Personal_ Social and Emotional D by pengtt


									3.9 The Areas of Learning and Development
Personal, Social and Emotional

Development Requirements

Practitioners must provide experiences and support to enable children to develop a positive
sense of themselves and of others. They must support children‟s emotional well-being, helping
them to know themselves and what they can do. They must also help children to develop
respect for others, social skills and a positive disposition to learn.

What Personal, Social and Emotional Development means for children
Successful Personal, Social and Emotional Development is critical for very young children in all
aspects of their lives, and gives them the best opportunity for success in all other areas of
learning and development.

For young children, being special to someone and cared for is vital for their physical, social and
emotional health and well-being. The respect, care, love and emotional support experienced by
young children helps them to develop emotional safety, trust and a positive self-image. Being
acknowledged and affirmed by important people in their lives leads to secure attachments and
to children gaining confidence and inner strength. Exploration within close relationships leads
to the growth of self-assurance, promoting a sense of belonging which allows the young child
to explore the world from a secure base.

Young children need adults to be positive role models and to give them lots of opportunities for
interaction with others so that they can develop positive ideas about themselves and others.
They can express feelings such as joy, sadness, frustration and fear, leading to the
development of strategies to cope with new, challenging or stressful situations.

How settings can effectively implement this Area of Learning and Development
To give all children the best opportunities for Personal, Social and Emotional
Development, practitioners should give particular attention to:

  understanding attachment and its importance to children, who need warm, caring
       relationships with a small number of people;

  making sure that each child has a key person within the setting;
  establishing constructive relationships with children, with other practitioners, between
       practitioners and children, with parents and with workers from other agencies, that take
       account of differences and different needs and expectations;

  finding opportunities to give positive encouragement to children, with practitioners
       acting as positive role models;

  planning opportunities for children to work alone and in small and large groups;
  ensuring that there is time and space for children to focus on activities and
       experiences and develop their own interests;

  planning activities that promote emotional, moral, spiritual and social development
       alongside intellectual development;

  planning experiences that help children to develop autonomy and the disposition to learn;
  providing positive images in, for example, books and displays that challenge children‟s
       thinking and help them to embrace differences in gender, ethnicity, religion, special
       educational needs and disabilities;

  providing opportunities for play and learning that acknowledge children‟s particular
       religious beliefs and cultural backgrounds;

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 planning for the development of independence skills, particularly for children who are highly
    dependent upon adult support for personal care;

 providing support and a structured approach to achieve the successful Personal, Social and
    Emotional development of vulnerable children and those with particular behavioural or
    communication difficulties.

Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                        Dispositions and Attitudes: Dispositions and Attitudes

                  Development matters                            Look, listen and note                         Effective practice                              Planning and resourcing

                      Develop an understanding and                 How young babies begin to explore            Say or sing made-up rhymes or songs            Devote uninterrupted time to babies
                       awareness of themselves.                      their own movements and the                   whilst stroking or pointing to the baby‟s       when you can play with them. Be
                      Learn that they have influence on and         environment in individual ways.               hands, feet or cheeks.                          attentive and fully focused.
                       are influenced by others.                    How babies respond to other adults           Respond to and build on babies‟
                                                                     and children.                                 expressions, actions, and gestures.
                                                                                                                  Find out what the baby likes from its

                      Become aware of themselves as                Strategies babies use to indicate likes      Playfully help babies to recognise that        Place mirrors where babies can see
                       separate from others.                         and dislikes.                                 they are separate and different from            their own reflection. Talk to them
                      Discover more about what they like           How babies show confidence in                 others, for example pointing to own             about what they see.
                       and dislike.                                  exploring what they can do.                   and baby‟s nose, eyes, fingers.                Provide choices of different
                      Have a strong exploratory impulse.           How babies play with their own feet,         Give opportunities for babies to have           vegetables and fruit at snack time.
                                                                     finger‟s and toys placed near them            choice, where possible.                        Allow enough space for babies to
                                                                                                                  Follow young babies‟ lead as they               move, roll, stretch and explore.
                                                                                                                   explore their environment, people and

                      Learn that they are special through the      Instances of young children                  Ensure that each child is recognised           Collect stories for, and make books
                       responses of adults to individual             celebrating                                   as a valuable contributor to the group          about, children in the group, showing
                       differences and similarities.                 their special skills or qualities.            and celebrate cultural, religious and           things they like to do.
                                                                                                                   ethnic experiences.

