Partnership for Community-Run Marine Protected Areas in Madagascar

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					  Case Studies of the 2005 Seed Award
               Recipients

 ________________________

                 Elisabeth Heid and Julia Steets


Partnership for Community-Run
   Marine Protected Areas in
          Madagascar
                              Full Version




            Created for the Seed Initiative Partnership Report 2006
 "Partnerships for Sustainable Development: On the Road to Implementation"
global public policy institute                                                                                    Research.Consulting.Debate




              Table of Contents


              About the authors.................................................................................................. 3



              BACKGROUND..................................................................................................... 4
              CREATING THE PARTNERSHIP ............................................................................ 4
                 Further partners ............................................................................................... 5
              DEVELOPING THE PARTNERSHIP........................................................................ 7
                 Implementing the Marine Protected Area project ................................................... 7
                 Data Collection and Research.............................................................................. 8
                 Strategies ........................................................................................................ 8
                 Lobbying activities ............................................................................................ 9
                 Building the infrastructure for eco-tourism.......................................................... 10
                 Awareness raising on conservation .................................................................... 10
                 The impact of the external environment on the partnership................................... 11
              PARTNERSHIP GOVERNANCE............................................................................ 11
                 Structures...................................................................................................... 11
                 Procedures..................................................................................................... 12
                 Finances ........................................................................................................ 12
              DEFINING AND MEASURING SUCCESS .............................................................. 13



              About GPPi ........................................................................................................ 14
              About the Seed Initiative..................................................................................... 15




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              About the authors


              Elisabeth Heid is a Research Associate with the Global Public Policy Institute. Her current
              research interests include public-private partnerships and transparency initiatives in the
              extractive industries. Elisabeth is also completing a two year graduate program in
              international relations offered jointly by Humboldt University Berlin, the Free University
              Berlin and the University of Potsdam (M.A. expected August 2006). She previously
              studied political science, sociology and law at the University of Freiburg and at St. Hilda's
              College, Oxford University. Elisabeth receives a fellowship from the German National
              Merit Foundation. She can be contacted at eheid@gppi.net.


              Julia Steets is a fellow with the Global Public Policy Institute and acts as project manager
              for the Seed Initiative Research & Learning Channel. She is a PhD candidate at the
              University of Erfurt where her research focuses on the question of partnership
              accountability. Julia studied political science at the University of Munich and received a
              Master of Science in History of International Relations from the London School of
              Economics and Political Science (LSE) in 1999. From 2000 to 2002 she was a McCloy
              Scholar at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, where she received a Master in
              Public Administration. During her studies, she was supported by the German National
              Merit Foundation. She also received the LSE’s McKenzie Prize for Outstanding
              Performance. Julia can be contacted at jsteets@gppi.net.




              The authors wish to thank all those who provided input and feedback during the drafting
              process, in particular Helen Crowley, Alasdair Harris, Loïc L'Haridon, Anju Nihalani,
              Edourd Mara Remanevy and Herilala Randriamahazo (all of the Partnership for
              Community-Run Marine Protected Areas in Madagascar) and Cortnie Shupe, Thorsten
              Benner, David Beffert, Cecily Brewer and Jan Martin Witte (all of GPPi).


              For a short version of this case study, please consult the Seed Initiative Partnership
              Report 2006 "Partnerships for Sustainable Development: On the Road to
              Implementation" at www.gppi.net/partnershipreport.




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               Partnership for Community-Run Marine Protected
                             Areas in Madagascar
              The Partnership for Community-Run Marine Protected Areas in Madagascar seeks
              to combat coral reef and marine life degradation in Andavadoaka, Madagascar,
              whilst sustaining the livelihood of the local fishing communities. NGOs, research
              institutes, a fish export company, and local fishermen have come together to
              implement a regenerative no-take zone, to devise strategies for marine
              conservation, and to build the foundations for eco-tourism.




