DRAFT Phase 1 Limited Feasibility Study for Quarry Water by oek76922

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									DRAFT
Phase 1 Limited Feasibility
Study for Quarry Water Storage
Facilities

Prepared for:
Edwards Aquifer Authority
1615 North St. Mary’s Street
San Antonio, Texas 78215




Prepared by:
Earth Tech, Inc.
40 British American Boulevard
Latham, New York 12110
and
Earth Tech, Inc.
110 Broadway
Suite 320
San Antonio, TX 78205



August, 2002
                                                           Phase 1 Limited Feasibility Study for Quarry Water Storage Facilities
                                                                                Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

                                                       TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter                                                                                                                                          Page

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................... 1
1.0       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE ............................................................................................... 2
2.0       PARTICIPATION BY THE MINING INDUSTRY ....................................................................... 3
          2.1   INDUSTRY ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATED VOLUMES .............................................. 3
3.0       CASE HISTORIES .......................................................................................................................... 4
4.0       ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND CONCEPTUAL DESIGN ................................................. 5
          4.1  RESERVOIR LINER SYSTEM ......................................................................................... 5
          4.2  CONCEPTUAL LINER SYSTEM DESIGN ..................................................................... 6
          4.3  ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................. 6
          4.4  LINER SYSTEM MATERIALS ........................................................................................ 6
5.0       DISCUSSION .................................................................................................................................. 7
6.0       RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHASE 2........................................................................................ 8



                                                           LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1A            Engineered Liner Details
Figure 1B            Alternative Liner Details
Figure 2A            Conceptual Liner Layout Details
Figure 2B            Double Liner Details


                                                               APPENDICES

Appendix A           Comprehensive List of Crushed Stone and Sand and Gravel Companies in the Greater
                     San Antonio/Bexar County Area

Appendix B           Case Histories of Representative Lining Projects

Appendix C           Engineering Details

                                                                 DRAWINGS

Map of Mining Locations in the Greater San Antonio, TX area




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                                                        Phase 1 Limited Feasibility Study for Quarry Water Storage Facilities
                                                                             Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

A Phase 1 feasibility study performed at the request of the Edwards Aquifer Authority initially identified
approximately 70,000 acre-feet of potential water storage capacity in quarries that upon completion of
mining could be converted into reservoir storage in the greater San Antonio area. This capacity may
increase as quarrying activities continue through deepening and expansion and as additional mining
operations are developed in the area.

Quarries have been and are currently being converted or considered for conversion into water-storage
reservoirs around the world. Preliminary evaluations have indicated that quarries in the study area would
likely require an engineered liner system to retain water and prevent excessive water loss through
seepage. A small-scale demonstration project could be developed with alternative mine planning
scenarios to evaluate engineered liner systems and to bring storage capacity on-line prior to the
completion of mining in the selected demonstration quarry. The second phase of this concept should
investigate the engineering, water collection, conveyance and planning aspects of the project.




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                                                        Phase 1 Limited Feasibility Study for Quarry Water Storage Facilities
                                                                             Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

1.0       INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE

The Edwards Aquifer Authority (the Authority) requested that Earth Tech, Inc. complete a Phase 1
feasibility study to evaluate the potential use of quarries in the greater San Antonio area, primarily Bexar
County, to store potable water for later distribution. Although aquifer recharge and storage were
originally considered, it appeared evident after further discussion with the Authority that aquifer storage
was the primary interest for the Authority at this juncture. The focus of this study was primarily twofold;
1) determine whether the industry wanted to participate in the concept of converting quarries into
reservoirs, and 2) determine whether this concept has been completed elsewhere and with what
engineering controls, if any. Additional feasibility concepts, such as filling the reservoirs, planning the
reservoir(s) use as part of the storage and distribution system, water treatment, and the acquisition, lease,
use or transfer of the quarry properties, were not considered at this early stage of the process. These and
many other aspects of converting quarries into reservoirs should be addressed in the Phase 2 part of this
concept.