                      Show their particular characteristics,       Any patterns in what children choose         Recognise that children‟s interests            Discuss with staff/parents how each
                       preferences and interests.                    to do or not to do.                           may last for short or long periods, and         child responds to
                      Begin to develop self-confidence and         The decisions which children begin to         that their interests and preferences            activities/adults/peers, and build on
                       a belief in themselves.                       make.                                         vary.                                           this to plan future activities and
                                                                                                                  Value and support the decisions that            experiences for each child.
                                                                                                                   children make. Encourage them when             Children differ in their degree of
                                                                                                                   they try new things.                            self- assurance, so plan to convey to
                                                                                                                                                                  child that you appreciate them and
                                                                                                                                                                   their efforts.
                                                                                                                                                                  Consult with parents about how
                                                                                                                                                                   confident children are in different

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                  Dispositions and Attitudes: Dispositions and Attitudes

            Development matters                            Look, listen and note                         Effective practice                               Planning and resourcing

               Seek and delight in new experiences.          Children‟s curiosity and drive to            Interact with children in support of their      Vary activities so that children are
               Have a positive approach to                    explorethings around them.                    interests and give them scope to learn           introduced to different materials, for
                activitiesand events.                         Ways in which children develop their          from many things, including                      example, use a mixture of glue and
               Show confidence in linking up                  own ideas through their                       theirmistakes.                                   water instead of water alone,
                withothers for support and guidance.           interactionswith others.                     Encourage children to see adults as a            toinvestigate flow.
               Show increasing independence                                                                 resource and as partners in                     Plan activities that require
                inselecting and carrying out activities.                                                     theirlearning.                                   collaboration.
                                                                                                            Teach children to use and care for              Make materials easily accessible to all
                                                                                                             materials, and then trust them to do             children.

               Display high levels of involvement            The activities which absorb andinterest      Give children opportunities tocomplete          Give time for children to pursue their
                inactivities.                                  individual children.                          activities to their satisfaction.                learning without interruption and
               Persist for extended periods of time          Reactions to new activities and              Encourage children to explore and talk           toreturn to activities.
                atan activity of their choosing.               experiences, understanding that for           about what they are learning,                   Provide experiences, activities and
               Continue to be interested, excited             some children such experiences                valuingtheir ideas and ways of doing             materials that are challenging
 Early          and motivated to learn.                        canbe both exciting and worrying.             things.                                          butachievable.
 learning      Be confident to try new activities,           Children‟s attentiveness to others. A        Explain why it is important to pay              Plan regular short periods when
 goals          initiate ideas and speak in a                  group of children was being visited by        attention when others are speaking,              individuals listen to others, such as
                familiargroup.                                 an elderly neighbour of the setting.          and give children opportunities to               singing a short song, sharing an
               Maintain attention, concentrate, and           She had been invited to join the group,       bothspeak and listen.                            experience or describing
                sit quietly when appropriate.                  show her lace and demonstrate how                                                              somethingthey have seen or done.
                                                               lace is made. The children gathered
                                                               round and sat quietly while she
                                                               toldthem all about it.

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                                              Dispositions and Attitudes: Self-care

