Understanding the Hidden Costs of COTS by rbb85147

VIEWS: 29 PAGES: 54

									- Proper IC Storage
-- Counterfeiting
--- “No Lead” - Fuels the Fire
          November 14, 2007
              John O’Boyle
             QP Semiconductor
              Santa Clara, CA
                 Today’s 3 Topics
• We have a lot to cover but I hope to make it interesting and
  educational, too.
• Proper IC Storage
   – Brief Tutorial
   – Common misconceptions
• Counterfeiting – this is an ongoing                 topic
   – How we got to the present “situation” (IMHO)
   – Examples of Counterfeiting – What to look for!
• Lead (Pb) Free, a caution
   – A questionable journey
• Summary
Proper IC Storage
             Proper IC Storage
• Clearly for long-term programs some
  form of storage should be considered.
  – Long-term storage may present problems –
    practical/physical space, mechanical, financial, and
    counterfeit products.
  – With appropriate care, ICs can be stored at the
    die/wafer level, or as “finished goods” (packaged).
• What do we mean by long-term storage?
  – Commercial: 2 years is very long-term.
  – Military: 20 years and beyond is common.
             Die/wafer Storage
            a.k.a “Die Banking”
• Successful storage methodologies include
  special bagging, environmental controls and
  periodic monitoring.
  – Requires care, cleanliness (particulates and
    gases), and benign temperatures.
     • IDMs do this. But few, if any, distributors do.
  – Controlled atmosphere “dry boxes” (dry nitrogen
    purged storage).
  – Dry bagged/vacuum storage.
  – Oxygen barrier bags designed specifically for
    long-term storage.
     Die/wafer Storage Advantages
• Compact – container
  on the right holds 9
  wafers with gross die
  count of 64,000. (Note
  – Data CD in photo)
• Flexible form factor –
  can build parts in any
  desired package.
         Hermetic Packages

• Minimize moisture intrusion
• 20 year storage is routine
  – Metal TO “can”
  – Ceramic and side-brazed packages
     • DIP, LCC, flat pack, and PGA
• Keep them dry and in environments low in
  sulfur, chlorine, and hydrocarbons to
  preserve solder finish on lead frame.
Hermetic Disadvantages/Advantages

• Cannot change package type.
• Slightly more expensive to store than die
  bank.
• Large storage space required.
• Easy storage infrastructure.
• Long life time storage.
      Common Misconceptions
          about Plastic
• “They” come from the manufacturer in
  sealed packaging and thus don’t need special
  handling/storage.
• “They” are rated as not-moisture sensitive
  and thus are okay.
• “They” are safe to store in a “normal room”
  environment.
                             Plastic Packages
• Plastic is hygroscopic
   – Attracts water molecules
     from the environment.
   – Achieve equilibrium in 4 to
     28 days depending on
     molding compound.
   – Normal room considered
     “wet” for plastic ICs (LAX
     annual average RH: +70%*)
   – Store in “dry bags” or in a                        Source: Plastic Package Moisture-Induced Cracking, April 2006,
                                                                   National Semiconductor Application Note

     <10% RH environment
   * LAX weather station - indoor data over 31 years.
               Wait a Minute!
• “4 days?”
  – That’s for the moisture to reach equilibrium,
    it takes a longer time for damage to occur.
• “Normal room is WET?”
  – Well, when the device is turned on the die
    heats and the moisture is driven out.
  – But you don’t normally store them powered
    up, do you?
      But, Water doesn’t hurt Plastic!
• It’s not the plastic we’re worried about!
   – Water leaches:
       • Materials out of the mold compound
       • Elements in the gases in the environment
       • Other materials deposited on the outside of the package.
   – These corrode and degrade the aluminum pads and wires.
     Which ends in device failure.
• Isn’t plastic “rated” as non-moisture sensitive?
   – Yes. But this is for IC/board assembly. It is a rating for
      re-flow solder heat induced de-lamination and popcorning.
       Contrary to popular belief:
             It is not a rating for long-term storage!
    IC Storage: Good and Bad News
• Good: You can store wafers, die, or packages
  – Wafers or hermetic parts; store in a dry environment.
  – Plastic finished goods require a dry environment
    with periodic monitoring.
  – Having spares essentially eradicates the problem of
    locating EOL/obsolete parts in the future.
• Bad: May be prohibited by regulation (FAR).
  – FAR often limits procurement to one or two years.
  – Systems manufacturers have rarely funded this long-
    term procurement on their “own dollar.”
Storage Options: Summary
             Counterfeiting