It is well documented that the Edwards Aquifer is highly transmissive and readily transmits high quality
groundwater through the system to points currently beyond the use of the greater population of San
Antonio. Surface mining operations, quarries (crushed stone) and sand and gravel operations located
within the region have been in operation for many years, and in some cases are now surrounded by dense
residential areas that limit their expansion. These mining operation sites have the potential to store water
in populated areas that could be of significant benefit to the water demand of the San Antonio area. These
quarries in particular provide: (1) storage in close proximity to the population, i.e. near demand centers;
(2) large storage volumes relative to their footprint, i.e. quarries are deep; (3) low evaporation volumes
relative to their volume stored, i.e. high storage efficiency; (4) an area that is already disturbed, devoid of
water contaminants and relatively absent of potentially adverse environmental impacts if converted to
reservoirs, i.e. opportunistic land use; and (5) storage locations topographically high in the distribution
system thereby, allowing for gravity fed water supply systems.

The Authority has adopted the following goals for management of the Edwards Aquifer’s participation in
regional water management and operation of the agency:

      •   Fully implement the requirements of the Edwards Aquifer Authority Act.
      •   Develop an effective, comprehensive management plan based on sound, consensus-based
          scientific research and technical data.
      •   Maintain continuous spring flow.
      •   Protect and ensure the quality of ground to surface water in the Authority’s jurisdiction.
      •   Forge solutions that ensure public trust.
      •   Promote healthy economies in all parts of the region.
      •   Research and develop additional sources of water.
      •   Provide strong professional management for the Authority.

The potential use of quarries for water storage is consistent with all of these goals. As quarries become
land-locked or are mined-out, there is an opportunity for them to be utilized as storage reservoirs to aid in
achieving the Authority’s goals identified above. A specific goal identified by the Authority in this effort
was to develop 75,000 – 100,000 acre-feet of potential storage. Ideally this volume could be staged over
the next 30 years (e.g. 25,000 50,000 and 75,000 acre-feet of storage developed at years 5, 15, and 20) or
be entirely gained in an accelerated time frame, i.e. within the next 5 years.




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                                                        Phase 1 Limited Feasibility Study for Quarry Water Storage Facilities
                                                                             Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

The Phase 1 tasks below outline the scope of this study, performed to assess the feasibility of performing
further analyses to pursue the concept of utilizing quarries for water storage. Recommendations for Phase
2 are provided in Section 6.0 of this document.

Phase 1 Task Summary
   1. Identify and map existing potential quarry and sand and gravel sites within the greater San
        Antonio area.
   2. Compute, on reconnaissance level, the total volume (in acre-feet) of quarry space available and
        the remaining reserves within the next 30-50 years of the identified quarry sites.
   3. Perform a literature search for similar projects utilizing quarries for recharge and water storage.
   4. Broadly address the engineering design that may be implemented in lining the reservoirs.
   5. Develop a narrative discussion on the challenges and opportunities of using quarries.



2.0       PARTICIPATION BY THE MINING INDUSTRY

2.1       MINING OVERVIEW

For the purposes of this study, the term “quarry” indicates an open pit mine, typically created by blasting
a series of roughly parallel benches at depth. The mining industry, discussed in this study, included
quarries that were primarily removing limestone for use as commercial aggregate (crushed stone). There
were no non-aggregate operations (e.g. metal or coal mines) considered for this investigation. As part of
the effort for the project, an initial list of mining operators and sites was developed from a number of
databases provided by the National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association (NSSGA), internet research and
the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC; Appendix A). These two entities, (NSSGA and TRC) represent
the primary regulatory agency and the major trade association that represent and oversee the crushed
stone, sand and gravel operations in the state of Texas.

Using the list in Appendix A, letters were sent out to the representatives of the quarries in the greater San
Antonio area where quarries were or are currently being operated, inviting them to participate in an open
meeting to discuss the potential for developing their quarries into reservoirs. An open meeting was held
at the Authority offices on May 31, 2002, where representatives from various mining organizations,
regulatory authorities and the EAA discussed the quarry conversion concept and answered questions for
the operators. As a follow-up to the open meeting, Earth Tech conducted phone interviews with a number
of mining companies that specifically expressed interest in the project to discuss each individual
company’s willingness to participate and their level of participation at this early phase of the project.