                  Development matters                            Look, listen and note                         Effective practice                            Planning and resourcing
                      Anticipate food routines with interest.      Young babies‟ hunger patterns and            Encourage the young baby to                  Plan feeding times which take
                                                                     responses to their food.                      gradually share control of food and           account of the individual cultural and
                                                                                                                   drink. This provides opportunities for        feeding needs of young babies in your
                                                                                                                   sensory learning and increased                group.
                                                                                                                   independence.                                Find out from parents their views on
                                                                                                                                                                 feeding and weaning.
                      Begin to indicate own needs, for             How babies show what they want.              Talk to parents about how their baby         Keep toys and comforters in areas
                       example, by pointing.                                                                       communicates needs.                           that are easy for babies to locate.
                      Show a desire to help with dress             The efforts young children make to           Praise effort such as when a young           Ensure that there is time for young
                       routines.                                     take off their own clothes.                   child offers their arm to put in a coat       children to complete a self-chosen
                                                                                                                   sleeve.                                       task, such as trying to put on their
                                                                                                                                                                 own shoes.
                      Seek to do things for themselves,            Examples of independence, for                Support children‟s growing                   Plan to allow children to pour their
                       knowing that the adult is close by,           example, a child playing happily with         independence as they do things for            own drinks, serve their own food,
                       ready to support and help if needed.          building blocks, or putting their cup         themselves, like pulling up their pants       choose a story, hold a puppet or
                       Become more aware that choices                back on a table.                              after using the toilet.                       water a plant.
                       have consequences.                           What children do when presented with         Talk to children about choices they          Choose some stories that highlight
                                                                     several options.                              have made, and help them understand           the consequences of choices.
                                                                                                                   that this may mean that they cannot do
                                                                                                                   something else.
                      Show willingness to tackle problems          Ways in which children carry out             Give children time to try before             Plan opportunities for children to take
                       and enjoy self-chosen challenges.             activities independently.                     intervening to support and guide them.        the initiative in their learning.
                      Demonstrate a sense of pride in own          Instances of children celebrating their      Create an atmosphere where                   Provide means for children to keep
                       achievement.                                  achievements.                                 achievement is valued.                        track of, and share their
                      Take initiatives and manage                  How children use their own ideas to          Encourage children to solve problems,         achievements.
                       developmentally appropriate tasks .           develop play, peel a banana or put            and support them by clarifying the           Build on children‟s ideas to plan new
                                                                     away their toys.                              problem with them.                            experiences that present challenge.

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                                    Dispositions and Attitudes: Self-care

                 Development matters                                          Look, listen and note                   Effective practice                       Planning and resourcing
                 Operate independently within the environment and            How children set about a               Give children opportunities to be       Provide opportunities for self-
                  show confidence in linking up with others for support        chosen activity or task, and the        responsible for setting up, and          chosen activities, and for
                  andguidance.                                                 success theyachieve.                    clearingaway, some activities.           choices within adult-initiated
 Early           Dress and undress independently and manage                                                          Praise children‟s efforts to             activities.
 learning         their own personalhygiene.                                                                           manage their personal needs,
 goals           Select and use activities andresources                                                               and to use andreturn resources
                  independently.                                                                                       appropriately.

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                                          Social Development: Making Relationships

                  Development matters                                Look, listen and note                        Effective practice                           Planning and resourcing
                          Are sociable from birth.                      The sounds and facial expressions           Ensure that the key person hands a          Repeat greetings at the start and
                          Crave close attachments with a                 young babies make in response to             young baby directly to the parent at         end of each session, so that young
                           person within their setting special            affectionate attention from their            the beginning and end of each day.           babies recognise and become
                          Enjoy and learn by imitating others.           parent or key person.                       Engage in playful interactions that          familiar with hese daily rituals.
                                                                         The situations in which young                encourage young babies to respond           Plan to have „conversations‟ with
                                                                          babiesespond to, or mimic, their key         to, imitate, or mimic adults.                young babies.
                                                                          person‟s facial expressions or
                          Seek to gain attention in a variety of        The skills that babies use to make          Follow the baby‟s lead by repeating         At times of transition (such as shift
                           ways.                                          contact, such as making eye contact          vocalisations, mirroring movements           changes) make sure staff greet and
                          Use their developing physical skills to        inclining their heads, wiggling their        and showing the baby that you                say goodbye to babies and their
                           make social contact.                           toes, smiling, vocalising or banging.        are„listening‟ fully.                        carers.This helps to develop secure
                                                                                                                                                                    and trusting three-way relationships.
                          Strive for responses from others,             How children look to others to check        Give your full attention when young         Plan to evaluate your practices in
                           which confirm, contribute to, or               the acceptability of their actions.          children look to you for a response.         the way you respond to children.
                           challenge their understanding of              The different ways in which young           Help young children to label                Choose books and stories in which
                           themselves.                                    children show their concern for other        emotions such as sadness, or                 characters show empathy for others
                          Can be caring towards each other.              children.                                    happiness, by talking to them about
                                                                                                                       their own and others‟ feelings.
                          Learn social skills, and enjoy being          The strategies that children use to         Ensure that children have                   Create areas in which to sit and chat
                           with and talking to adults and other           joinn with individuals or groups of          opportunities o join in. Help them to        with friends, for example, an outdoor
                           children.                                      children.                                    recognise t and understand the rules         den.
                          Seek out others to share                                                                    for being together with others.
                          Feel safe and secure and                      Ways in which children show that            Establish routines with predictable         Provide stability in staffing and in
                           demonstrate a sense of trust.                  they eel safe and cared for.                 sequences and events.                        grouping of the children.
                          Form friendships with other children.         Children who like to be together, and       Encourage children to choose to play        Provide time, space and materials
                          Demonstrate flexibility and adapt              those who need support to join in.           with a variety of friends, so that           for children to collaborate with one
                           their behaviour to different events,          How children deal with change.               everybody in the group experiences           another in different ways, for
                           social situations and changes in                                                            being included.                              example, building constructions.
                           routine.                                                                                   Prepare children for changes that           Provide a role-play area resourced
                                                                                                                       may occur in the routine.                    with materials reflecting their family
                                                                                                                                                                    lives and communities.

