades and rerouting
            of walkways shall be provided.

         9. If an open cut is left in a posted traffic lane when work is stopped or suspended
            for any reason, a cover of sufficient strength to sustain normal traffic loads shall
            be placed over the cut and anchored. If the cut cannot be covered and must be left
            overnight, adequate warning signs and barricades shall be utilized, adequate
            lighting shall be provided, and the Police Department shall be notified.

         10. Vehicle and Equipment Warning Lights: Mobile equipment used for
            maintenance or repair of City streets shall be equipped with flashing or rotating
            lights. Mobile equipment used for other work activities shall be equipped with
            one or a combination of the following warning lights:

                 Turn Signal Lights
                 Flashing Lights
                 Rotating Lights
                 Oscillating Lights
                 Flashing Arrow Signs Mounted On The Vehicle Or Equipment

            Simultaneous flashing of all warning lights available shall be implemented
            whenever any mobile equipment is operated in or alongside any public right
            of way.


         1. Hazard Protection: To protect hazards such as large holes, soft patches, windows,

            a.   Place signs (plus flashing lights at night) well in advance of the hazard.

            b. Mark windrow ends with a warning flag during the day and a lantern at night.

            c. No gravel windrow shall be left in the middle of the road overnight.

            d. Protect holes and patches with wooden horses fence barricade and add pot
               torches or flashing lighted barricades at night.

            e. When flags are used to mark a hazard, they shall be replaced by warning
               signs as soon as possible.

         2. Barricade Lighting: The employee in charge of work requiring the lighting of a
            barricade shall:

            a.   Be sure the lanterns are lighted and operable.

            b.   Insure that the lights are properly placed and adequate for the job.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           83
         3. Removal of Temporary Signs:
            a. Signs placed solely for the protection of workers (men at work etc.) shall be
               removed at the end of the day’s work.
            b. Signs placed to warn of temporary hazards (Bump, One Way Traffic, etc.)
               shall be removed as soon as the hazard has been eliminated.

         4. Protection of Employees Working on a Roadway:

            a. “Men Working” signs shall be placed well in advance of the work in both
               directions during crack filling operations.

            b.   When patching and/or filling cracks, etc., work shall be done on one half of
                 the roadway at a time.
            c. Flag persons shall be used whenever the amount or speed of traffic warrants.

         Flag persons shall:

         1. Stand near enough to the workers being protected so there is no doubt as to the
            flag person’s purpose.

         2. Stay not less than 100 feet from the workers unless conditions make this

         3. Stand on the shoulder of the roadway and to the right of approaching traffic.

         4. To Stop Traffic:

            a. Extend the flag into the traffic lane and hold it stationary until the vehicle has

            b. Give the signal to proceed with your free hand or by speaking courteously to
               the driver if necessary.

         5. To Slow Traffic:
            a.   Extend the flag into the traffic lane and hold it stationary until the vehicle has
                 slowed sufficiently.
            b. Lower the flag and give the signal to proceed with your free hand.

         6. To Flag Traffic at Night:

            a.   Use a bright red lantern or fuses.

            b.   To stop traffic, wave the light back and forth until the vehicle has stopped.
            c.   Give the signal to proceed with your free hand or by speaking courteously to
                 the driver if necessary.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           84


18.1   GENERAL

       City employees are frequently required to work in confined spaces. Industrial codes
       define a confined space as one “so enclosed that dangerous air contamination there
       cannot be prevented by natural ventilation through openings in the enclosure”. Examples
       are closed tanks, storage bins and even open pits where gas that is heavier than air may

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                        85
       1.     The hazards include flammable or explosive gases or vapors; toxic, asphyxiant, or
              irritant gases or vapors; and lack of enough oxygen to support life. These hazards
              may be caused by natural sewer gases from decomposition, spills of chemical
              compounds, or seepage through the ground. Some are colorless, odorless and
              tasteless and some can kill with frightening efficiency and lightning speed.
              Exposure to only a very small amount of these hazards may be extremely

       2.     Protection against these hazards involves adequate precautionary measures.
              Testers are available to detect the presence of explosive gases or vapors and to
              detect the presence of other toxic gases or vapors. If tests indicate danger, the
              area should be purged of dangerous atmospheres whenever possible, ventilated
              and then tested again. The source of contamination should be closed off if
              possible. Whenever it is necessary for a worker to enter a space that is potentially
              hazardous, appropriate respiratory equipment shall be available and shall be used.


       The following safety procedures for working in confined spaces are established and shall
       be followed:

       1.     Before entering a confined space, test(s) as prescribed by the supervisor shall be
              made to determine whether explosive or toxic gases or vapors are present and
              whether any oxygen deficiency exists.

       2.     Whenever possible, venting of hazardous atmospheres shall be accomplished
              before entering a confined space.

       3.     Maintain adequate ventilation while working.

       4.     When using portable blowers to ventilate, be sure the air intake does not pick up
              carbon monoxide fumes from the engine.

       5.     Adequate respiratory equipment shall be available for use, if necessary, and all
              potential users shall be instructed in the proper use of such equipment.

       6.     No employee shall enter a manhole, sewer, tank or other underground confined
              space without a safety belt or harness and attached lifeline tended by another
              employee at the point of entry.

              (Exception: Entry into sewage plant lift stations shall be governed by procedures
              outlined in paragraph 13 below).

       7.     Smoking or open flames in any underground operation or in other confined spaces
              is prohibited.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            86
     8.    Confined space exits shall never be blocked.

     9.    Before opening manholes, barricades and warning signs shall be properly placed
           to protect vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

     10.   Ladders shall be used to enter manholes if there is any doubt about the safety of
           the manhole steps.

     11.   Only lights approved and provided by the City shall be used in manholes and

     12.   When changing air tools, the air supply shall be shut off at the supply source. It
           shall not be shut off by bending or pinching the airline hoses.


           a.     A lifeline is not required for entry into dry wells when the well is equipped
                  with an automatic ventilation system and access is provided by stairs or
                  ladders not exceeding a 10 foot descent. If the descent by ladder exceeds
                  10 feet, a lifeline shall be used until the employee reaches the bottom.

           b.     The safety procedure outlined in paragraph (6) above shall be followed in

                  c.      all cases involving entry into wet wells.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           87


       Falls are responsible for many work injuries and disabilities. Many of these are caused
       by improper use of ladders and scaffolds.

       Other hazards include splinters, slivers, and slips resulting in sprains bruises and
       abrasions. The following safety procedures concerning ladders and scaffolds shall be

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            88

       A.   Am I using the right ladder for the job? Never use a step ladder as a straight
            ladder. If you need a longer reach, the straight or extension ladder is the one to

       B.   Is the ladder in good repair? Is it equipped with non-skid safety feet? Check for
            cracks, splinters and protruding nails before each use. If you observe any
            problems contact your immediate supervisor.

       D.   Is the ladder correctly positioned on firm level ground? Here’s one way to
            determine if the ladder is the right distance from the wall. Stand in front of the
            ladder with one foot touching each of the side rails. If, from this stance you can
            stretch your arms straight out and grasp the side rails with each hand, the ladder’s
            angle is safe.