              BACKGROUND                                              export are often damaging to the
                                                                      coral reef ecosystem. As demand has
              The southwest coast of Madagascar                       grown, new fishing practices have
              is one of the West Indian Ocean’s                       emerged. Net fishing in near-shore
              largest coral reef systems, stretching                  habitats – mangroves, intertidal
              across 300 kilometres of coastline.                     pools, seagrass beds – endangers
              The coral reefs, mangroves, lagoons,                    the survival of reef fishes, who uses
              offshore islands and sea-grass beds                     these areas as nurseries.
              are home to a wide number of plants
              and animals: over 130 species of                        Traditionally, marine and coastal
              reef-building corals, 552 species of                    conservation efforts had taken a
              reef fishes, and over 600 species of                    back seat – the focus was put on
              sponge.      However,    this   fragile                 terrestrial     conservation.       The
              ecosystem has been subject to                           conservation of coastal habitats
              natural and anthropogenic impacts.                      moved into the limelight thanks
              Climate change and El Nino-related                      Madagascar’s environmental plan
              sea surface warming, pollution, river                   (NEAP), which identifies the need to
              discharge, and hypersedimentation                       engage       in    the      sustainable
              caused by the loss of upstream                          management of coastal and marine
              forests have resulted in widespread                     systems.     Madagascar’s      Fisheries
              coral degradation. Moreover, as the                     Department has taken on marine
              size of the coastal population has                      conservation as part of their strategic
              grown      rapidly,   so    has    the                  plan to ensure sustainable fisheries
              exploitation of the region’s marine                     and the President of Madagascar has
              resources.                                              pledged to triple the size of protected
                                                                      areas in the country.
              Over-fishing is a threat to the reef
              system as well as to the livelihood of
              the    local   communities.     These                   CREATING THE PARTNERSHIP
              communities, largely poor, depend
                                                                      In 2001, Alasdair Harris, of the UK-
              on fishing as their major sources of
                                                                      based charity Blue Ventures, was
              income. For centuries, fishing was
                                                                      working with the national marine
              largely at a subsistence level. But
                                                                      research       institute,      Institut
              recently, this has increased to meet
                                                                      Halieutique et des Sciences Marines
              commercial demands. Yet existing
                                                                      (IHSM),    on    a     research    and
              methods of collecting sea cucumbers,
                                                                      conservation project in Madagascar.
              octopus, fish, and other species for



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              Much of their work relied on the                         dramatically increased average catch
              contributions      of      short-term                    size. The idea behind the zones is
              researchers, whose output was                            therefore to ensure that fishing can
              necessarily limited. This problem got                    remain a part of the region’s
              Alasdair interested in designing a                       economy while reducing its negative
              research and conservation project                        impact on reef environments.
              that would be managed by the local
              community and that, one day, could                       Blue Ventures and IHSM decided to
              be run without the support of donor                      test this approach for the first time in
              money.                                                   Madagascar. In June 2003, the
                                                                       partners set about finding a site at
              To begin such a project, Blue                            which to pilot their project. This site
              Ventures and IHSM in Andavadoaka                         was to be an area in which no
              would have to collect ecological,                        research had yet been done and
              socio-economic, and fishing data in                      where conservation efforts were
              collaboration     with     the     local                 likely to have a positive impact. The
              community. This data would provide                       partners eventually settled on the
              the foundation for the development                       area     around     the    village    of
              of strategies and targets that the                       Andavadoaka.            Andavadoaka,
              local community could use to develop                     population 1200, is located at the
              a sustainable environmental strategy                     northern end of the Grand Recif
              for the area. Their goal was to                          barrier reef. The reef and its offshore
              improve the quality of life of the local                 islands (Nosy Fasy and Nosy Hao) is
              communities, who rely on the marine                      one of the most remote habitats in
              resources, whilst maintaining the                        the Indian Ocean and renowned for
              biological diversity and productivity                    its wealth of biodiversity. The reefs
              of the reefs.                                            are critical to the livelihood of the
                                                                       local community, the Vezo, whose
              One strategy that has been used                          economy is entirely based on fishing.
              successfully elsewhere in the world is                   Commercial      fishing   arrived     to
              that of creating ‘no-take-zones’                         Andavadoaka in 2002, when fish
              which are managed by the local                           export companies began purchasing
              communities. No-take zones are                           fish and octupus from local fishers.
              designated areas in which the fishing
              of a particular species is prohibited                    Further partners
              for a certain time period. The idea
                                                                       Blue Ventures and IHSM have
              behind no-take-zones is to allow the
                                                                       extensive expertise in conducting
              populations of various exploited
                                                                       research on coastal marine habitats.
              species to regenerate to healthier
                                                                       However, they are relatively small
              levels: When the no-take-zone is
                                                                       organisations and lack detailed
              lifted,   fisheries   are   not   only
                                                                       knowledge on such issues as coastal
              presented with a greater amount of
                                                                       management planning. Therefore,
              marine life from which to fish, but
                                                                       they set about looking for partners
              fish with a higher biomass, density,
                                                                       who would be able to provide
              larval supplies and larger carnivorous
                                                                       additional expertise and resources to
              fish and invertebrates – benefits for
                                                                       their effort.
              both the marine ecosystem and the
              local    fishing    community.     For
                                                                       Their search included gaining the
              example, a rotating no-take-zone
                                                                       support of Copefrito, a Madagascar-
              system for octopus in Tanzania