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                          Social Development: Making Relationships

           Development matters                     Look, listen and note                          Effective practice                           Planning and resourcing

              Value and contribute to own well-      Ways children recognise they may              Support children in linking openly and      Provide activities that involve
               beingand self-control.                  need to rest, wait for something, or put       confidently with others, for example,        turn-taking and sharing.
                                                       on waterproof clothing for going out           toseek help or check information.           Involve children in agreeing codes
 Early        Form good relationships with            inthe rain.                                   Ensure that children and adults make         ofbehaviour and taking responsibility
 earning       adultsand peers.                       Children‟s understanding of                    opportunities to listen to each              forimplementing them.
 goals        Work as part of a group or class,       agreedvalues and codes.                        otherand explain their actions.
               taking turns and sharing fairly,
               understanding that there needs to
               be agreed values and codes of
               behaviour for groups of people,
               including adults and children,
               towork together harmoniously.

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                                         Social Development: Sense of Community

                  Development matters                             Look, listen and note                        Effective practice                            Planning and resourcing
                      Respond to differences in their               How young babies show their                 Talk to babies about the different           Provide a variety of cosy places with
                       environment, for example,                      pleasureor interest in different             places they experience, such as the           open views for babies to see people
                       showingexcitement or interest.                 situations.                                  garden, veranda or the window.                and things beyond the baby room.

                      Learn that their voice and actions            Babies‟ responses when they know            Respond to what babies show you              Plan opportunities for talking together
                       haveeffects on others.                         you have „heard‟ them, and the               they‟re interested in and want to do,         in quiet places both indoors and
                                                                      personal signs, words or gestures they       byproviding activities, stories and           outdoors.
                                                                      use to communicate.                          games.
                                                                                                                  Invite parents to share food and
                                                                                                                   customs from their own
                                                                                                                   cultures,including English cultures.
                      Learn that they have similarities and         Young children‟s interests in               Help children to learn others‟ names         Display pictures of groups of young
                       differences that connect them to,              similarities and differences, for            through songs and rhymes, for                 children showing what they look like
                       nddistinguish them from, others.               example, theirfootwear or patterns on        example.                                      and the things they like to do, or eat,
                                                                      their clothes.                                                                             or play with.
                      Show a strong sense of self as a              Children‟s friendships and                  Talk to children about their friends,        Share photographs of their
                       member of different communities,               theattachments they make with adults.        theirfamilies, and why they are               families,friends, pets or favourite
                       suchas their family or setting.                                                             important.                                    people.

                      Make connections between                      Instances of children drawing               Develop positive relationships               Provide activities and opportunities for
                       differentparts of their life experience.       upontheir experiences beyond the             withparents.                                  children to share experiences and
                                                                      setting.                                    Anticipate the best from each child,and       knowledge from different parts of
                                                                                                                   be alert for their strengths.                 theirlives with each other.