       F.   Are nearby doors which may open towards the ladder identified and barricaded?

19.3   LADDERS

       A.   Metal ladders shall not be used in the vicinity of electrical circuits.
       B.   Wooden ladders shall be inspected periodically. Wooden ladders shrink over a
            period of time which may cause the steps or back bar members of a stepladder to
            become loose. To maintain the strength and steadiness of a ladder, hold each rod
            beneath the steps with pliers and tighten the nut at; the end with a wrench.
       C.   Wooden ladders or scaffold planks shall not he painted as defects in the wood
            may be covered by the paint. A good grade of spar vanish or a mixture of linseed
            oil and turpentine shall be used to preserve the wood,
       D.   Ladders shall not be placed against a window sash.
       E.   Straight ladders form a triangle when placed against a wall or other object to be
            climbed. When properly placed, the bottom side of the triangle should be about
            one-fourth as long as the vertical side. For example, if the ladder is leaned against
            a wall eight feet high, the foot of the ladder should be set two feet from the wall.
       F.   A straight ladder should be long enough to extend at least three rungs above the
            level to which the user is climbing.

       G.   Stepladders shall not be used as straight ladders -- they are not designed for this

       H.   If the bottom of a ladder is placed on an unsecured surface, the ladder shall be
            secured by the use of hooks, ropes, spikes, cleats, or other anti—slip devices, or
            by stationing an employee at the base of the ladder to hold it in position during

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             89
       I.   Never stand on the top step of a stepladder.

       J.   Only one person at a time shall be on a ladder.

       K    Never carry articles in hand while climbing ladders. Use a hand line to raise and
            lower tools and materials or suspend them suitably in a tool belt.

       L.   When ascending or descending a ladder, always face the ladder and have free use
            of both hands.

       M.   Clean muddy or slippery shoes before climbing any ladder

       N.   Keep ladder rungs clean and free of grease and oil.

       O.   When it is necessary to place a ladder near a door or other potential traffic area,
            establish warning signals or take other precautions to prevent accidental contact
            that might upset the ladder.

       A.   Planks and other materials used to build scaffolds must be sound and free of
            knots. Keep planks in good condition through periodic application of a spar
            varnish. Never USE paint on planks.
       B.   Planking shall be adequately cleated. Scaffolds over ten feet high shall have toe
            boards, midrails and handrails.
       C.   When working from a scaffold, keep tools in a bucket or box that is secured to the
            scaffold in order to prevent injuries caused by tools falling from the scaffold.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             90


       City vehicles are easily identified and have what is often called “high exposure”;
       therefore, they often constitute a traveling advertisement seen by many citizens. City
       vehicle drivers control an important influence upon good or bad public relations with
       other motorists, pedestrians, and the general public. Courteous and considerate driving
       habits combined with the application of defensive driving principles prevent accidents
       and build good public relations.

       The following safety procedures are established and shall be followed:

       A. Safety Check:

          1.   Each employee assigned to drive a City vehicle or mobile equipment is
               responsible for a DAILY safety check of the vehicle or mobile equipment so
               assigned. The appropriate form as provided by the department shall be
               completed and turned into the supervisor each day.
          2.   Safety checks shall include:

               Lights                                           Power steering and fluid

               Horns                                            Windshield washers and

               Directional signals                              Tires
               Brakes and brake fluid                           Clutch Travel
               Motor oil                                         Hydraulic systems

               (Brakes shall be tested by putting the vehicle in gear and applying the brakes to
               bring it to a stop.)

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            91
     B. Perform all safe driving adjustments (seat, inside and outside mirrors and sitting
        position) before putting the vehicle into gear.
     C. City vehicle drivers must possess a valid Georgia Driver License and must be
        thoroughly familiar with the state and local regulations governing motor vehicle
        operations. The fact that an employee is operating an emergency vehicle does not
        absolve him/her from civil criminal liability for the consequences of wantonly
        reckless driving. The diver must be in a position to satisfy a jury that he/she used
        reasonable care and prudence in operating an emergency vehicle. Even though
        emergency equipment has warning devices, the driver is expected to PROCEED

     D. All slow moving equipment operated in public rights of way shall be equipped with a
        triangular shaped reflecting sign and flashing lights in accordance with the State of
        Georgia Motor Vehicle Code.
     E. Load Security:
          1.     Supplies transported in motor vehicles shall be secured in such a manner that
                 they will not dislodge or fall out or forward during transit or sudden stops.
          2.     Truck drawers shall be secured before the truck is driven.
          3.     All tower equipment (ladder trucks, aerial buckets, etc.) shall be checked and
                 secured prior to the movement of the vehicle.
     F. Never take drugs or strong medication before and/or while operating a vehicle.
        Drugs, illness or extreme fatigue may affect one’s ability to judge distances, speed,
        and driving conditions.
     G. All persons who drive or ride in City vehicles shall wear the installed seat belts.
     H. Supervisors are responsible for insuring that all employees under their supervision
        utilize the installed seat belts.
     I.   No more than three persons shall ride in the front seat of any vehicle. Persons shall
          not be transported in any vehicle unless safe and secure seating is provided for each

     J.   Parking Vehicles:

          1.     Except when working conditions require otherwise, parked vehicles shall
                 have the motor stopped and emergency brakes set and shall be left in gear.

          2.     When parking on a downgrade, turn from the wheels of the vehicle towards
                 the curb. When parking on an upgrade, turn the front wheels away from the
                 curb. Set the break and put the transmission in “park” before leaving the
                 driver’s seat. Check the wheels for extra security.

          3.     Vehicles shall not be parked on the wrong side of the street facing traffic
                 except in case of emergency.

          4.     Signal your intention before leaving the curb and be sure no traffic is
                 approaching from either direction.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           92
     K. Backing Vehicles: When backing a vehicle be sure the way is clear. Get out of the
        vehicle when necessary and inspect the area to be backed into. Back slowly and
        sound horn or audible reverse signal if necessary. When backing a vehicle or
        equipment the size of a pickup truck or larger, another employee shall serve as a
        safety guide and shall direct the backing operation from outside the vehicle.

     L. Never leave a vehicle unattended while the motor is running.

     M. Drivers shall be particularly alert when driving near children. Children must be kept
        from playing in or near City owned vehicles. While working in areas such as schools,
        parks, playgrounds, swimming pools, community centers drivers shall be especially
        watchful for children and shall drive carefully and slowly at all times.

     N. Stay within posted speed limits - Slow down when conditions warrant.
     O. Do not assume the right of way. The driver who has the last chance to avoid an
        accident may be the driver in the legal right. DON’T BE PUSHY – YIELD OR
     P. Keep the two second rule in effect when following other vehicles so as to avoid
        tailgating. Do not allow others to tailgate. Slow down, pull over to the roadside, and
        let the tailgater pass.
         The Two Second Rule is:
         the correct distance no matter what your speed if you:
         1.     Watch the vehicle ahead pass some definite point on the highway, such as a
                tar strip or telephone pole.

