Universal Design, Universal Access

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					Universal Design,
Universal Access

      Framing the Conversation

                    Todd K. Herriott
                       Simmons College
An Overview…

   Demographic Changes in Campus
    Populations
   Access and The Law
       Federal Legislation
           Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
           ADA of 1990
           Telecommunications Act of 1996
           Section 508 amendment of 1998
       Recent Court Cases
An Overview, continued…
   Introduce Universal Design (UD)
   Assistive Technology
   On-line Learning
   Web Accessibility
   Campus Computing
   Assessing Your Own Campus – the UD
    Process
   Setting Goals and Establishing Initiatives
   Q&A
Changing Demographics
   Current US statistics indicate that nearly 11.3% of
    all students enrolled at colleges and universities
    within the US have a disability. That is
    approximately 2.2 million students. (NPSAS, National Post-
    Secondary Student Aid Study, 2004)
   Since 1972, the number of students enrolled in US
    colleges with disabilities has increased by nearly
    600%, a faster rate than any other minority-status
    population.
   National projections indicate that by 2010
    approximately 14.8% of undergraduates and 10.1%
    of graduates in the US will qualify as having a
    disability
Frequently Seen Diagnoses
   Physical Disabilities
   Health or Systemic Disorders
   Sensory Disabilities
   Psychiatric Disabilities
   Traumatic Brain Injury
   Learning Disabilities
   ADD/ADHD
   Pervasive Developmental
    Disabilities/Asperger’s
Challenges
   Wide range of disabilities, each with unique challenges
   Apparent disabilities often result in others automatically
    assuming what a person can or can’t do
   Non-apparent disabilities often mean that a person has to
    ―prove‖ that they need assistance
   Most commonly, people with disabilities are faced with
    stereotypes and ignorance
   On average, students with disabilities are 9 times LESS likely
    to engage in extracurricular activities, including work related or
    resume building activities
   Technology needs vary greatly yet more than 90% of students
    with disabilities could benefit from increased access to
    technology
Access and the Law

   Section 504
       Provided first language explicitly prohibiting
        discrimination against persons with disabilities:
           ―No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in
            the United States... shall, solely by reason of her or his
            handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied
            the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under
            any program or activity receiving Federal financial
            assistance or under any program or activity conducted
            by any Executive agency or by the United States
            Postal Service....‖ —29 U.S.C. § 794(a) (1973).
Access and the Law, cont.

   Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
       First comprehensive civil rights legislation
        passed to protect persons with disabilities
       Title I – Employment
       Title II – State and Local Governments
       Title III – Public Accommodation
       Title IV – Telecommunications
       Title V – Miscellaneous
Access and the Law, cont.

   Telecommunications Act of 1996
       First overhaul of American Telecommunications
        in 62 years
       Section 255 of the Act requires all
        manufacturers of telecommunications equipment
        and providers of telecommunications services to
        ensure that such equipment and services are
        designed and developed to be accessible to and
        usable by individuals with disabilities, if readily
        achievable.
Access and the Law, cont.
   Section 508 amendment of 1998
       ―Section 508 is a Federal civil rights
        procurement law that requires electronic and
        information technology to be accessible to
        people with disabilities, including Federal
        employees and members of the public
        accessing government information and services.
        Federal agencies are prohibited, with limited
        exceptions, from developing, purchasing, using
        or maintaining electronic and information
        technology that are inaccessible to people with
        disabilities.‖ - Cynthia D. Waddell, J.D.
Access and the Law, cont.
   508 continued…
       Original application was seen only within the realm of
        Federal agencies
       Section 508 has been adopted by a number of States
        through State Statute, State Executive Orders/Policies or
        adopted by higher education institutions.
       For example, the State of California amended existing
        Government Code 11135 to incorporate Section 508. The
        result is that all higher education institutions in the State of
        California must procure accessible electronic and
        information technology and services if they receive any
        State funding.
Access and the Law, cont.

   Recent court cases
       OCR letter to CSU, Long Beach, 1999
       OCR letter to NC State University 2000-
        Equivalent Access to Campus Computing
        and Library Materials
       US Dept. of Justice vs. LSAC, 2002
       Jeffrey La Marca v. Capella University,
        2005
Universal Design…