• Across All Industries From Auto Parts to
  Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals.
  – Pharmaceuticals: $32 Billion annual loss
     • One pharmaceuticals company uses GPS on armored
       vehicles to track and protect their Pharmaceuticals
       during transport.
  – Ford estimates a $1 Billion loss due to
    counterfeit replacement parts.
• Counterfeiting Poses a Real and Serious
  Threat to Global Public Health and Safety.
       How BIG is the Problem?
• Estimates place 2006 losses due to
  counterfeiting at $650 Billion dollars*!
  – If ranked as National GDP – that would be
    the 18th largest country in the world
  – Just behind Australia at $666 Billion
     • Out of the 227 countries listed in the 2006 CIA
       World Factbook!


                    *Source: Global trade in counterfeit goods is booming
                    January 26, 2007 Business Report & Independent Online
            How did we* get Here?
 • Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) – Partly to
   blame (IMHO)
 • What was the “Original Idea”? (A quick review)
     – It worked pretty well, right?
 • What happened as time passed?
     – Demand shifted
     – NLA appeared on POs
     – “Opportunists” stepped in
 • What’s to be done? (Now that the “COT” is out of
   the bag?)

* The Military and Aerospace Community
               In the Beginning
          (Remember the $5000 hammer?)
• The basic concept was to get state-of-the-art
  devices at significantly lower prices.
• That worked and as manufacturers embraced
  COTS, semiconductor users reported:
   – Significant savings versus “Mil-spec”
   – Much higher performance (basically generation jumps)


• Ok, you so hear a “Yeah, BUT …” Coming?? 
       Well, How About an “Except?”
                                                It’s just
• COTS worked pretty well – “EXCEPT” one little, teeny
  – When OEMs needed “tracking” or “specials” small change
  – When it took a long time to start a program
  – When the customer wanted more systems years later


• So the exceptions created a secondary demand for
  custom/older/hard-to-get parts and created a
  new industry – the one serving the
  DMS/Obsolete Parts Market


And Two Things Happened 
One - Semiconductor Demand Shifted
                                                                            Forecast

               90

               80

               70

               60
     Percent




               50

               40

               30

               20

               10

               0
               1965   1970    1975     1980   1985     1990   1995   2000    2005   2010
                                                 Year


                             Mil/Gov             Corporate             Consumer




                                                     Source 1965-2005:
                 As Time Went On
• The commercial market for ICs exploded –
   – In 1965 almost 80% of semiconductor demand was gov,
     about 20% corp, and consumer was almost immeasurable.
   – By 1995 mil/gov was 10%, corp was 62% and consumer
     was 28% and COTS was entering the “mainstream.”
   – In 2005 mil/gov was 4%, corporate was 44% and consumer
     was 52%!
      • And the IDMs had lost sight of the mil/gov customer.
• And the trend is continuing – by 2010 consumer is
  projected to reach over 60% and mil/gov will be in the
  noise at 1%! [Don’t forget, COTS is in Consumer!]
                                                    NLA