         2.      Count to yourself “one thousand and one, one thousand and two.”
         3.      If you reach the mark before you finish saying those words, you are following
                 too closely.
     Q. Signal intentions at least 100 feet in advance before changing lanes or directions.
        Avoid sudden braking.
     R. Headlights: Turn on low beam headlights during dark periods of the day such as
        during rain storms and fog. When driving at night, headlights should be on from one-
        half hour before sunset until one-half hour after sunrise. Parking lights designate a
        vehicle is parked. Never drive with only the parking lights on. For added safety,
        utility vehicles, street sweepers and any other mobile equipment the size of a pickup
        truck or larger shall have the headlights turned on when operating in or alongside any
        public right of way.
     S. Fueling Tanks:

        1. Shut off the motor of the equipment.
        2. Do not smoke near gasoline pumps.
        3. Keep the hose nozzle against the edge of filler pipe.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         93
        4. To avoid spilling gasoline, do not fill the tank too fast or too full.

     T. In the event of an accident involving a City owned vehicle, follow the procedures
        outlined in Section 7, “City Vehicle Accident Administration”.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                       94



       Refuse trucks are operated on hundreds of miles of City streets during a wide range of
       City streets during a wide range of conditions which affect safety. Conditions such as
       weather, road surfaces, traffic type of refuse handled etc., demand exercise of skill,
       alertness and judgment by employees performing collection tasks. Exposure to traffic
       hazards is a daily experience. Skilled driving techniques are essential. Alertness to the
       presence of other traffic while working in the street is essential to the safety of workers
       who walk in the performance of cut collection and loading tasks.

       Of utmost concern is the process of compaction. The compaction plate in a refuse packer
       unit is very powerfu1. It should inspire a high degree of respect and caution in all
       environmental service employees when they picture the terrible damage the blade can
       inflict upon soft yielding human flesh. Environmental service employees may be tempted
       to push an item into the hopper or to retrieve an item from the hopper after the packer
       plate has been activated. DON’T DO IT!!! The risk is too great.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                                95
21.2   HAZARDS

       Experience in refuse collection operations has identified the following hazards in
       collection tasks:
       A. Amputations, fractures, bruises, and dislocations caused by being caught in the pinch
          point of a packer mechanism, mechanically loaded trash bin or raised portions of a
          loaded truck body.
       B. Sprains, strains, and hernias caused by improper lifting procedures and/or improper
          handling of containers.
       C. Sprains and strains caused by slips, falls or loss of balance while carrying containers
          over a slippery or uneven ground surface.
       D. Sprains and strains caused by inattention while dismounting from the truck or by
          deliberately jumping off or on the riding step while the truck is moving.
       E.   Being struck by the tailgate assembly after the beginning of a compaction cycle
            because of unsecured clamps on either side.
       F.   Being struck by particles thrown out of the hopper during compaction cycles.

       G. Being thrown from the rear step because of unnecessary rough operation of the


       Drivers of refuse trucks shall:

       A. Before and during operation of the truck, be sure that turn signals and brake lights
          are operating properly and are free of dirt, grease and mud.
       B. Check the brake pedal to be sure that it is not worn down to the steel subsurface. A
          smooth brake pedal, especially during winter conditions, may allow your foot to slip
          and cause an accident.
       C. Inspect the truck and all power equipment before starting a route. Pay particular
          attention to hydraulic lines. If a visual inspection indicates possible leakage, do not
          use the equipment until it is examined and released.
       D. Read and implement the Safety Check rule in Section 20.2, “Established
       E. Assure that the power source is locked out and tagged before entry to the hopper or
          cargo space for inspection or maintenance is permitted.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            96
       A. Employees shall ride in the cab of the vehicle except as indicated below. Hands,
          arms, or heads shall not be extended outside the vehicle.
            EXCEPTION: Riding on the riding step at the rear of vehicle is permitted for very
            short distances only. If the distance to be traveled exceeds one city block, ride in the
       B. Mounting and dismounting from either the cab or the riding steps shall be performed
          only when the truck is completely stopped -- never when it is gradually moving.
       C. The Four Step Lifting Process (Section 13.2) shall be carefully implemented by all
          refuse collection employees.
       D. When streets are zoned for two way traffic, refuse collection operations shall be
          performed only to the right of the center of the street. Employees shall not cross the
          median line to pick up refuse unless traffic is minimal.
       E. Refuse collection procedures for one way streets that normally contain heavy traffic
          may require vehicle operation on one side of the street only. These procedures shall
          be determined by the department head.


       A.   All employees engaged in refuse collection shall wear gloves.

       B. Plastic bags may contain sharp pointed objects that can puncture the bag and inflict
          wounds upon the unsuspecting refuse collector. Carefully check plastic bags for
          sharp objects before picking them up.

       C. Carefully inspect metal refuse containers for rusted or insecure handles to avoid
          dropping them should the handle break.

       A.   When two collectors are loading refuse into the hopper of a refuse packer unit, one
            shall be designated to operate the compaction controls. No other member of the
            crew shall operate the controls unless all members of the crew participate in the
            transfer of the responsibility to another crew member who is qualified and
            authorized to operate the controls.
       B. The power takeoff shall be engaged only when requested by the refuse collector
          working at the rear of the truck.
       C. Never place any part of the body into the hopper area while the power source is
          running. Do not ride in the hopper at any time.
       D. Position boards, sticks, glass tubes, etc., in the hopper so that no portion extends over
          the sill. If such is the case, the packer plate may snap the object in two and project
          the free end in any direction with considerable force.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            97
       E. Safety glasses shall be worn by all employees within the working area of compaction
       F. If a hopper is not guarded by a closed safety door during cycling, be extremely
          careful to stand clear of the hopper in order to avoid flying objects which may be
          propelled out of the hopper during the compaction cycle. Whenever possible,
          hazardous items such as cathode ray tubes, fluorescent light tubes and glass
          containers containing residues of corrosive, toxic, or otherwise harmful liquids shall
          be covered, before cycling, with other soft of loose wastes that will absorb flying
       G. Avoid overloading the hopper to the extent that the packer plate or sweep panel
          cannot contain all the refuse being cycled.
       H. When the designated crew member activates the compaction cycle controls, he/she
          shall be prepared to stop and reverse the cycle at any time a hazard to persons or
          equipment appears possible.
       I. Never push refuse into the hopper or place any part of your body in the path of
          compaction machinery once it has been activated.
       J. Never manipulate any article which extends into the hopper after the compaction
          machinery has been activated.
       K. The packer unit shall not be cycled while the truck is in motion, except side and front
          end loaders in sanitation operations.
       L. Always place the transmission in “neutral” before starting the engine.
       M. Avoid backing the vehicle whenever possible.
       N. If it is necessary to back, do so only after all employees are clear of the rear of the
          vehicle. One employee shall assist the driver with hand signals during the backing
       O. When stopping for rest breaks or for any other reason requiring the truck to be
          immobile for a short length of time, park at the cur so that traffic lanes are free.
       P. Vehicle operators shall b alert to overhead wires, structures, trees, etc., to insure
          adequate clearance while driving vehicles under them.
       Q. Vehicles shall be operated in a smooth even manner, avoiding violent jolts and shocks
          to the workers riding on the rear steps caused by bumps, dips, sudden starts, sudden
          stops or turns at too high a speed.