2.2       INDUSTRY ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATED VOLUMES

The mining industry in the region is very competitive and much of the requested information was
considered company-confidential and provided under the conditions that the Authority would guard the
confidentiality to the extent possible. It would not to be released to competitors or the public in general.
In spite of this requested confidentiality, enough general information on the operations was obtained so
that, in general, an assessment could be made of the willingness of the industry to participate in the
process and the potential quarry storage volume water within these features in the future. Most of the
operations that were contacted were willing to release to Earth Tech, under confidential terms, projected
depths, final footprints and likely future periods in which the mining areas could be converted into
reservoirs.



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                                                                             Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

Most importantly, the industry, as a whole, was willing to participate in this limited assessment of its
operations. As a result of numerous follow-up calls with quarry operators in the greater San Antonio
area, a number of operations were identified that could provide collectively, a total of approximately
70,000 acre-feet of storage in the future. Approximately 50,000 acre-feet of storage could be obtained in
the next 20-25 years and the remaining 20,000 acre-feet could be obtained between 25-35 years from the
time of this study. In addition to this volume of storage, some operators indicated that the potential exists
to evaluate their current mining area and develop the deeper or mined-out portions of their operations for
shorter-term storage. Eventually, the entire quarry area would be converted into a reservoir. Moreover,
other operators indicated that at this stage, they were unable to provide particular details of their
operations that would allow such calculations of storage volume, but that in the future, the potential exists
to revisit the opportunity at their sites.


3.0       CASE HISTORIES

Prior to the conceptual design, research was completed to evaluate the historic use of quarries as
reservoirs. Projects known to Earth Tech or industry leaders were identified. In addition, research was
conducted through the use of several Internet search engines using various key words to generate listings
of potential documents to review. It was determined that quarries have been used and are being
considered for use as water storage reservoirs throughout the world. Representative projects and studies
are outlined below and their full articles are located in Appendix B.

      •   The Souppes sur Loing Sugar Plant and Distillery in France constructed a 160,000 m3 (130 acre-
          feet) water reservoir in 1999 at the site of an old limestone quarry. It was lined with a High
          Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane to provide watertightness. The purpose of the lined
          reservoir was to increase water storage capacity. (Article attached)

      •   The California Department of Water constructed a 31 million gallon (95 acre-feet) asphalt lined
          reservoir (Devil Canyon Second Afterbay) as part of the California State Water Project system
          that brings water from the Sierra Mountains in Northern California to Southern California. The
          project includes a state-of-the-art seepage monitoring system. (Article attached)

      •   Water supply planners in New Jersey are considering the Kingston Trap Rock Quarry in Franklin
          NJ as a potential reservoir. The state has already approved the end use of the quarry as a
          reservoir or lake. The plan considers conversion of the quarry into a reservoir in two stages, each
          creating a capacity of about 7 billion gallons, with a final capacity of 14.2 billion gallons (44,000
          acre-feet). (Article attached)

      •   The Philadelphia Suburban Water Company is proposing to withdraw water from the East Branch
          Brandywine Creek for public water supply. When available, the raw water would be conveyed
          for storage into a nearby abandoned quarry (known as Cornog Quarry), with an estimated storage
          capacity of approximately 100 million gallons (307 acre-feet). (Article attached)

      •   Increasing flows to the Potomac River in Maryland may require a new storage reservoir to supply
          the increased water demand. One possibility is the conversion of the Travilah Quarry in North
          Potomac into a reservoir. The quarry could hold 7 billion gallons (21,000 acre-feet)of water.
          (Article attached)

      •   In 1999 Martin Marietta/American Stone Company was in negotiations with the Orange County
          Sewer and Water Authority (the County) of North Carolina. Their project was to reconvert an



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                                                                             Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

          abandoned quarry that is presently a reservoir, back into an active quarry. At a later date the
          quarry would be transferred back to the County and converted into a much larger reservoir. Earth
          Tech provided support to the County in cooperation with Martin Marietta to develop the mining
          and reservoir development plan.