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              Mauritius-based fish and octopus                         international   profile    of    the
              export      company      operating     in                partnership, and to help provide
              Andavadoaka.         Copefrito     began                 funding for project activities. WCS
              buying octopus, large reef fish                          also possesses an accord de siège, a
              (emperor, snapper, gouper), tuna,                        formal     agreement     with    the
              and mackerel from Andavadoaka in                         Madagascan government, that helps
              2002. Copefrito has a history of                         WCS work at a national level.
              engaging      in    humanitarian     and
              sustainable development projects in                      In the process of developing a
              its area of operation: It has                            funding proposal in collaboration with
              supported      a    capture    limit  on                 the    French     Government,     WCS
              cephalopods         (octopus,      squid,                brought the Institut de Recherche
              cuttlefish and nautilus) and it has                      pour    le    Développement     (IRD),
              helped fisherman affected by the                         aboard the partnership. IRD is a
              2005 Ernest and Felapi hurricanes. In                    French     science   and   technology
              Andavadoaka, a Copefrito employee,                       research institute that is also based
              Olivier Delpierre, had been working                      in New Caledonia, Réunion, and
              with     the    local   community      in                Madagascar. The Institute engages in
              Andavadoaka with the aim of setting                      socio-economic research, training
              up a fishing cooperative. Copefrito’s                    and consultancy to enable and
              support was crucial for the project to                   support the creation of sustainable
              succeed. Given its business interest                     development programmes in the
              in securing a sustainable stock of fish                  developing world. IRD had, in 2004,
              and octopus on Madagascar’s west                         already done some baseline work in
              coast, the company agreed to                             Andavadoaka on the potential impact
              support the partnership.                                 of    eco-tourism    on    the    local
                                                                       communities and they were therefore
              The partnership also required an                         interested in continuing work in
              organisation         with      practical                 Andavadoaka and contributing their
              experience in the creation and                           expertise to the development of the
              management of conservation and                           partnership.
              wildlife areas, including so-called
              marine protected areas (MPAs),                           Following negotiations, the partners
              which      offer    an    even    more                   agreed on a set of partnership goals
              comprehensive protection of marine,                      and    activities    and    designated
              plant, and other wildlife in a given                     responsibilities accordingly.
              coastal area. This partner is the
              Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS),                     The first of these is implementation
              an international conservation NGO.                       and monitoring of a pilot no-take-
              WCS       has    been     working    on                  zone for the reef flat octopus
              conservation projects in Madagascar                      fisheries. This task is largely in the
              for over 15 years, engaging in                           hands of the local fishing community,
              coastal     zone    management      and                  though     they   are    assisted   by
              engaging in research on fisheries,                       Copefrito, who regulates its purchase
              sharks, cetaceans and coral reefs.                       of specific species of fish and
              WCS joined the growing partnership                       octopus, WCS and Blue Ventures.
              to provide technical and scientific
              expertise, to help integrate the                         Second, the partners needed to
              project into national conservation                       conduct marine and socio-economic
              initiatives, to raise the national and                   research on the effects of the no-