       A. All refuse collected shall be delivered to the designated disposal point where the
          complete load shall be discharged.
       B. Directions of disposal site attendants shall be followed unless such directions would
          result in personal injury or damage to the vehicle.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                               98
     C. Watch carefully at the disposal site for sharp objects, wires, etc... in the landfill
        surface that may puncture or cut tires or tangle in the drive train.
     D. The truck shall be completely stopped and in the proper unloading position before
        turnbuckles or latches are unfastened.
     E. Be sure all employees and other employees are clear of the vehicle before raising the
        tailgate assembly.
     F. Be sure all employees and other persons are clear of the vehicle before the dumping
        controls are activated to discharge the load.
     G. Never raise the cargo body in a jerky movement.
     H. Never position yourself under a raised tailgate or allow anyone else to do so.
     I. Drivers of refuse trucks shall visually inspect their vehicles for cracks, broken welds,
        leaking hydraulic lines, etc., while unloading at the disposal site. The helper shall be
        required to stand clear of the vehicle and the operator shall avoid taking a position
        under any raised portion of the vehicle while making such a visual inspection.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           99

SECTION 22.0                  FIRST AID


       Although emphasis is placed on the prevention of accidents and injuries that often result,
       accidents do occur. Prompt knowledgeable treatment of wounds or other physical results
       of accidents will, in many cases, prevent minor injuries from becoming major ones and
       may sometimes save lives.
       First Aid is the immediate care given to victims of injury or sudden illness. When
       administering first aid you must be prepared to deal with the victim’s physical condition,
       his or her emotional state and the conditions surrounding the accident scene.
       Urgent Care is first aid given in a life-threatening situation. A life-threatening situation
       involves: stopped breathing, heart failure, heavy bleeding, shock and poisoning. It is
       important to take care of these situations before seeking help.
       Using good judgment in an emergency situation is a viral part of first aid. Evaluating the
       type of accident or illness, surveying the scene for existing hazards and potential hazards
       and knowing the number of injured people will be key factors in deciding what to do
       When you do not know exactly what is wrong, you must first evaluate the situation and
       look for injuries that are most likely to have occurred. Then check for other possibilities.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           100
The following 10 items are arranged in order of importance. They also follow the order in which
you should evaluate and respond to an emergency situation.
(A)    Rescue the victim and yourself.
(B)    Restore or maintain breathing and heartbeat.
(C)    Control heavy bleeding.
(D)    Treat for burns.

Of all the cells in the body, the brain cells are most sensitive to the lack of oxygen. If the
breathing has stopped and the heart has not been beating more that 4-6 minutes the brain is
probably permanently damaged to the extent that even if breathing resumes, the victim may
never recover consciousness.
The mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose techniques of artificial respiration are the most effective
method of emergency ventilation of a person of any age who has stopped breathing. The only
more effective methods include those utilizing equipment.
Mouth-to-mouth ad mouth-to-nose forms of artificial respiration also enable the rescuer to obtain
more accurate information on the volume of air entering the lungs and the timing of breath that
are necessary to sustain life.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
(A)    Maintain an open airway through the nose and mouth.
(B)    Restore breathing through artificial respiration techniques.
General Information:
The average person may die in 6 minutes or less if his oxygen supply is cut off. Since it is often
difficult to tell exactly when a person has stopped breathing, s/he may be near death when you
discover him. Therefore, your immediate response should be to start artificial respiration as soon
as possible.
Recovery is usually rapid. The exceptions are: in case of carbon monoxide poisoning, drug
overdose, or electrical shock. In these cases it may be necessary to continue artificial respiration
for a long period of time.
When a victim revives, he/she should be treated for shock. In all cases, the victim should receive
medical attention.
CPR should always be continued until:
(A)    Victim begins to breathe by himself.
(B)    Victim is pronounced dead by a doctor.
(C)    Victim is beyond any doubt dead.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            101
       The following first aid rules are established and shall be followed:
       A. First aid cabinets or kits shall be maintained in all City buildings. All City vehicles
          and equipment shall be equipped with first aid kits. (This to be implemented within
          18 months)
       B. Supervisors shall check first aid supplies on a periodic basis. The supplies
          maintained shall be those specified by the manufacturer of the kit and approved by
          the Safety Director. Minimum amounts of each item shall be maintained. Supervisors
          shall obtain supplies through purchase order or through the nearest supplier if the
          total amount of supplies is less than $25.00
       C. Minor first aid treatment for cuts, scratches, etc., should be administered by the
          supervisor or a crew leader. Be sure that open wounds are thoroughly cleansed with
          soap and water to prevent infection.

       D. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) shall be performed by trained personnel
          whenever necessary.


       All on-the-job injuries, no matter how minor, shall be reported to the supervisor
       immediately. Procedures outlined in SECTION 5, ON-THE-JOB INJURIES shall then
       be followed.
       A. Animal Bites: Due to the possibility of rabies, animal bite cases shall be referred
          immediately to an emergency hospital facility for prompt medical attention. The
          Animal Control Division of the Police Department shall be contacted and an attempt
          to confine the animal should be made.
       B. Life or Limb Threatening Injuries: Whenever a life or limb threatening on-the-job
          injury occurs, Emergency dispatch (Phone 911) shall be contacted to arrange Fire
          Medic emergency treatment and/or ambulance transportation to the nearest shall rest
          with the injured employee’s immediate supervisor; however, examples of life or limb
          threatening injuries are:

           1.   Employee unconscious or apparently in shock.

           2.   Any apparent fracture.

           3.   Any hemorrhaging.

           4.   Severe abdominal cramps and/or vomiting.

           5.   Other symptoms of internal injury.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          102
Mouth-to-Mouth (Mouth-to-Nose) Breathing

Determine consciousness by tapping the victim on the shoulder and asking him/her loudly “ARE
YOU O.K.?” Do not shake the person vigorously, especially if there is any chance of neck or
back injury. If the person does not respond, alert other people in the area to call for medical

                                                             Head tip with chin lift
        Head tip with neck lift

With the palm of one hand, exert a backwards force on the forehead and gently lift the victim’s
neck or chin with your other hand. Check for breathing. If there are no signs of continued

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                        103
Give 4 quick breaths that are rapid enough to prevent full deflation of the victim’s lungs between
each breath. Your mouth should be removed from the victim’s mouth just long enough to get a
fast gulp of air for the next breath.

Check the pulse on the side of the neck. Keep the head tipped with your hand on the forehead to
maintain an open airway. At this time you should look, listen and feel to see if the person has
begun breathing again. This is easily done by placing your ear and cheek near the victim’s nose
and mouth. “LOOK” for the chest to rise, “LISTEN” for air entering and leaving the victim’s
nose and mouth, and “FEEL” the air moving past your cheek. This check step should last
between 5 and 10 seconds.

Be prepared to continue giving mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose breathing if victim is not
breathing on his own. Your breathing pattern should follow 1 breath every 5 seconds.

If no pulse is detected cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) must begin. This process is quite
complicated and involves extensive instructions and practice. Special classes will need to be held
in order to teach this life saving skill.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         104

A wound is a break in the continuity of the tissues of the body, either internally or externally.
Wounds fall into 2 classifications: open wounds and closed wounds. An open wound involves a
break in the skin, while a closed wound involves injury of underlying tissues. These closed
wounds are represented by contusions and bruises where the skin is not actually broken.