      •   In the early 1990’s, General Crushed Stone Co., in Verndon, VA sought approval to move its
          mining operations across a county highway. The mined-out quarry left behind was evaluated for
          storage of water drawn from the adjacent North Anna River during spring flows for release back
          to the river to augment low water flows during dry periods. Several downstream communities
          rely on the river for their water supply.



4.0       ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY AND CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

As outlined above, quarries are currently in use or are being considered for use as reservoirs throughout
the world. Many western states, such as California, have been using abandoned sand and gravel mines for
years as recharge basins for southern parts of the state and may be considered to compliment the storage
evaluation being considered here. Quarries now out of reserves are also being considered for use as water
storage in many metropolitan areas. Earth Tech has identified some of these quarries. While not
exhaustive, the list exemplifies that the concept of using mined-out quarries for water storage is not only
not new or innovative, but it fills an important need in the conservation and utilization of natural
resources.

Available materials and design methods have been evaluated for the proposed development and
conversion of an approximately 150-foot deep quarry into a water storage reservoir. Special
consideration will have to be given to the liner system installed against the vertical portions of the quarry
walls. Designs for these conditions have been previously constructed and perform adequately. The final
design for the liner system is then a matter of balancing liner system performance (allowable leakage
rate), cost and monitorability. Some specific conceptual design and engineering considerations for
various liner systems that may be implemented follow.

4.1       RESERVOIR LINER SYSTEM

It is well documented that the Edwards Limestone is highly transmissive. The quarries that are mining
within the limestone in many cases have karst features (e.g. solution openings and conduits) and may not
retain water adequately for a storage reservoir. Within particular quarries, depending on the degree and
extent of karstification, some portions may or may not need engineering controls to retain water. In most
cases, however, it is anticipated that the quarries would require a liner system to some extent, to keep
water from infiltrating out from the sides and the bottom of the quarry.

The conversion of a quarry to a water-holding reservoir would require an engineered approach to the
development of liner system that will cost-effectively minimize the leakage out of the reservoir.
Reservoir lining systems have historically been used to reduce leakage from reservoirs. The materials
used for reservoir liners have included concrete, asphalt and various geosynthetic (plastic) membranes.
Similarly, due to the increasing environmental awareness and regulatory control, landfill liner system
performance has been subject to intense scrutiny over the last 20 years. As such, the understanding of
liner system performance and the behavior of various liner system materials is well developed.




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                                                                             Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

4.2       CONCEPTUAL LINER SYSTEM DESIGN

The reservoir concept under consideration is to use an existing quarry approximately 150 feet deep with
near-vertical side walls and benches located approximately every 50 feet of depth. These parameters
broadly represent the setting of most of the quarries evaluated as part of this study. A configured liner
system that is size specific will likely be used to minimize leakage from the reservoir into the porous
bedrock of the quarry. This layout and the location of the leakage-reducing liner system is illustrated on
Figure 1A. In this figure, three potential liner application areas can be seen: the horizontal quarry floor
and benches (which are similar from an engineering perspective) and the near-vertical quarry walls.
These areas will have to be addressed individually during design.

An alternative reservoir layout is shown on Figure 1B, where the quarry walls and benches have been
excavated back by additional rock removal to a uniform slope of 2 (horizontal):1 (vertical) or flatter to
eliminate the vertical faces in the reservoir (and the attendant design considerations).

Conceptual liner system details are shown on Figure 2. Figure 2A shows a single liner system with a
barrier layer to minimize leakage from the reservoir and a drainage layer to collect and remove leakage
from the reservoir and inflow of ground water from the quarry walls or floor. Figure 2B shows a double
liner system. The first drainage layer collects, monitors and recovers reservoir leakage through the
primary barrier layer. The secondary barrier layer forces reservoir leakage from the primary barrier layer
to flow through the first drainage layer. The secondary drainage layer serves to collect and remove any
inflow of groundwater from the quarry walls or floor. The advantage of the double liner system is that the
performance of the primary liner can be monitored and evaluated separately from the inflow or outflow
from the quarry walls and floor, allowing focused corrective action, if necessary.