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              take zone as well as, more generally,                    Blue Ventures, WCS, IHSM, and
              on the community and its fishing                         Copefrito held a number of meetings
              practices. This research provides the                    and workshops – which are now
              foundation for developing the Marine                     regular     events     –    with   the
              Protected Area and further no-take                       Andavadoaka community in order to
              zones. As the principal research                         present the idea of the Marine
              partners, Blue Ventures and IHSM                         Protected Area and its first project,
              are responsible for these research                       the no-take-zone. Attendance rates
              activities. WCS provides technical                       are high, sometimes reaching 300
              guidance, while IRD contributes                          people – more than a quarter of the
              information     of    detailed  habitat                  village. Local fishermen, concerned
              mapping and input on research                            about the declining quality of the
              design,     particularly    for  socio-                  marine environment, welcomed the
              economic research. Copefrito assists                     idea. Scientific data as well as
              research     activities    by   making                   informal    observations     from  the
              available its catch data.                                fishermen have shown a decrease in
                                                                       the average weight of octopus
              Thirdly, the partners, spearheaded                       caught in the Andavadoaka region,
              by Blue Ventures, want to look into                      suggesting     over-fishing.    Smaller
              eco-tourism as a supplementary                           octopuses generate less income for
              income    source     for   the    local                  local fishermen.
              community. This includes maximising
              the revenue generated by Blue                            After 16 months of preparations, on
              Ventures’     existing       volunteer                   24 October 2004, the Andavadoaka
              programme and developed further                          fishermen signed a traditional law
              eco-tourism activities from which the                    (‘dina’) closing the reef flat around
              community stands to benefit.                             the island of Nosy Fasy to octopus
                                                                       fishing for 7 months starting 1
              Fourthly, WCS is collaborating with                      November 2004. The seven-month
              various   government       institutions,                 period was proposed by Blue
              including the Fisheries department,                      Ventures, WCS, and IHSM scientists
              to create an “official” protected site                   as an adequate time to sufficiently
              (site de conservation) and to                            increase the average size of octopus.
              showcase Andavadoaka as a model                          Copefrito agreed to increase its price
              for how protected areas can be                           for octopus weighing over 1.5 kg, as
              managed by the local community and                       an incentive for fishermen to comply
              improve local livelihoods.                               with the no-take-zone.

              Finally, the partners want to engage                     The no-take-zone is guarded by a
              in awareness-raising and education                       fisherman from the island of Nosy
              on marine conservation, both locally                     Hao. The guardian is responsible for
              and nationally.                                          the surveillance and enforcement of
                                                                       the dina. During the seven-month
                                                                       period, only one infraction occurred.
              DEVELOPING THE PARTNER-                                  This was penalized with a fine
              SHIP                                                     agreed-upon by the local community.

              Implementing the Marine                                  The no-take-zone was reopened
              Protected Area project                                   during the spring low tide on 6 June
                                                                       2005. Normally, the Nosy Fasy reefs