Lacerations are usually jagged and irregular breaks or tears in the soft tissues. Lacerations are
generally more destructive than incisions and usually result in profuse bleeding. These injuries
are usually deep and often contaminated, increasing the risk of infection.


Incisions are cuts caused by sharp objects such as knives, broken glass and metal edges. Deep
incisions in which blood vessels or arteries may be lacerated can cause great loss of blood. These
incisions may also create muscle damage, tendon damage and nerve damage.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           105

Abrasions are wounds to the outer layers of the skin. These usually result when the skin is
scraped against a hard generally rough surface. Bleeding is usually minor. As with all open
wounds there is a chance of infection from contamination of dirt, bacteria and other foreign


Punctures are caused by objects such as pins, nails and splinters. These wounds may be deep
with very little external bleeding, and damage to internal organs. Tetanus and other infections are
more likely to develop in puncture wounds than in other wounds because there is little natural
flushing that takes place with external bleeding.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          106

Avulsions are injuries that result in tissues being cut or torn away from the body. These detached
body parts can many times be re-attached through surgery. It is important to wrap the body part
that has been torn away in something clean and send it to the hospital with the victim, Ice may be
used to keep the body part cool and slow’ the decay process. However, do not let the body part
freeze or come in direct contact with the eyes.

First Aid for Open Wounds

The objectives for providing first aid for open wounds are:

        (1)      Stop the bleeding immediately.

        (2)      Protect the wound from contamination and infection.

        (3)      Provide shock care.

        (4)      Obtain medical help as soon as possible.

If a wound is not deep or bleeding severely, clean it gently and cover it with sterile dressing and
bandage. Bandages should be changed at least daily and the wound should be kept clean.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          107
Severe Bleeding Causes Shock
Whenever a person has experienced a traumatic injury causing rapid loss of blood and other
body fluids, shock and loss of consciousness ma occur. Shock depresses the body functions and
may prevent the heart and lungs and other body organs from working normally. Extreme pain
and fright may make this condition worse and may cause death. In all cases, where traumatic
injuries involve massive bleeding, you must first stop the bleeding, then treat for shock and get
medical help.

Signs and Symptoms

During early stages of shock, the body compensates for decreased blood flow to the tissues by
constricting the blood vessels to the surface layers of the skin. As the victim continues to lose
blood, blood flow is further restricted from reaching the skeletal muscles and other soft tissues.
Eventually, this condition will cause death. The following signs are noted when the person is in

 The skin is pale (or bluish) and cold to the touch. In the case of victims with normally dark
 colored skin, it may be necessary to rely on the color of the fingernails, tissues inside the
 mouth or inside the eyelid.

 The victim may be weak.

 The victim’s skin may be moist and clammy.

 The pulse is quite rapid and often too faint to be felt at the wrist, but easily detected at the
 carotid artery or femoral artery in the leg.

 The rate of breathing is usually fast and may be shallow, especially if the injuries are to the
 chest or abdomen.

 Vomiting and nausea may occur as a result of pain, and the victim may complain of severe
 thirst (an early sign of oxygen deficiency).


 Always administer first aid immediately to eliminate the cause of shock.

 Keep the victim lying down; naturally, this position will be determined by the type of injuries.
 The most satisfactory position for an injured person is lying down on his back with his feet
 elevated. If head injuries are involved elevate the head and shoulders. If back or spine injuries
 are suspected do not move the person until they have been properly prepared. Victims suffering
 from severe face injuries should be placed on their sides to allow blood and other fluids to

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         108
 drain out and avoid blockage of airways.

   Fluids should only be given to a victim by mouth and only when medical assistance is not
   available within a reasonable length of time (1 hour). Fluids should not be given to an
   unconscious person. Never give fluids to a victim that will likely require surgery or require a
   general anesthetic.

   For best results, fluids should be warm solutions of one teaspoon salt and 2 teaspoon baking
   soda. Adults should receive about four ounces every 15 minutes. Children aged 1- 12 should
   receive about two ounces every 15 minutes.

   Discontinue fluids if the victim feels nauseated or vomits.

                               FIRST AID FOR SERVE BLEEDING

Direct Pressure

The preferred method for the control of severe bleeding is direct pressure by
placing the hand over the dressing. This stops additional loss of blood without
interfering with normal blood circulation. In an emergency situation and in the
absence of a clean compress, your bare hand or fingers may be used effectively.
This should only be done until a compress can be applied.

A thick pad of cloth held between the hand and the wound helps to control the
bleeding by absorbing the blood and allowing it to clot. Do not disturb the blood
clots after they have formed within the cloth. If blood soaks through the entire
pad without clotting, do not remove the pad but add additional thick layers of
cloth and continue administering direct pressure.


Elevate the injured part of the body above the level of the victim’s heart
unless there is evidence of a fracture. A severely bleeding open wound of the
hand, neck or leg should be elevated to help restrict blood flow and slow the


If bleeding from an open wound of the leg or an arm does not stop after application of direct
pressure plus elevation, the pressure point technique may be required. This technique involves
applying direct pressure to the supplying artery. The artery is squeezed against underlying bone,
slowing or stopping the flow of blood into the entire limb. This technique should always be used
in addition to direct pressure and elevation. To restrict the blood flow to an open arm or hand
wound, pressure is applied to the brachial (BRAY-KEY-AL) artery located inside the arm in the
groove between the biceps muscle and the triceps muscle, and about midway between the armpit
and elbow.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                          109
To use the brachial artery, grasp the middle of the victim’s arm with your thumb on the outside
of his arm and your fingers on the inside. Use the flat part of your fingers to press the artery
against the arm bone and restrict blood flow through the rest of the arm.

To control severe bleeding from an open leg wound, the femoral (FEM-O-RAL) artery is
restricted. Pressure is applied to this artery by pushing it against the pelvic bone. The artery is
easily located by locating the crease between the body and the leg, not on the leg itself. The
femoral artery is located about where the bottom edge of a short swimsuit would fall.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                                 110
To properly apply pressure to this artery, the victim should be lying flat on his back. With the
heel of your hand, apply direct pressure to the pelvic bone. Your arm should remain straight to
eliminate muscle fatigue and you should lean forward over the straightened arm to apply the
amount of pressure needed. If blood is not controlled, it will be necessary to place your fingers
over the heel of your hand and re-apply the pressure. The elevation and direct pressure is
recommended to be used in conjunction with the pressure point.


The decision to apply a tourniquet to control bleeding, in reality, should be the last resort. A
decision to use a tourniquet also means that you are willing to risk sacrifice of a limb in order to
save the person’s life. The only time this technique should be used is when the victim has a
life/death threatening of a hand or arm. Once a tourniquet has been applied, care by a physician
is imperative.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           111
Tie a tourniquet with a long strip of material at least two inches wide. Do not use rope, nylon
stocking, wire, or a narrow band because it will damage the flesh and cause additional injury.

Place the tourniquet just above the wound. Do not allow the material to touch the edges of the
wound. Place it so the material is on undamaged flesh so it will not slip off when tightened.

Wrap the band tightly around the arm or leg twice and tie one overhand knot.

Place a short strong stick or similar object over the knot. Tie two more overhand knots on top of
the stick.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             112
Twist the stick to tighten the tourniquet. Keep turning until all the bleeding has stopped.