Two – Parts Became “NLA”
• As program life lengthened parts became
  “No Longer Available.”
  – Unanticipated shortages became a very real
    part of the problem and made long-range
    planning a much more important activity.
     • “Unanticipated” because the commercial segment
       (The big “C” in COTS) used a technology and then,
       having used it, moved on (sorry, Omar Khayyam)
     • While mil/gov designed for a longer time horizon
       and expected the parts to be there when ordered.
          What Can We Do???
First, recognize that the divergence between
consumer and mil/gov demand (exacerbated
by the move to COTS) means that shortages
are now a part of life.
Given that, we can 
    1. Store the parts, which we covered
       previously, or if that’s not feasible then:
    2. Develop a future buying plan.
                    Future Buy
            Or - Keynesian Economics at work

• This is tricky – the shortage of obsolete COTS parts
  on one side with high demand on the other has
  created very high prices for the remaining few
  devices.
• And the high prices have given rise to the counterfeit
  market.
   – We have ALL essentially created an opportunity for
     unscrupulous vendors to enter the market by demanding
     the lowest price and /or unreasonable delivery times 
• Which they are happy to say they can accommodate!
          Further Complication
• Many counterfeit products are potentially
  functional in systems, making detection difficult.
• Many times genuine good parts are “salted” into
  the mix of counterfeits.
• IDM’s don’t have the ability to trace back older
  products and even if they did, counterfeiters can
  use valid part marking and lot numbers if they
  copy original examples.
• Government oversight doesn’t have resources to
  interdict, prosecute or incarcerate/fine.
To Illustrate: Which is the real
      Cypress UVPROM?
        Which is Real?
• Couple of facts:
  – Both pass all electrical tests, including temp.
  – The bottom has lower power consumption and
    is slightly faster on some AC tests – equal on
    others – all well within spec.

• Top one is original Cypress part.
• Bottom is a QP Semi, DSCC approved, part.
• Bottom was re-marked as Cypress by third party.
         A Closer Look at Counterfeit ICs
             Example: Counterfeit National LM710


• Not a Shinko “Flat” glass
  header
• No stress relief step @
  lead egress (chipouts)
• Date code H9923 – H is
  correct for Philippine
  assembly but NSC
  EOL’d in 1996, final
  shipments 1997, NOT
  1999!
710 Solder dewetting
                     710s Side-by-Side




                                     Real National LM710 Die
                                     Note, correct product code “D”
Counterfeit LM710 DIE
Does not appear to be National Die
          Example #2: CYPRESS 7CY403




                                    The Correct Logo
                                    For the period
External part marking for Cypress
marked device. Note “suspicious”
LOGO. But it is pretty close.
CYPRESS Inside?               403?




   IDT Die in Cypress   And, it’s the wrong part
   marked package       number!
Example #3: Signetics – LED Driver?
                    Correct part number and the
           CC1368F logo looks okay. - WHAT’S
           CCF9622C WRONG? Look again!
                      In 1996 there was no Signetics,
                      it was Phillips!




                                      And the die
                                      shows ST!
                                      Date 1989!
                  Counterfeit and Original
                       As indicated earlier – Philips!




Note: the correct date reference
         More on the Signetics Part
                       What it should have been