   What is it?
       ―Universal Design is a framework for the
        design of places, things, information,
        communication and policy to be usable
        by the widest range of people operating
        in the widest range of situations without
        special or separate design. Most simply,
        Universal Design is human-centered
        design of everything with everyone in
        mind.‖ – Adaptive Environments, 2006
Universal Design, cont.
   Universal vs. Accessible Design
       Universal Design is different than accessible
        design. Accessible design means products and buildings
        that are accessible and usable by people with disabilities.
        Universal design means products and buildings that are
        accessible and usable by everyone--older people as well
        as young, women as well as men, left handed persons as
        well as right handed persons.
       Accessible design has a tendency to lead to separate
        facilities—for example, a ramp set off to the side of a
        stairway at an entrance or a wheelchair accessible toilet
        stall. Universal design, on the other hand, provides one
        solution that can accommodate all people.
Universal Design, cont.
   Where did it start?
       The Principles of Universal Design were
        authored through the initiatives of the Center for
        Universal Design at North Carolina State
        University and funded through a grant by the
        National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation
        Research.
       Ron Mace, coined the term in the 1970s. In
        1989, Mace established the federally-funded
        Center for Accessible Housing, currently known
        as the Center for Universal Design, at the NC
        State University College of Design.
UD in Architecture
   Original application was to physical
    environments with the goal of creating the
    widest usability possible
   Automatic door openers, multiple height
    service counters, curb cuts, etc.
   Led to the first building code for accessibility
    in the nation (North Carolina in 1973) and
    was instrumental in the passage of the Fair
    Housing Amendment Act of 1988 and the
    Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
UD in Instruction
   By the mid 1990’s educators began to look at not
    just the physical environment but also the
    instructional design to better address access
   Inspired by the concept put forth in Brown vs. Board
    of Education which clearly found that ―separate but
    equal is inherently unequal‖.
   Sought to reach out to as many learners as
    possible without attempting to simply
    ―accommodate‖ those learners with disabilities.
   Called for multi-modal teaching styles as well as a
    reassessment of the specific goals of instruction
UD in Technology
   Amazing growth in technology over the last 15
    years has meant new opportunities and challenges,
    especially in education
   The vast amount of information available via the
    web and through media sources has required that
    we reconsider how information is provided and the
    range of needs of the audience of that information
   Assistive technology application has increased
    dramatically on campuses over the last 10 years
   UD applied to technology requires a rethinking of
    the hardware, software, physical environment and
    the content involved.
Assistive Technology

   Compatibility with current
    hardware/software on campus
   Network deployment when possible
   Appropriate peripherals available to
    users
   Technology staff members trained in
    basic use and support
On-line Learning

   Know the limitations of the software (if using
    a LMS such as WebCT Vista or Black Board
   Develop adaptable templates that minimize
    common complaints
   Test on multiple platforms to determine
    performance
   Minimize use of ―new technology for
    technology’s sake‖
Web Accessibility
   Bobby and CAST testing of sites
   Ensure all ―essential‖ areas of your campus
    web site are as widely accessible as
    possible
   Appropriate uses of technology (Java,
    Flash, multimedia files, etc.)
   W3C Checkpoints and guidelines found at:
    http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG10/checkpoint-
    list.html
Campus Computing

   Built in accessibility features of your
    operating systems
   Ensure availability of assistive
    hardware such as earphones, track-
    ball mice, large monitors, etc.
   Ensure workstation environment is
    easily adaptable to multiple users
Universal Design Process
   Identify the application. Specify the product or
    environment (i.e., the service, course, website, or
    other application) to which you wish to apply
    universal design.
   Define the universe. Describe the overall population
    – e.g., students in a course or users of a technology
    – and then the diverse characteristics of potential
    members of the population for which the application
    is described (e.g., with respect to gender; age; size;
    ethnicity/race; native language; and abilities to see,
    hear, move and manipulate objects, and learn.)
Universal Design Process

   Involve consumers. Determine how to
    include people with disabilities and other
    diverse characteristics in development and
    implementation of the application.
   Adopt UD guidelines/standards/performance
    indicators. Create or select existing UD
    guidelines/standards. Integrate UD practices
    with other best practices within the field of
    the specific application.
Universal Design Process
   Apply UD guidelines/standards/performance
    indicators. Apply universal design along with
    design standards of good practice within the
    field to the overall design of the application,
    subcomponents of the application, and
    maintenance and procurement processes.
   Plan for accommodations. Develop
    processes to address accommodation
    requests (e.g., purchase of assistive
    technology, arrangement for sign language
    interpreters) from individuals for whom the
    design does not automatically provide
    access.
Universal Design Process

   Train and support. Tailor and deliver training
    and support to stakeholders (e.g.,
    instructors, computer support staff,
    procurement offices, administrators).
   Evaluate. Include universal design
    measures in the evaluation of the
    application, evaluate the application with a
    diverse group of users, and make
    modifications based on their feedback
Q&A

   Challenges on your campus?
   Current initiatives?
   Comments?
   Concerns?
References
   The Principles of Universal Design‚ Version 2.0 (1997) by North Carolina State
    University (as cited in Preiser & Ostroff ‚ 2001)
   Center for Universal Design (US) Home of the Principles of Universal Design,
    Exemplars of Universal Design, universal design history, the Design File, Center for
    Universal Design Newsline, publications, and more.
    http://www.design.ncsu.edu/
   CAST (US) Home of Bobby, the web accessibility analysis tool, Universal Design in
    Learning and the National Center On Accessing the General Curriculum, and eProducts.
    http://www.cast.org
   DO-IT: Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology,
    http://www.washington.edu/doit/
   Adaptive Environments Center (US) Home of the South Boston Waterfront Project,
    Designing for the 21st Century Conference, Access to Public Schools, New England ADA
    Technical Assistance Center, universal design education and consulting, Access to
    Design Professions, publications and more. http://www.adaptenv.org
   Accessible Electronic & Information Technology: Legal Obligations of Higher
    Education and Section 508, Cynthia D. Waddell, J.D., 1999, http://athenpro.org/node/54
Contact Information…

             Todd K. Herriott
Director of The Center for Academic Achievement
              ADA Compliance Officer
                 Simmons College
                 300 The Fenway
                Boston, MA 02115
            todd.herriott@simmons.edu