Loop or tie a strip of cloth around the end of the stick and tie it to the arm or leg so the tourniquet
will not unwind. The ends of the tourniquet or another strip of cloth may be used for this
purpose. Whenever a tourniquet has been tied, it is imperative that you write down the location
of tourniquet and time it was applied. Attach this note securely to the victim’s clothing where it
can easily be seen. Give first aid for other injuries, give care to prevent shock, and seek
immediate medical attention.

Never cover the tourniquet. If the note is lost and tourniquet is hidden, the tourniquet may not be
removed until it is too late.

DO NOT LOOSEN a tourniquet unless a doctor tells you to do so. The wound will bleed more
and trauma will increase.


Foreign objects often enter the eye through industrial accidents; they are blown into the eyes and
rubbed into the eyes during normal daily activities. Such objects may be harmful not only
because of irritating effects, but they may also scratch the surface or become embedded in the

Foreign objects in the eyes may have any or all of the following effects:
   Cause the eyes to become red.

   Cause the eyes to burn.

   Cause severe pain.

   Cause headaches.

   Cause excessive production of tears.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                              113
When an eye is injured, the damage may involve the entire eye causing the loss of vision.
Immediate medical care is required for all serious eye injuries.

Foreign Objects on the Surface of the Eye or Eyelid

To remove a foreign object from the outside of the eyeball or from the inside of the eyelid:

   Do not rub the eye. Rubbing may push the object into the eye or eyelid making removal a
   difficult matter.

   Blink and try to make tears. The dirt may be loosened and swept away by tears.

   Wash your hand thoroughly before examining your eye or a victim’s eye.

   Pull down the lower lid to see if the speck is on the inner surface of the lid. If so, lift it off
   gently with a corner of a clean handkerchief.

   If you cannot see the speck, it may be on the inside of the upper lid. Grasp the lashes of the
   upper lid gently between the thumb and forefinger and pull the lid out and down over the
   lower lid. This may dislodge the dirt.

   To examine the inside of the lower lid, place a match stick or similar object on top of the lid,
   invert the lid by pulling upward on the eyelashes against the match stick. Pull the lid in place
   with the fingers on one hand and lift off the dirt with the corner of a clean handkerchief.

   Flush the eye with clean water, using an eye dropper or small bowled syringe.

If these steps do not work, put a clean dressing over the eye and bandage both eyes gently. Get
medical help as soon as possible. If the person must see to get to safety or medical help, bandage
only the injured eye; however, bandaging both eyes will assure that the eyes are immobilized and
reduce the chance or further irritation caused by the foreign object in the eye.

Never try to use a solid object such as a match stick or toothpick to remove an object from the
eye. Do not use dry cotton around the eye.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                                   114
If an object is sticking in or embedded in the eye, do not try to remove the object or wash the
eye. First, place padding all around the object and the eye socket to keep the object from moving
and keep the bandage from pressing on the eye. Then cover both eyes with a bandage to
effectively immobilize the eye. Get medical attention immediately. Call ahead to the emergency
department of the hospital so that they can call an eye specialist and meet the victim. The victim
should be transported lying down. The sooner medical care is obtained, the greater the chances
of saving the victim’s sight.


The period of time a wound takes to heal may be prolonged by infection. An infection is caused
by an invasion and growth of bacteria within the tissues of the body. A dangerous infection may
develop even in a very minor wound. Bacteria enters the body through breaks in the skin or
mucous membranes, and serious infections may develop within hours or days following an
injury. The threat of tetanus infection should never be overlooked and a physician should always
be consulted when personal protection against this type of infection is questioned. Tetanus can
infect any open wound and can cause death. Tetanus bacteria is more likely to infect puncture
wounds. Therefore, wounds of this type should receive doctor’s attention and be closely watched
by the individual for any signs of infection.

Signs and Symptoms

  Swelling of the affected part.

  Redness in the immediate area surrounding the affected part.

  A sensation of heat in this area.

  Throbbing pain and tenderness.


  Evidence of pus, either collecting beneath the skin or draining from the wound.

  Swollen lymph glands; hard “kernels” may be present in the arm pits (arm infection), neck
  (head infection), or groin (leg infection).

Red streaks emanating from the wound indicate the infection is spreading through the lymphatic
circulation channels.

Cleaning can greatly reduce the chance of infection; however, only small wounds that have not
been bleeding heavily should be cleaned by a non-trained medical professional.

Ordinary mild hand soap should be used to clean a wound. First, wash your hands, and then wash
in and around the wound. Rinse thoroughly with clean water—running tap is best. Remove small
slightly embedded objects, such as gravel and dirt in abrasions. Blot—do not rub—the wound
with clean, dry gauze or a clean cloth. Take care not to use soft fuzzy materials, such as loose
cotton, for it may stick to the wound. Cover the wound with a clean dry dressing that is slightly

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         115
larger than the wound to help keep dirt out of the open wound. Dressings should be changed as
they become soiled, at least once daily.

Do not attempt to clean a serious wound that has stopped bleeding, for it may start bleeding
again. Leave the compress in place and transport to a doctor as soon as possible.

It is always important to seek medical attention for an infected wound. In the event that a lengthy
delay must occur, the following temporary steps should be taken:

         (a)      Keep victim lying down and quiet; immobilize the entire infected area.

         (b)      Elevate the affected body part if possible.

         (c)      Apply heat to affected area with hot water bottles or by placing warm moist
                  towels or cloths over the wound.

         (d)      Apply the warm packs for 30 minutes, changing them as necessary to keep
                  them warm. At the end of 30 minutes the warm packs should be removed and
                  replaced with a dry dressing to keep out air and absorb drainage. This should
                  be left on for another 30 minutes, or until medical help is available. This
                  process may be repeated as necessary.

        (e)      Never delay efforts to seek medical care for the victim. These suggested
                 activities are only interim measures.


A burn is an injury that results from heat, chemical agents, or radiation. A burn may vary in
depth, size and severity. Besides the obvious effects of heat on the skin and other body tissues,
the heat may also have a devastating effect on the blood, lungs and body parts such as eyes,
hands, feet, legs and arms.

Severity of a burn is determined by 3 factors: depth, size and location.

Depth of a burn also describes the “degree.” Typical descriptions include first-degree, second
degree, and third-degree burns.

Size or extent of the burn, describes the physical area which the burn covers.

Location of the burn describes the area of the body affected by the burn. There are 4 critical
areas that may be affected and these are: the hands, face, feet and genital organs.

In addition to depth, size and location the age and physical condition of the victim can contribute

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            116
to the seriousness of this type of injury and to the length time necessary for healing.
First degree burns are not very deep. They involve only the surface layer of skin, as compared to
second degree burns that are deeper and also involve the under layers of skin.

A first-degree burn on a fair skinned person is pink, or reddish. (e.g., a mild sunburn, or mild
contact with a heat source.) A person with dark skin might not show any visual signs of a first
degree burn. There are few if any blisters, mild swelling, and pain. These burns usually heal
rapidly with no chance of infection.