  What we received




Very high density,   You can see the transistors.
without measuring    Probably 3.0 m and correct
Probably 0.65 m.    layout and devices for the vintage.
Lead (Pb) Free
– a good idea?
      Lead (Pb) free – CAUTION
• Watch out for unleaded parts being sold as having
  Pb solder coatings – will have tin whisker
  problems, especially in space.
   – And vice versa
• Also be aware that as Pb free promulgates the
  market, many Pb parts will become hard to get.
   – Counterfeiters will likely have offerings here, too.
   – It is possible to re-plate but yields will be affected.
            Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck   66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
           Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck   66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
“Installed Auto Base”   About 600,000,000 – worldwide
           Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck              66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
“Installed Auto Base”              About 600,000,000 – worldwide
Replacements (5 yr average life)   600/5 = 120,000,000/yr
           Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck              66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
“Installed Auto Base”              About 600,000,000 – worldwide
Replacements (5 yr average life)   600/5 = 120,000,000 / yr
New plus replacements              (66.5 + 120) = 186,500,000 / yr
           Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck              66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
“Installed Auto Base”              About 600,000,000 – worldwide
Replacements (5 yr average life)   600/5 = 120,000,000 / yr
New plus replacements              (66.5 + 120) = 186,500,000 / yr
Or monthly total car batteries     (186.5 / 12) = 15,500,000 / mo
           Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck              66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
“Installed Auto Base”              About 600,000,000 – worldwide
Replacements (5 yr average life)   600/5 = 120,000,000 / yr
New plus replacements              (66.5 + 120) = 186,500,000 / yr
Or monthly total car batteries     (186.5 / 12) = 15,500,000 / mo
TI – Car battery “equivalents”     100 / mo (from illustration)
           Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck              66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
“Installed Auto Base”              About 600,000,000 – worldwide
Replacements (5 yr average life)   600/5 = 120,000,000 / yr
New plus replacements              (66.5 + 120) = 186,500,000 / yr
Or monthly total car batteries     (186.5 / 12) = 15,500,000 / mo
TI – Car battery “equivalents”     100 / mo (from illustration)
TI is about 5.7% Semi total        1750 / mo for entire industry
           Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck              66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
“Installed Auto Base”              About 600,000,000 – worldwide
Replacements (5 yr average life)   600/5 = 120,000,000 / yr
New plus replacements              (66.5 + 120) = 186,500,000 / yr
Or monthly total car batteries     (186.5 / 12) = 15,500,000 / mo
TI – Car battery “equivalents”     100 / mo (from illustration)
TI is about 5.7% Semi total        1750 / mo for entire industry
“Equivalents” / total batteries    0.0113 % (1750/15,500,000)
           Some Simple Battery Math
’05 car & light truck              66,500,000 / yr – worldwide
“Installed Auto Base”              About 600,000,000 – worldwide
Replacements (5 yr average life)   600/5 = 120,000,000 / yr
New plus replacements              (66.5 + 120) = 186,500,000 / yr
Or monthly total car batteries     (186.5 / 12) = 15,500,000 / mo
TI – Car battery “equivalents”     100 / mo (from illustration)
TI is about 5.7% Semi total        1750 / mo for entire industry
“Equivalents” / total batteries    0.0113 % (1750/15,500,000)
Boats (2+ batteries ea), planes,   Lowers further to about:
industrial, trucks/busses, etc.    0.008%
 In Other words: Of all the Pb consumed annually just in batteries,
                Semiconductors represent 0.008%
              Said Another Way



DC to SF = 2419 air mi x 0.008%        That’s about
  [less than 50% of the yellow line]    the first 1000
                                       feet of the
                                        journey!
                   Summary
• Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning
  and care are required, especially for plastic.
  – Wafer/die banking is best.
                   Summary
• Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning
  and care are required, especially for plastic.
  – Wafer/die banking is best.
• Counterfeiters are getting more bold across
  industries.
                   Summary
• Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning
  and care are required, especially for plastic.
  – Wafer/die banking is best.
• Counterfeiters are getting more bold across
  industries.
• The Buyer is the Key Link in the chain!
  • The IDMs have approved channels – use them!
                   Summary
• Storage is a reasonable solution – but planning
  and care are required, especially for plastic.
  – Wafer/die banking is best.
• Counterfeiters are getting more bold across
  industries.
• The Buyer is the Key Link in the chain!
  • The IDMs have approved channels – use them!
• For DMSMS watch out for false Certs on Pb-
  free.
             Thank you
                  QP Semiconductor
Military, Aerospace, and High Reliability IC Manufacturer
Currently Supporting over 3,100 DSCC Listed Products


                  John O’Boyle
          New Business Development Director
               QP Semiconductor, Inc.
            2945 Oakmead Village Court
             Santa Clara, CA 95051 USA

                  408-737-0992 x 145
                   408-736-8708 fax

								
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