4.3       ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS

The liner system will have to be designed with a number of engineering considerations in mind. The
barrier layers must be highly impermeable (i.e., resistant to water flow) and able to withstand the stress of
up to 150 feet of water. Potential tensile stresses in the vertical portions of the liner system must be
controlled. Secondarily, the barrier will have to be protected from the roughness of the quarry floors and
walls, damage after construction (e.g., falling blocks of rock), and ultraviolet degradation.

The drainage layers must be able to transmit the anticipated liner leakage or groundwater inflow from the
quarry walls and floor in order to prevent a blow out of the liner system when the reservoir level is low.
This may occur during low reservoir levels with extreme backpressures generated in the water table
around the reservoir. Periods where this may occur would be during construction or during periods of
extreme drawdown. As with the barrier layers, the drainage layers will also have to withstand the stress of
150 feet of water. As stated previously, the engineering analyses of liner systems for these conditions are
well established.

4.4       LINER SYSTEM MATERIALS

Conventional, mineral-based liner system materials, such as gravel, sand, clay, concrete and asphalt, have
been used for many years. Their advantages are that they withstand compressive stresses well and they
are relatively inexpensive. The disadvantages are that their performance is generally less than that of the
geosynthetic materials discussed below. In addition, they are difficult to use for the vertical portions of
the liner system on the quarry walls.

Over the last 20 years, geosynthetic materials have been developed and used for reservoir and landfill
liner systems. Available materials include high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC),


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                                                                             Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

scrim-reinforced products, such as Hypalon ™, and composites, such as geosynthetic clay liners (very
low permeability clay sandwiched between geotextiles). Each of these materials has well-understood
engineering properties including impermeability, stress resistance and ultraviolet degradation resistance if
exposed to sunlight. Since the geosynthetic materials tend to be thin relative to their conventional,
mineral-based counterparts, the overall performance of these materials is sensitive to the control of
manufacturing defects (e.g., pin hole leaks) and installation defects (e.g., field-applied seams and
installation damage). At this time, manufacturing quality control and field installation methods have
attained a very high level of reliability because of the demands of the environmental regulations for
landfill design and construction.

Geosynthetic barrier and drainage materials are routinely used for construction of landfill liners with
overburden stresses up to 15,000 pounds per square foot (psf). This pressure is equivalent to a water
depth of approximately 240 feet. As such, available geosynthetic materials and design methods may be
used for the reservoir development under consideration.

The rough, vertical quarry walls present a design challenge with respect to protection of the barrier layer
and control of potential tensile stresses. Earth Tech has designed for these conditions for the South East
New Territories (SENT) landfill in Hong Kong, which had part of its liner system installed against tall,
near-vertical rock slopes (Appendix C). The rock slope liner system is presented on Detail 6, Drawing
63, Detail 4B, Drawing 64 shows the connection of the rock slope liner system to the floor liner system.
Details 4 and 5 on Drawing 65 show the liner system anchorage on the rock benches (Appendix C). This
liner system has performed adequately since it was constructed approximately five years ago.


5.0       DISCUSSION

This limited assessment of the potential storage capacity provided by quarries has revealed that significant
opportunities exist for the Authority to meet several of its goals outlined in this report. Specifically:

•          “Maintain continuous springflow.” These reservoirs, will potentially be filled by groundwater
          during low demand periods or high aquifer levels or other sources. The stored water could be
          drawn from the reservoirs during peak periods to decrease the demand of the aquifer and maintain
          higher flows at the springs.

•         “Research and develop additional sources of water.” This study meets this goal by exploring the
          opportunity to utilize quarries as reservoirs as additional water sources for the public.