Second-degree burns are more serious in nature. These burns are deeper than first-degree burns
and usually involve destruction of nerve endings in the skin. Second-degree burns may be very
painful and may require medical assistance to alleviate the pain and discomfort associated with
them. There is some swelling associated with second-degree burns and small blisters may form
over portions of the burned area. The surface of the skin may appear wet in the more serious
second-degree burns. This is associated with the loss of plasma and other fluids through damage
to the skin cells.

Third-degree burns are always deep and usually cause large amounts of swelling in the
surrounding tissue. Moderate third-degree burns cause blisters and may allow the skin to peel
back, exposing small areas of raw, red tissues. Deeper third-degree burns will produce large
blisters and allow some skin to actually be burned away. If the burn is open, plasma and body
fluids will ooze from the open areas.

In the most serious third-degree burns skin, nerves, and other body tissues are destroyed. Red,
raw areas may be surrounding by charred areas that are ashy, white or black. In many instances
the victim does not experience much pain.

Third-degree burns will not heal properly without medical care. Burns greater than 1+ inches in
diameter will never heal without skin grafts and medical attention. These types of burns will
always become infected.

First Aid for Burns

First-degree burns: Cool water can be directly applied to any burn that is not open and not very
deep. The burn should be cooled until the pain subsides. Do not add anything to the water. Once
the victim feels comfortable gently pat the burn area dry and apply dry sterile gauze if necessary.
This bandage should be changed daily, or as it becomes soiled.

Second-degree burns: Burns that do not have open areas may also be cooled with water. These
areas should be gently patted dry and sterile dressing used to cover the burn. Cold packs may be
placed on top of the bandages to help control the pain, providing the weight of the cold pack
does not irritate the burn. Care must also be taken to keep the bandage and burn area dry.

Third-degree burns: Do not put water directly on a third-degree burn to cool it if blisters have
broken or the skin has been burned away. This will greatly increase the possibility for infection
to set in.
Cover the burn with thick, dry sterile dressing and bandage. Never try and remove clothing or
material that is sticking to the burn area; just place the bandages right over it. Cold packs may be

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           117
used to make the victim more comfortable; however, great care must be taken to ensure the burn
and bandages stay completely dry. Never use cold packs that are too heavy and cause pain to the
victim. Whenever possible, elevate the burn area and treat the victim for shock.


The way dressings and bandages are applied will be determined by a number of factors: it will
depend on how large an area is injured, where the injuries are physically located, and in many
cases the types of bandaging materials that are available. In a number of instances you will have
to rely on your own imagination to determine the types of materials to use and the basic
bandages to tie.

As a basic guideline:

Wash small cuts and scrapes thoroughly. Pat them dry with something such as clean gauze
before bandaging them. Do not wash large wounds, deep wounds, or wounds that have been
bleeding heavily. Bandage serious wounds without washing them and transport the victim to
medical care as soon as possible.

To keep from contaminating a dressing, hold it from the corners. Do not breathe or cough on it.
Use a dressing that is large enough to extend beyond the edges of the wound on all sides. Do not
try to bandage over clothing. It is recommended to cut or tear clothing away from the injury
before bandaging. Do not slide a dressing into a wound from the side; put it straight down onto
the wound.

Do not put fluffy cotton over an open wound because it will stick.

A bandage should be snug enough to keep the dressing from slipping, but not so tight that it
impairs circulation. Leave fingers and toes exposed so you may check them for swelling,
changing color, or coldness. These signs accompanied with numbness or tingling may indicate
the bandage is too tight and require the bandage to be loosened.

Be especially careful not to wrap an elastic bandage too tight.

Do not use wet bandages that may shrink as they dry.

Never apply a tight, circular bandage to the neck, for it may strangle the person.

Do not wrap tape entirely around a wounded part, for it may exert excess pressure in the
event of swelling.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         118

Arm Sling

                                                          A                                  A&B

A sling can be used to support an injured hand, arm or shoulder. To tie a sling, hold a triangle
bandage by one of the longer sides (A) and by the shorter side (C). This will facilitate the long
side to run up and down the body. Gently place the triangle bandage under the aim as depicted in
the adjacent picture. The short end (C) should be under victim’s elbow. Bring the lower end (B)
over the arm at a point alongside the neck. Before tying the knot, be sure the hand is elevated
approximately 4—5 inches above the elbow. This will be more comfortable for the victim and
will help to reduce swelling. Tie side (A) and side (B) at the side of the neck. This will be most
comfortable for the victim.

To keep the arm from slipping, pin the excess portion of the back of the sling (C) to the front
side of the sling. If a safety pin is not available, the same results can be obtained by twisting the

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                             119
sling until it is snug and tying an overhand knot to hold the elbow in place.

Figure Eight Bandage


A figure eight bandage is used to wrap a wound on the palm. The bandage should be anchored
by 2 wraps around the center of the palm.

Next, the bandage is brought diagonally across the palm, around the hand and wrapped twice
around the wrist, then back around the hand. This process is repeated until the bandage is
secured, at which time the bandage is tied off.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                        120
The bandage can be tied off by splitting the end of the bandage and tying an overhand knot.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                         121
Another method of bandaging a palm until medical assistance is available is to place a roll of
bandage material, cloth, gauze or other material about the size of a tennis racquet handle (about
12 inches) into the victim’s hand, over a sterile bandage. The fingers should be gently curved
around this roll. The fingers should be separated with cloth or gauze and the entire hand should
be covered with a clean cloth. If possible, the arm should be placed in a sling and elevated.

Circular Bandage

This bandage is most effectively used on a body part that is mostly all the same size, such as a
wrist, ankle, or forehead. Each successive wrap is placed right on top of the other. When the
bandage is held firmly in place, the wrap is tied off. This is accomplished by splitting the roll and
tying an overhand knot. This type of wrap can be effectively used to cover the ears and eyes,
especially when both eyes need to be immobilized.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                            122
Closed Spiral Bandage

The closed spiral is most effectively used to bandage a body part that tapers. Each successive
turn overlaps approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the width of the bandage and when completed properly,
no skin or dressing shows through.

This bandage is tied off by splitting the wrapping material and tying it in an overhand knot.

Open Spiral Bandage

An open spiral is like a closed spiral except the turns do not overlap and areas of the skin or
underlying dressing are allowed to show through between the turns. You can use an open spiral
bandage to hold a dressing in place temporarily.

Once the dressing has been secured with open spiral turns, you can finish the bandage with
closed spiral turns, if necessary.

You can also use an open spiral when you do not have enough bandage material to make a closed
spiral bandage.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           123

SECTION 23.0                   STRESS MANAGEMENT

Stress has become one of the leading killers in our society; it is directly linked to coronary heart
disease, high blood pressure, mental dysfunction, eating disorders, stomach and digestive
problems and interpersonal problems, such as inability to work with others, anger, and anxiety.

Each of us has different things that cause us stress. ..some of us have difficult children to cope
with, financial problems, marital problems, work related problems etc. All of these things
accumulate and can lead to damaging stress symptoms.

Stress can also be positive... it may motivate us to do things that are necessary for us to survive.
It is essential to develop skills in handling stress, because it is practically impossible to have a
stress free life... even if you win the lottery! Imagine all the people calling you wanting money!