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              are only fished by the communities                       octopuses caught in the region on
              from    the    adjacent    villages  of                  each spring tide before the closure.
              Andavadoaka        and     Ampasilava.                   The closure of the Nosy Fasy reef
              However,      the    highly-anticipated                  also produced a very significant
              reopening attracted 700 to 1000                          increase in octopus weight: during
              fishers to Nosy Fasy, some from                          the closure, the average weight more
              villages as far as 20 km away. All                       than doubled, increasing from 0.5 to
              were hoping to reap the benefits of                      1.1 kg. The average catch per unit
              the no-take-zone by fishing large and                    effort (CPUE) increased from 2.2 to 4
              valuable octopuses. As a result,                         kg per fisher per trip.
              octopus fishing was much more
              extensive than is usually the case,                      Unfortunately, the influx of fishers
              diminishing much of the no-take-                         seeking to take advantage of the
              zone’s positive effect.                                  fruits of the Nosy Fasy no-take zone
                                                                       prevented this benefit from being
              Data Collection and Research                             long-term: Within six weeks (three
                                                                       spring tides) the average octopus
              Blue Ventures and IHSM researchers
                                                                       weight and the catch per unit values
              monitored     Andavadoaka      octopus
                                                                       returned to the pre-closure levels.
              over the course of more than a year,
              starting in September 2005 (before
                                                                       The data does suggest that had there
              the no-take-zone was implemented),
                                                                       been a normal fishing effort (100
              throughout the no-take period and
                                                                       octopus captured at Nosy Fasy per
              thereafter.        The       scientists
                                                                       spring tide, as was the case before
              collaborated with a team of fifteen
                                                                       the closure), the beneficial effects
              fish collectors (so-called “sous–
                                                                       would likely have lasted longer:
              collecteurs”)   in    eleven    coastal
                                                                       approximately 4 months, or 8 spring
              villages   of   the    region.   Sous-
                                                                       tides. These results suggest that a
              collecteurs were responsible for
                                                                       no-take zone can increase the
              collecting a range of data, including
                                                                       productivity and sustainability of
              the weight of every octopus captured
                                                                       octopus fisheries. However, in order
              during the twice-monthly spring tide
                                                                       for the no-take-zone technique to
              periods; the active periods for
                                                                       work, the area must be carefully
              octopus fishing. Blue Ventures and
                                                                       managed when the zone is reopened.
              the Wildlife Conservation Society
              have presented their findings at a
                                                                       Strategies
              number of events in 2005, including
              the Western Indian Ocean Marine                          The free rider problem experienced
              Science Symposium and a workshop                         at the Nosy Fasy no-take site did
              for socio-economic monitoring of                         have an upside: Local fishing
              coastal resources in the Western                         communities in neighbour villages
              Indian Ocean organised by CORDIO                         became interested in establishing
              (Coral Reed Degradation in the                           their own no-take zones, impressed
              Indian Ocean).                                           by the effects it had had in
                                                                       Andavadoaka.         Blue    Ventures
              The data reveal that over 800                            substantiated these impressions by
              octopuses were caught on the first                       presenting its research results to the
              day of the opening of the no-take                        Andavadoaka fishing community as
              zone – approximately eight times                         well as to fishing communities from
              more than the average number of                          neighbouring     villages. Fishermen




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              suggested        expanding         the                   capacity    of  local  community
              Andavadoaka model, setting up a no-                      associations in Andavadoaka and
              take zone for each coastal village. All                  neighbouring villages for coastal
              no-take zones would close for the                        resource management.
              same period and reopen on the same
              day. Fishermen from each region                          Lobbying activities
              would benefit from their local reefs
                                                                       In August 2005, WCS and the
              and not feel the need to converge on
                                                                       Ministry of Fisheries, Livestock and
              a single reef site. Currently, Blue
                                                                       Agriculture hosted Madagascar’s first
              Ventures, IHSM, and WCS are
                                                                       cephalopod workshop in Tulear. The
              engaging in discussion with villages
                                                                       workshop’s goal was to develop
              about the feasibility of extending the
                                                                       regulation       to      increase     the
              octopus no-take-zone within the
                                                                       sustainability of squid and octopus
              Andavadoaka region.
                                                                       fisheries    in      Madagascar.      The
                                                                       workshop was well attended by the
              A further idea is to establish a
                                                                       local and national authorities and
              number of no-take-zones within
                                                                       NGOs, but most importantly by
              individual communities, which would
                                                                       commercial       fisheries    companies,
              “open” and “close” in rotation. Soon
                                                                       fishermen, and sous-collectors from
              after one no-take-zone is opened to
                                                                       around the country. Scientists from
              fishing, another one is closed in
                                                                       BV (Marc Nadon), ISHM (Daniel
              order to allow the octopus on the
                                                                       Rabinary),      and     WCS      (Herilala
              second     flat    to  settle,   grow,
                                                                       Randriamahazo) were able to present
              reproduce, and reach larger (and
                                                                       preliminary results from the Nosy
              more commercially valuable) sizes.
                                                                       Fasy octopus no-take-zone.
              Even if the ideas can be put into
              practice, it will be important to also
                                                                       Following     the   workshop,    the
              approach the free-rider problem from
                                                                       government recommended an annual
              a    legal   perspective.    There   is
                                                                       embargo on octopus fishing in
              currently no law protecting the rights
                                                                       southwest Madagascar from 15
              of those fishing communities that
                                                                       December to 31 January. This period
              invested in a no-take zone. This
                                                                       is an important breeding season for
              could be achieved through a permit
                                                                       octopus, so a fishing ban would give
              system, which would allocate access
                                                                       young animals the opportunity to
              and/or fishing rights among coastal
                                                                       grow. A ban was also implemented
              communities in the region.
                                                                       on the fishing of octopus below the
                                                                       weight of 350 grams – the average
              In order to move these plans
                                                                       weight at which the O.cyanea
              forward, Blue Ventures is currently
                                                                       octopus reaches sexual maturity.
              working on expanding the number of
                                                                       Several technical measures were
              staff it has on-site in Andavadoaka
                                                                       introduced, including a minimum
              and applying for grants that would
                                                                       mesh size for squid nets and
              finance data collection and project
                                                                       encouragement for the use of less
              management at new no-take zones.
                                                                       destructive fishing methods, such as
              Moreover, the SEED Initiative will
                                                                       lines and lures instead of spears. A
              provide funding for a socio-economic
                                                                       challenge that remains concerns
              consultant, who will assist the
                                                                       awareness raising and enforcement
              partners in planning their socio-
                                                                       of the government policy along
              economic and fisheries research
                                                                       Madagascar’s isolated coastline. The
              programmes      and    develop   the