Two primary components that are essential to the feasibility of the quarry conversion concept, the
willingness of the quarry owners to participate and the engineering feasibility of creating a storage facility
within a quarry, appear favorable and warrant further discussion on the concept. To be more specific, the
potential conversion of quarries in reservoirs will allow for the storage of large volumes of water in very
close proximity to the population base and with little disturbance to the environment. Although the
specific details of converting any one quarry into a reservoir have not been worked out, perhaps the
biggest hurdle, the environmental impacts associated with siting a reservoir, will likely only need a
relatively small effort to complete in a timely fashion. There appear to be enough interested participants
in the concept to provide options to the Authority and approach its storage capacity goal of 75,000 to
100,000 acre-feet of water. There also appears to be a significant opportunity for the Authority to team
up with the mining industry and interested water purveyors so that the needs of both the natural resources
i.e., water supply and construction aggregate, are met for the greater San Antonio area.




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                                                                             Edwards Aquifer Authority, San Antonio, Texas

The challenge to the Authority will be to work closely and cooperatively with the individual mining
companies to meet their needs. An understanding by both parties to commit to the long-term project(s)
and an early, detailed assessment of the operations will need to be performed from an engineering
feasibility concept and mine planning and alternatives perspective. An appreciation of the mining
operations confidentiality in an extremely competitive market will also command strict protocol in
assessments, deliverables and communications. Engineering challenges have been addressed in similar
liner systems completed at other reservoir or landfill sites around the world. Site-specific engineering
challenges exist at the sites under consideration, but can likely be met by the current understanding of the
materials and the features of the quarries. A comprehensive plan that includes the conversion of the
quarries into reservoirs will have to be incorporated into the larger water allocation and distribution
system for the greater San Antonio area. Cooperation amongst the Authority, interested water purveyors
and the integral regulatory agencies that oversee the collection and distribution of water throughout the
area will be critical to the success of this major feature to be developed in the region.


6.0       RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHASE 2

At this point in the feasibility process, there appears to be enough interest in the concept by the mining
operators, a large enough storage volume potential, and conceptually a design to retain water in
potentially leaky basins to warrant a second phase of investigation. The next phase of this effort should
provide a more detailed assessment of the individual mining operations and the collection of site-specific
data to include; a mine plan (where they are mining, how and in what direction), geologic setting,
structures (faults and joints), units being mined, overburden or potential lining material, dewatering rates,
degree of karstification, geotechnical characteristics, ground and surface water elevations and
relationships, and reclamation plans. Additional information should be obtained to characterize (capacity,
location etc.) the existing water infrastructure system, the future plans of the system and how it may relate
to the quarries being considered. As part of this effort, groundwater and surface water modeling could be
completed to optimize the location and operation of the reservoir(s) and determine the effect the
reservoir(s) could have on the Edwards Aquifer, the major springs discharging from the Aquifer and the
surface water systems in the area. In particular using the GWSIM Edwards Aquifer model to evaluate the
effect on the aquifer and on the spring by modifying the demand characteristics. From this collection of
technical information, a rating system should be devised to rank the individual operations that best suit
the Authority’s needs. As part of this effort, reasonable mining modifications and/or alternatives should
be considered and a cooperative effort should be identified and made between the Authority and the
mining operations so that both of their needs are met.

As mentioned earlier, a pilot study could be designed in the second phase to bring water storage capacity
on-line sooner in a portion of a quarry and evaluate the engineering concepts to line the quarries. As part
of this second phase, these future reservoirs will have to be built into a comprehensive plan for the water
use in the area to meet the Authority’s goals and achieve the greatest impact on the water supply at the
lowest cost for the Authority. Utilization of an existing quarry for a reservoir is much easier than
constructing a new, artificially dammed surface water reservoir, and represents both the beneficial use and
reclamation of a resource for the operator and development of a new natural resource for the Authority.
This represents an opportunity to create the maximum beneficial use of our natural resources where the
public demands the resources most.