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                                 Social Development: Sense of Community

                Development matters                         Look, listen and note                          Effective practice                              Planning and resourcing

                Have an awareness of, and an               Children‟s interest in cultural               Strengthen the positive impressions            Give children opportunities to be
                 interestin, cultural and religious          differences, for example: Harry looks          children have of their own cultures and         curious, enthusiastic, engaged and
                 differences.                                at the „weaving loom‟ created from             faiths, and those of others, by sharing         tranquil, so developing a sense
                Have a positive self-image, and show        wire netting on the garden fence. He           and celebrating a range of                      ofinner-self and peace.
                 that they are comfortable                   asks the practitioner how to do it, who        practicesand special events.                   Ensure that all children are given
                 withthemselves.                             says, “Why don‟t you ask Shamimara?           Encourage children to talk with each            support to participate in
 Early          Understand that people have                 She wove the streamers in the netting.         other about similarities and differences        discussionsand to be listened to.
 learning        different needs, views, cultures and        She can show you”. Later Harry and             in their experiences, and the reasons
 goals           beliefs that need to be treated             Shamimara look at books showing                for these.
                 withrespect.                                people weaving in various different
                Understand that they can expect             countries.
                 others to treat their needs,               Children‟s understanding of various
                 views,cultures and beliefs with             beliefs and customs, for example:
                 respect.                                    Bulent‟s brother had got married and
                                                             he was showing photographs to a
                                                             group of children. They talked about
                                                             why the bride had money pinned to
                                                             her dress and, with the practitioner,
                                                             talked about the different customsthey
                                                             had experienced at weddings.

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                        Emotional Development: Self-confidence and self-esteem

                       Development matters                            Look, listen and note                        Effective practice                             Planning and resourcing
                       Seek to be looked at, approved of.            How young babies respond to                 Recognise that young babies will find         Provide a sofa or comfy chair in the
                       Find comfort in touch and in the               attention, such as whether they              comfort from „snuggling in‟ with               room so that parents, practitioners
                        human face.                                    makeeye contact or vocalise.                 avariety of objects and people.                and young babies can sit together.
                       Thrive when their emotional needs             Young babies‟ body language                 Talk to a young baby when you cannot          Have special toys for babies to hold
                        aremet.                                        whentheir needs have been met.               give them your direct attention so that        while you are preparing their food, or
                       Gain physical, psychological and              The circumstances when a baby will           they are aware of your interest                gathering materials for a
                        emotional comfort from „snuggling in‟.         play by itself when people are               andyour presence nearby.                       nappychange.
                       Feel safe and loved even when                  nearbyto watch over it.                     Tell a young baby what you think they         Plan to have times when babies and
                        theyare not the centre of adult               The people babies like to be with.           like about another person, for                 older siblings or friends can be
                        attention.                                                                                  example: “Here is your brother, Matty,         together.
                       Enjoy the company of others.                                                                you like him because he tickles
                                                                                                                    you,don‟t you?”
                       Feel safe and secure within                   The sounds and facial expressions           Establish shared understandings               Have resources including picture
                        healthyrelationships with key people.          that show feelings such as                   between home and setting about                 books and stories that focus on a
                       Sustain healthy emotional attachments          pleasure,excitement, frustration or          waysof responding to babies‟                   range of emotions.
                        through familiar, trusting, safe               anger.                                       emotions.
                        andsecure relationships.
                       Express their feelings within
                        warm,mutual, affirmative relationships.
                       Make choices that can involve real            How individuals undertake self-chosen       Be aware of and alert to possible             Consider ways in which you provide
                        challenge when adults ensure their             tasks such as climbing onto a big            dangers, whilst recognising the                for children with disabilities to make
                        safety.                                        chairand turning to sit down.                importance of encouraging young                choices, and express
                       Explore from the security of a close          How children grow in confidence              children‟s sense of exploration                preferencesabout their carers and
                        relationship with a caring                     asthey adapt to the setting.                 andmastery.                                    activities.
                        andresponsive adult.                                                                       Involve all children in welcoming             Display photographs of carers, so that
                                                                                                                    andcaring for one another.                     when young children arrive, their
                                                                                                                                                                   parents can show them who will
                                                                                                                                                                   bethere to take care of them.