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              partnership  has     welcomed  the                       their course exams in August of the
              government’s move as a sign of the                       same year.
              attention the Andavadoaka project
              has been generating.                                     Blue Ventures is also considering the
                                                                       possibility of building a village-owned
              Workshop participants also discussed                     and operated hotel in Andavadoaka,
              alternative      or     supplementary                    which would provide further financial
              revenue sources, which would be                          revenue for the Marine Protected
              used to compensate the fishing                           Area. Andavadoaka already has three
              community during the closed period.                      hotels (Coco Beach, Laguna Blu, and
              Proposals included algae farming and                     Manga Lodge), though these are not
              the creation of micro-credit funds to                    owned or managed by members of
              finance       alternate       activities.                the local community.         Tourism is
              Currently, the government is looking                     growing in the region but levels are
              into means to put these proposals                        still low, mainly because of the
              into practice. The IHSM will begin                       difficult access to Andavadoaka – it
              with a pilot project later in 2006 that                  takes several days by car on a poor-
              encourages the farming of sea                            quality road to reach the village from
              cucumbers in select communities.                         Madagascar’s capital, Antananarivo.
                                                                       However, the tourism potential of the
              The National Ministry of Fisheries has                   region is growing, particularly with
              encouraged     the     partnership  to                   the creation of a protected area in
              continue     its      research     and                   the     Mikea    forest   adjacent    to
              conservation     activities   in   the                   Andavadoaka and European Union
              Andavadoaka region. The partners                         funding for the construction of a
              retain close ties to the Ministries,                     paved road to Andavadoaka. The
              with a view to possibly expanding                        partnership      will   also     explore
              cooperation in the future.                               possibilities of community-owned
                                                                       concessions to private operators as a
              Building the          infrastructure        for          way of generating incomes for local
              eco-tourism                                              communities and for enabling high-
                                                                       quality     low-impact    infrastructure
              One idea on the part of the partners
                                                                       development along the coastline.
              is to develop eco-tourism as a
              supplementary income source for the
              local community in Andavadoaka.                          Awareness raising on
              Blue Ventures began pursuing this                        conservation
              effort in early 2005, by setting up a
                                                                       A long-term goal of the partnership
              trilingual (English, French, Vezo)
                                                                       is to enable the villagers to manage
              information board in the middle of
                                                                       the MPA independently and to assist
              Andavadoaka that informs tourists
                                                                       the local community in developing a
              (and locals) on the Marine Protection
                                                                       sustainable             environmental
              Area and current activities and
                                                                       management strategy for the area.
              research. In order to improve
                                                                       In order to facilitate these efforts,
              services for tourists, Blue Ventures
                                                                       Blue Ventures’ classroom functions
              also began a programme of training
                                                                       as a forum for MPA meetings and
              young      villagers   to     become
                                                                       workshops. Copefrito and WCS are
              professional tourist guides in April
                                                                       supporting locals in the creation of a
              2005. The first five Andavadoaka
                                                                       formal fishing cooperative, which
              Tourist Guides successfully passed