There are lots of ways to alleviate the effects of stress:

   A good diet and regular exercise are the best ways to ensure you are physically able to ward
   off, or least minimize, the effects of stress
   Do some deep breathing

   Do some simple neck stretches or shoulder rolls

   Take a bath or shower

   Get a massage

   Relax your emotions... talk to someone

   Laugh! See a funny movie!

   Cry. can be a good release

   Read...the great escape

   Do something you love...enjoy yourself

If you are feeling overwhelmed, you may want to seek professional advice to cope with the
challenges you are facing. You can contact your physician and ask for a referral for counseling

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                           124


The following guideline is recommended for implementation in your Department in the event
your building does not have its own dedicated Bomb Threat and/or Similar Threat emergency
response protocol in place.

Any individual receiving a bomb threat or other threatening call should do the following:

1.   Remain calm and keep the caller on the line as long as possible.

2.   Signal another caller to contact 911 by writing down “Bomb Threat, Call 911”

3.   Ask the caller to repeat the message and repeat as much as possible out loud so the 911
     dispatcher can record the conversation.

4.   If the caller does not indicate the location of the bomb or the time of detonation, ask for this

5.   Advise caller that the building is occupied and detonation could result in death or serious
     injury to innocent people.

6.   Pay particular attention to background noises, such as motors running, music, or any other
     noises which may indicate the location from which the call is being made.

7.   Listen closely to the voice to determine voice quality, accents, speech impediments, sex, or
     unusual characteristics, and complete threat data form.

8.   It is desirable, but not always practicable to have another person listen in on the bomb threat

9.   Immediately notify your Supervisor of the call. The Supervisor will in turn notify the Senior
     Management Person available. Together, they will immediately initiate contact with the
     appropriate Building Security agency to evacuate the building.

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                              125


The development, implementation, and enforcement of an Employee Conduct Policy are
intended to ensure that all employees have fair access to a safe and productive work
environment. To that end, this policy sets forth the standards of behavior believed to be
inappropriate in the working environment such as sexual harassment and violence in the
workplace. The purpose of this policy is to inform all employees and the community as to the
policies set forth by the City of Albany.


       The quality and diversity of City employees are important to the success of the City
       workforce. As such, the City has adopted a policy against sexual harassment and
       distributed this policy to all departments to be accessible to current and future
       employees. Failure to comply will result in appropriate disciplinary action.

       City policy forbids sexual harassment of any sort and the City will not tolerate such
       conduct by managers, other employees, elected officials, vendors, contract employees,
       contractors, or customers in the course of our operations.

       A.     Protection against Retaliation

              Employees who report sexual harassment complaints in good faith have the City’s
              assurance that there will be no retaliation or any adverse effect upon their
              employment for using the complaint procedure.

       B.     Complaint Procedure

              If you believe that you have been or are being subjected to sexual harassment, we
              want to know about it. You are encouraged to report the matter to your
              supervisor. If your supervisor is not available, or you are not comfortable
              discussing the matter with your supervisor, you can bring the complaint directly
              to the Human Resources Management Department.

              If a supervisor is informed of or becomes aware of a sexual harassment situation,
              allegation, or complaint, he or she must promptly report the matter to the
              Human Resources Management Department.

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       The possibility of violence in the workplace is an unfortunate reality everyone must deal
       with. The City of Albany is focused on providing a workplace that is safe from
       violence. Implementing training and procedures will minimize or eliminate the risk of
       violence to workers, and will provide workers experiencing violence in the workplace
       with appropriate support and direction in the event that violence is encountered.

       A.     Definition

              Violence means the attempted or actual exercise by any person of any physical
              force so as to cause injury to a worker, and includes any threatening statement or
              behavior which gives the worker reasonable cause to believe that the worker is at
              risk of injury.

       B.     Department Procedure

              Where a risk of injury to workers from violence is identified by an
              assessment performed above the employer shall:

              1.      Establish procedures, policies and work environment arrangements to
                      eliminate the risk of violence to workers.

              2.      Where elimination of the risk to workers is not possible, establish
                      procedures, policies and work environment arrangements to minimize the
                      risk to workers.

              3.      Establish procedures for reporting, investigating and documenting
                      incidents of violence.

       C.     Instruction To Workers

              The employer shall inform workers who may be exposed to the risk of violence,
              of the nature and extend of the risk. This duty to inform workers includes a duty
              to provide information related to the risk of violence from persons who have a
              history of violent behavior and who workers are likely to encounter in the course
              of their work.

              The employer shall instruct workers who may be exposed to the risk of violence

              1.      The means for recognition of the potential for violence,

              2.      The procedures, policies and work environment arrangements which have
                      been developed to minimize or effectively control the risk to workers from

CITY OF ALBANY RISK MANAGEMENT POLICY                                                        127
              3.      The appropriate response to incidents of violence, including how to obtain

              4.      The procedures for reporting, investigating and documenting incidents of

              5.      Ensure that all other applicable procedures that may apply, such as the
                      “WORKING ALONE” procedure are in force.

       D.      Response To Incidents

              1.      The employer shall ensure that corrective action is taken, as required, in
                      response to incidents of violence reported.

              2.      The employer shall ensure that a worker who reports an injury or adverse
                      symptom from an incident of violence, is advised to seek medical attention
                      from a physician of the worker’s choice, and is assisted in any dealings
                      with enforcement authorities.


       Workplace violence can be any act of physical violence, threats of physical violence,
       harassment, intimidation, or other threatening, disruptive behavior that occurs at the work
       site. Workplace violence can affect or involve employees, visitors, contractors, etc.

       The workplace is full of situations that can lead us to feel angry. There are the pressures
       of deadlines, misunderstandings and gossip. Also think about all the time we spend with
       competitive co-workers and co-workers with different value systems than our own.

       A number of different actions in the work environment can trigger or cause workplace
       violence. It may even be the result of non-work-related situations such as domestic
       violence or “road rage.” Workplace violence can be inflicted by an abusive employee, a
       manager, supervisor, co-worker, customer, family member, or even a stranger. Whatever
       the cause or whoever the perpetrator, workplace violence will not be accepted or

       The City of Albany is committed to creating and maintaining a working environment
       which is free from violence. Understanding and mutual respect toward all individuals are
       essential elements to excellence in the workplace, to the existence of a safe and healthy
       workplace, and to the maintenance of a City which serves the needs of the community.
       The City of Albany prohibits violent acts or threats of violence. Any employee,
       vendor or visitor who commits a violent act, or threatens to commit a violent act, is
       subject to disciplinary action and/or civil or criminal prosecution.

       The City of Albany has zero tolerance for violence against any member of the
       workforce, any other persons in the workplace, or its property. Any person who makes

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      threats, exhibits threatening behavior, or engages in violent acts on the City’s property
      shall be subject to removal from the premises as quickly as safety permits. For the
      purpose of this policy, violence and threats of violence include but are not limited to:

                 •   any act that is physically abusive or
                 •   any physical or verbal threat, behavior, or action which is interpreted by a
                     reasonable person to carry the potential to harm or endanger the safety of
                 •   An act of aggression that results in the destruction and or damage to
                     personal and City property.

NOTE: For detail and specific information of the above mentioned policies, please refer to
the City’s Personnel Management System (PMS) Policy.

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