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                                   APPENDIX A

Comprehensive List of Crushed Stone and Sand and Gravel Companies in the Greater San
                             Antonio/Bexar County Area
                                                                  Using the map shown here, Earth Tech
                                                                  compared locations to data available in
                                                                  the NSSGA Producers Membership List,
                                                                  the Minerals Survey, and the Aggregate
                                                                  Manager’s USGS Aggregate Industry
                                                                  Atlas. We then compiled the following
                                                                  list of mining companies currently
                                                                  operating within Bexar County.        In
                                                                  addition, Earth Tech performed an
                                                                  Internet search using the Yellow Page
                                                                  directory of Yahoo.com to search
                                                                  listings under “quarries”, “sand and
                                                                  gravel” and by specific name. Those
                                                                  companies found using the Internet
                                                                  search are marked with an asterisk to
                                                                  indicate that the nature of the firm was
                                                                  not found in any listing, survey or
                                                                  directory referred to above.


   Listing of Mining Companies Currently Operating in Bexar County, Texas


      Company Name                             Quarry Name                       Phone Numbers

Vulcan Materials Company     Pat D. Kerry, Manager                             Phone    210.524.3500
                             Southwest Division                                Fax      210.524.3555
                             PO Box 791550, 800 Isom Road, Ste. 300
                             San Antonio, TX 78279-1550

Vulcan Materials Company     John Matthews, Plant Manager                      Phone    210.492.1053
                             Huebner Road Quarry/Readymix                      Fax      210.492.7013
                             12307 Huebner Road
                             San Antonio, TX 78230-0992

Vulcan Materials Company     Ernest Taylor, Plant Manager                      Phone    210.494.9555
                             Plant 1604
                             4303 NE Loop 1604
                             San Antonio, TX 78259

Vulcan Materials Company     Mitchell Page, Plant Manager                      Phone    210.695.3081
                             Helotes Quarry, Asphalt & ReadyMix
                             12354 FM 1560 North
                             Helotes, TX 78023-0992

Helotes Materials Co.        8845 Leslie Road                                  Phone    210.695.9071
                             San Antonio, TX 78254

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Larry Roberts, VP/General Manager                 Phone:   210.696.8500
                             San Antonio District                              Fax:     210.696.5412
                             Martin Marietta Aggregates
                             17910 IH-10 West
                             San Antonio, TX 78251-3901

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Roy Martinez, Crushing Supt- Remote Sites         Phone:   210.688.3688
                             Hwy 211 Quarry                                    Fax:     210.688-3690
                             11399 SH #211
                             San Antonio, TX 78254
      Company Name                             Quarry Name                     Phone Numbers

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Roy Kirkpatrick, Ready-Mix Gen. Mgr.            Phone:   210.496.0642
                             Apple #8 Asphalt Plant                          Fax:     210.495.6375
                             4275 Loop 1604 NE
                             San Antonio, TX 78257-9505

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Barry Scott, Aggregates Operations Mgr.         Phone:   210.696-8500
                             Beckman Quarry                                  Fax:     210.493.9521
                             17910 1H-10West
                             San Antonio, TX 78257-9505

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Roy Kirkpatrick, Ready Mix Gen. Mgr.            Phone:   210.661-1410
                             Kirby Concrete Plant                            Fax:     Not available
                             7010 NE Loop #410
                             San Antonio, TX 78238-4111

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Roy Martinez, Crushing Supt. – Remote Sites     Phone:   210.497-3731
                             Midwestern Quarry                               Fax:     210.497-3731
                             5031 Judson Road
                             San Antonio, TX 78259

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Roy Martinez, Crushing Supt. – Remote Sites     Phone:   210.494.0451
                             San Pedro Quarry                                Fax:     210.494.0451
                             19265 Highway 281N
                             San Antonio, TX 78258

Martin Marietta Aggregates   John R. Houston, Vice President                 Phone:   210.696.8500
                             Wayne Skipper, General Manager                  Fax:     210.696.5412
                             South Texas District
                             17910 IH-10West
                             San Antonio, TX 78257-9505

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Bruce S. Vaio, President                        Phone:   210.696-8500
                             Southwest Division Office                       Fax:     210.696.5412
                             17910 IH- 10West
                             San Antonio, TX 78527-9505

Martin Marietta Aggregates   Barry Scott, Aggregates Operations Mgr.         Phone:   830.276.8577
                             Poteet Sand Plant                               Fax:     830.276.8577
                             25182 Highway 16S
                             Von Ormy, TX 78075