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              would bring together and represent                       However, gradually, the partners
              the interest of local fishermen.                         have been able to raise greater
                                                                       awareness of the partnership. As
              Promoting a bottom-up approach to                        more    external researchers   and
              conservation also requires that                          funders have become interested in
              community             members,            in             the project, the challenge the
              Andavadoaka and beyond, receive                          partners face is to successfully
              training         in         conservation.                coordinate their activities and to
              Madagascar’s Ministry of Education                       keep the project focused on its
              has     recently      issued    a      new               primary goals.
              environmental education curriculum
              for students aged 8 to 12. Blue                          PARTNERSHIP GOVERNANCE
              Ventures     is      hiring    a      local              Structures
              environmental educator to teach this
              curriculum     in     schools    in     the              The partnership is not a registered
              Andavadoaka region. Blue Ventures                        entity in itself. Rather, it is
              also runs a scholarship programme                        structured by a series of bilateral
              which provides university students                       memoranda         of     understanding
              and    NGOs       staff   from     around                (MOUs)      between     the   research
              Madagascar         training    in       the              partners – i.e. Blue Ventures, IHSM,
              management and monitoring of                             WCS,     and    IRD    but   not    the
              protected areas. Participants are                        Andavadoaka fishing cooperative or
              given the opportunity to travel to the                   Copefrito. These MOUs set forth the
              MPA site and attend a 6 week marine                      roles and responsibilities of the
              science     and       SCUBA       training               organisations within the partnership.
              programme.                                               Some       problems     have     arisen
                                                                       nonetheless.      For example, as is
              The impact of the external                               often     the    case    in   research
              environment on the partnership                           collaborations, the modalities of data
                                                                       sharing and data ownership are
              One     of    the    major   external                    unclear – who has the final “rights”
              environmental effects the partnership                    to the data: the organisation
              deals with is the geographic isolation                   collecting    the     data   or     the
              of   Andavadoaka.     However,     the                   organisation funding the research?
              government’s       commitment       to                   Also,      may      another    partner
              creating new protected areas creates                     organisation use this data in its
              a political environment that is very                     reports? However, this is a fairly
              favourable to conservation and from                      common problem in many research
              which the Andavadoaka project                            collaborations.
              stands to benefit.
                                                                       The partners retain close ties to
              The publicity generated by the Seed                      Madagascar’s government, through
              Awards, governmental recognition,                        accords between WCS and the
              as well as a grant that the                              Direction of Fisheries and the
              partnership received in December                         Ministry of Environment, Water, and
              2004, has had its upsides and                            Forests as well as an accord between
              downsides.    The   partners    were                     IRD     and   Ministry   of    Higher
              disappointed by how little the profile                   Education.
              of the project was affected as a
              result of winning the Seed Award.