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                            Emotional Development: Self-confidence and self-esteem

           Development matters                       Look, listen and note                      Effective practice                           Planning and resourcing
              Begin to be assertive and self-          How children express their                Describe what different children tried      Record individual achievements which
               assured when others have                  confidence and sense of self-              to do, or achieved, emphasising              reflect significant progress for every child;
               realisticexpectations of their            assurance, by showing that they            thateffort is worthwhile.                    one may have stepped on the slide;
               competence.                               value what they andothers do.             Support children‟s symbolic play,            another may be starting to playreadily with
              Begin to recognise danger and            How children show their enthusiasm         recognising that pretending to do            others.
               knowwho to turn to for help.              for things they like, or their             something can help a child to               Seek and exchange information with
                                                         anxietyabout things that concern           express their feelings.                      parents about young children‟s concerns,
                                                         them.                                                                                   so that they can bereassured if they feel
              Show increasing confidence in new        Instances of children‟s confidence        Ensure that key practitioners offer         Plan extra time for helping children in
               situations.                               andhow they express their needs.           extra support to children in new             transition, such as when they move from
              Talk freely about their home and         Children‟s readiness to talk about         situations.                                  one setting to another or between different
               community.                                their homes and communities, for          Create positive relationships with           groups in thesame setting.
                                                         example, Mustafa says, “It's Eid           parents. Listen to them and offer           Provide role-play areas with a variety of
                                                         tomorrow so Iam staying at home for        theminformation and support.                 resources reflecting diversity.
                                                         a big party.”                             Encourage children to talk about their
                                                                                                    own home and community life, and to
                                                                                                    find out about other children‟s
              Have a sense of self as a member of      Ways in which children demonstrate        Invite people to talk about aspects of      Make a display with the children, showing
               different communities.                    that they belong in communities,           their lives or the things they do in         all the people who make upthe „community‟
              Express needs and feelings                such as Will who tells a visitor the       their work, such as a volunteer who          of the setting.
               inappropriate ways.                       way to the office and adds “I‟m in         helps people become familiar with           Plan circle times when children can have
                                                         Yellow classand this is my school.”        the local area.                              an opportunity to talk about their feelings
                                                        The different ways children find to       Support children‟s growing ability to        and support them by providing props, such
                                                         express their feelings,such as when        express a wide range of feelings             as a sad puppet, that can be used to show
                                                         Sam said “Me and Zoe are going to          orallyand talk about their own               how they feel.
                                                         the tree house and the scary               experiences.
                                                         monsters are after us.”

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Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                                       Emotional Development: Self-confidence and self-esteem

                Development matters                           Look, listen and note                          Effective practice                              Planning and resourcing
 Early                Respond to significant experiences,       How children show their own feelings          Encourage children to share their              Keep a diary with children, which can
 learning              showing a range of feelings                and are sensitive to the needs, views          feelings and talk about why they                be referred to from time to time to help
 goals                 whenappropriate.                           and feelings of others.                        respond to experiences in particular            them recall when they were happy,
                      Have a developing awareness of            The ways in which children show how            ways.                                           when they were excited, or when they
                       their own needs, views and feelings,       they feel, or share their views or            Explain carefully why some children             felt lonely.
                       and are sensitive to the needs,views       express their views about something.           may need extra help or support for             Collect information that helps children
                       and feelings of others.                   How children show awareness of their           some things, or why some children feel          to understand why people do things
                      Have a developing respect for their        own and others‟ cultures and beliefs,          upset by a particular thing. This helps         differently from each other, and
                       own cultures and beliefs and those         and the ways they show respect for             children to understand that when the            encourage children to talk about these
                       of other people.                           them, for example: Alison told the other       need arises, their individual needs will        differences.
                                                                  children about her visit to London to          be met.                                        Share stories that reflect the diversity
                                                                  stay with her aunt and meet her new           Help children to see the ways in which          of children‟s experiences.
                                                                  uncle. “My uncle took me to his temple.        their cultures and beliefs are similar by
                                                                  It was beautiful, and then we went back        encouraging them to share and discuss
                                                                  to have dinner at their house,” she            practices, celebrations and
                                                                  said, “but I like my own home as well.”        experiences of what it is to be them.