Alamo Cement Co.             1604 Quarry – no contact info available         Phone    210.651.6624
                             Main No.:
                             6055 W Green Mountain Rd
                             San Antonio, TX 78266

Alamo Cement Co.             Evans Road Pit – no contact info available      Phone    210.651.6624

                             Main No.:
                             6055 W Green Mountain Rd
                             San Antonio, TX 78266

Alamo Cement Co.             Evans Road Quarry – no contact info available   Phone    210.651.6624

                             Main No.:
                             6055 W Green Mountain Rd
                             San Antonio, TX 78266
      Company Name                                    Quarry Name                       Phone Numbers

Capitol Aggregates Ltd.           Cap Cement Plant, Bexar, Texas- no info contact     Phone   210.655.3010
                                  available
                                  Main No.:
                                  11551 Nacogdoches Rd,
                                  San Antonio, TX 78217

Capitol Aggregates, Ltd.          Qwn Crews, Bexar, Texas- no contact nfo available   Phone   210.655.3010

                                  Main No.:
                                  11551 Nacogdoches Rd,
                                  San Antonio, TX 78217

Capitol Aggregates Ltd.           1604 E. Operation, Bexar, Texas- no contact info    Phone   210.655.3010
                                  available

                                  Main No.:
                                  11551 Nacogdoches Rd,
                                  San Antonio, TX 78217

Capitol Aggregates, Ltd.          1604 W. Operation, Bexar, Texas- no contact info    Phone   210.655.3010
                                  available

                                  Main No.:
                                  11551 Nacogdoches Rd,
                                  San Antonio, TX 78217

Gem Materials Inc.                Gem Materials Pit – no contact info available       Phone   210.651.6549
                                  Main No.:
                                  15477 Ih 35 N
                                  Schertz, TX 78154

Oak Island Sand Products          Sand Pit 1 – no contact info available              Phone   210-624-2289
                                  Main No.:
                                  2490 Oak Island Drive
                                  San Antonio, TX
                                  Osburn Pit- no contact info available
Osburn Materials, Inc.                                                                Phone   210.626.2045
                                  Main No.:
                                  24068 Pleasanton Road
                                  San Antonio, TX 78264

Star Sand Co., Inc.               Star Pit & Plant                                    Phone   210.624.2250
                                  Main No.:
                                  23340 State Highway 165
                                  Von Ormy, TX

Wagner Materials & Construction   Wagner Plant – no contact info available            Phone   830.980.3608
                                  Main No.:
                                  30520 Smithson Valley Road
                                  San Antonio, TX

Medina Crushed Stone              16385 Fm 1283                                       Phone   830.931.2101
                                  San Antonio, TX 78253

*Cesares Sand Pit                 3420 W Jett Rd                                      Phone   210.624..2443
                                  San Antonio, TX 78264
       Company Name                        Quarry Name                Phone Numbers

C& K Materials, Inc.      6569 Old Tezel Rd                         Phone   210.684.8369
                          San Antonio, TX 78250

Epsey Silica Sand Co.     US Highway 281 S, San Antonio, TX 78264   Phone   210.922.6171

*Keller Material Inc.     1920 SE Loop 410,                         Phone   210.648.4221
                          San Antonio, TX 78220

*Metro Material           8319 Potranco Rd                          Phone   210.680.1894
                          San Antonio, TX 78251

*Sanchez Material         6155 E US Highway 87                      Phone   210.648.0883
                          San Antonio, TX 78222

*Stella’s Material Yard   8400 Old Pearsall Rd                      Phone   210.622.5210
                          San Antonio, TX 78252
                APPENDIX B

Case Histories of Representative Lining Projects
   Appendix C

Engineering Details
                       DRAWINGS

Map of Mining Locations in the Greater San Antonio, TX area
                                        FIGURES

Figure 1A   Engineered Liner Details
Figure 1B   Alternative Liner Details
Figure 2A   Conceptual Liner Layout Details
Figure 2B   Double Liner Details

								
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