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              The partnership does not have a                          reached by satellite phone, making
              permanent office. Blue Ventures is                       communication       difficult    and
              the only partner organisation with a                     expensive.    The   partnership    is
              permanent on-site research centre                        currently developing a website,
              and representation in Andavadoaka.                       which will enable partners to
              This allows BV and ISHM to provide                       exchange    information,    such  as
              on-the-ground coordination, support,                     reports, maps, schedules, and some
              and representation for the project.                      data, more easily.
              WCS      and     IRD    offer     mostly
              “punctuated” support on research                         Finances
              and     conservation     activities    in
                                                                       Like many conservation projects, the
              Andavadoaka. The partners have
                                                                       partnership is constrained by a lack
              employed      a     Malagasy      marine
                                                                       of      financial   resources.     The
              biologist, who helps implement
                                                                       partnership received a grant of
              project activities.
                                                                       20,000 Euro from the French
                                                                       Government in 2004, which is
              Procedures
                                                                       managed by WCS. The grant money,
              Partners      have     regular,    mostly                which is being transferred over a
              bilateral meetings on and off site to                    two-year period, is going towards
              coordinate their activities. The local                   establishing Andavadoaka as an
              fishing cooperative as well as                           official marine protected area, setting
              Andavadoaka village leaders are                          up the fishing cooperative as a legal
              always consulted and involved in                         entity, and extending research on
              partnership activities. A long-term                      the site.
              goal of the partnership is to enable
              the local community to independently                     This    joint   funding    source    is
              run the Marine Protection Area and                       significant, yet it does not cover the
              to    formulate      an    environmental                 costs of all activities nor does it
              management strategy for the region.                      provide     a   sustainable   revenue
              This is why the partners have                            stream to support community-based
              invested in building the capacity of                     conservation initiatives. Accordingly,
              the     fishing     cooperative:    Blue                 the individual partners bring their
              Ventures       has      developed     its                own resources to the project in an
              classroom as a meeting house and                         effort to achieve their common
              Copefrito       has      provided    the                 objectives. Blue Ventures conducts a
              cooperative with management and                          volunteer programme, which brings
              quality assurance         training.  The                 both     funding      and    volunteer
              decision to implement a pilot no-                        researchers to Andavadoaka.
              take-zone for octopus was taken by
              the community itself, and enacted                        In addition to administering the
              according to a local Dina law.                           French Government grant, WCS has
                                                                       supplied financial, technical, and in-
              Communication       problems     have                    kind resources to the partnership,
              caused some problems between the                         including a boat. IHSM and IRD
              partners. In part, this can be                           contribute to the partnership by
              attributed to the remoteness of the                      sending their scientists to the
              Andavadoaka        region:      When                     Andavadoaka site. Copefrito trains
              researchers    are     on   site   in                    the Andavadoaka fishing cooperative
              Andavadoaka they can only be                             and shares its catch data with the




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              research partners. The Andavadoaka                       The partners now plan to open three
              community          supported         the                 further no-take zones and to create a
              partnership by implementing and                          permanent marine protected area in
              upholding the no-take zone and                           the Andavadoaka region as part of
              taking part in the partnership’s                         the Madagascar System of Protected
              survey efforts. Efforts to secure a                      Areas. The partners hope that, in the
              sustainable revenue stream for the                       future, such no-take zones may be
              partnership and for community-                           able to function by themselves on a
              based       conservation     initiatives                 rotating basis. However, it is likely
              through eco-tourism are still in the                     that     a   certain    amount      of
              early    stages.   Coordinating      and                 management will nonetheless be
              implementing      this   multi-partner                   necessary. Copefrito might be able to
              effort has been challenging.                             fund such a management position, as
                                                                       it has a business interest in
              The Seed Initiative will support the                     maintaining a sustainable octopus
              partnership’s research activities by                     supply in the Andavadoaka region.
              funding    a   consultant   providing                    Ultimately, the partners hope to
              assistance on socio-economic and                         replicate – or induce replication – of
              fisheries research and help develop                      the Marine Protected Area model in
              the    local   community’s    coastal                    other parts of Madagascar and the
              resource management. Seed is also                        Indian Ocean region.
              financing a part-time fundraising
              consultant, based with Blue Ventures
              in London, who assists in fundraising
              efforts.                                                 (Information as of April 2006)

              DEFINING           AND       MEASURING
              SUCCESS
              Though       still     a   very     young
              undertaking, the partnership is
              already able to look back at a series
              of    accomplishments.         What      is
              particularly       noteworthy    is   the
              partnership’s ability to change the
              perception and behaviour of people
              and to promote wide-spread support
              for conservation among diverse
              stakeholders in such a short time.
              The pilot no-take-zone demonstrated
              to local fishing communities in
              Andavadoaka           and    surrounding
              villages the benefits of sustainable
              fisheries. Subsequent government
              policy     to        improve     fisheries
              regulations reflects the tremendous
              contribution of the Andavadoaka
              project to marine biodiversity and
              conservation in Madagascar.




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