EY FS cons ultatio n                                                                                39
Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                             Emotional Development: Behaviour and self-control

          Development matters                         Look, listen and note                       Effective practice                            Planning and resourcing
             Are usually soothed by warm and            What soothes individual babies and         Find out as much as you can from             Learn familiar lullabies that children
              consistent responses from familiar          helps them to relax.                        parents and carers about young                know from home, share them with
              adults.                                                                                 babies before they join the setting,          others in the setting.
                                                                                                      so that the routines you follow are          Play gentle music when babies are
                                                                                                      familiar and comforting.                      tired.
             Respond to a small number of               Babies‟ responses to being praised         Demonstrate clear and consistent             Share information with parents so
              boundaries, with encouragement              when they do something you ask,             boundaries and reasonable yet                 that there is consistency between
              and support.                                like loosening their grasp on your          challenging expectations.                     home and setting and babies learn
                                                          hair, or face.                                                                            about boundaries.
             Begin to learn that some things are        When young children show they              Keep routines flexible so that young         Duplicate materials and resources
              theirs, some things are shared, and         know which is their comforter, or get       children can pursue their interests.          to reduce conflict, for example, two
              some things belong to other people.         another child‟s soft toy to give them       This will reduce incidents of                 bikes or two copies of the same
                                                          when they are upset.                        frustration and conflict.                     book.
             Are aware that some actions can            Responses to stories in which              Help children to understand their            Have agreed procedures outlining
              hurt or harm others.                        someone could be hurt or harmed.            rights to be kept safe by others, and         how to respond to changes in
                                                                                                      encourage them to talk about ways             children‟s behaviour.
                                                                                                      to avoid harming or hurting others.
             Begin to accept the needs of others,       Children‟s recognition of the needs        Share with parents the rationale of          Set, explain and maintain clear,
              with support.                               of others.                                  boundaries and expectations to                reasonable and consistent limits so
             Show care and concern for others,          How children show their care for            achieve a joint approach.                     that children can play and work,
              for iving things and the environment.       others and the environment.                Demonstrate concern and respect               feeling safe and secure.
                                                                                                      for others, living things and the            Collaborate with children in
                                                                                                      environment.                                  creating explicit rules for the care
                                                                                                                                                    of the environment.
             Show confidence and the ability to         Children‟s awareness of boundaries         Be alert to injustices and let children      Make time to listen to children
              stand up for own rights.                    and behavioural expectations.               see that they are addressed and               respectfully when they raise
                                                                                                      resolved.                                     injustices and involve them in
                                                                                                                                                    finding a „best fit‟ solution.

                                                                                     40                                                                                    EY FS cons ultat io n
        Personal, Social and Emotional Development                                                                        Emotional Development: Behaviour and self-control

                       Development matters                  Look, listen and note                     Effective practice                          Planning and resourcing
                          Have an awareness of the            Children‟s increasing understanding      Ensure that children have                  Provide books with stories about
                           boundaries set and behavioural       of acceptable behaviour for               opportunities to identify and discuss       characters that follow or break
                           expectations in the setting.         themselvesand others.                     the boundaries, so that they                rules, and the effects of their
          Early           Understand what is right and        Children‟s ideas and                      understand why they are there and           behaviour onothers.
          learning         wrongand why.                        explanationsabout what is right and       what they are intended toachieve.          Affirm and praise positive
          goals           Consider the consequences of         wrong.                                   Help children‟s understanding of            behaviour, explaining that it makes
                           their words and actions for         Children‟s awareness of the               what is right and wrong by                  children and adults feel happier.
                           themselves and others.               consequences of their words               explaining why it is wrong to hurt          Encourage children to think
                                                                andactions.                               somebody, or why it is alright to           aboutissues from the viewpoint of
                                                                                                          take a second piece of fruitafter           others.
                                                                                                          everybody else has had enough.
                                                                                                         Involve children in identifying
                                                                                                          issuesand finding solutions.

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