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Army National Guard Transformation

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					Army National Guard Transformation And it’s Changing Role in Force Management

MAJ Mark J.P. Nelson IN, USARNG (FA50) National Guard Bureau Systems Integration and Modernization (NGB-ARQ-M)

The Army National Guard has always been unique from its active Army and Army Reserve counterparts in the fact that it maintains not only a Homeland Defense role (federal mission) but a Homeland Security role as well (state mission). Dual-missioned, the Army National Guard acts federally as an operational reserve of the Army and provides a valuable mission skill set in both manmade and natural disaster response and relief. When it comes to community military assistance the Army National Guard (ARNG) has always been a first responder. The ARNG since before 9/11 actively participates in every aspect of transformation with its Department of the Army (HQDA) counterparts to remain relevant as the Federal Reserve of the Army. The terrorist attacks of 9/11 would serve as the catalyst that launched the ARNG into full operational status in the Global War on Terror (GWOT) both abroad and at home. At the same time it would place focus on outfitting the ARNG with equipment necessary to modernize, maintain and meet interoperability, and modularize forces for transformation in the Joint warfight. Proper funding and continued congressional oversight and support are required to fill ARNG requirements and decrease shortfalls; it will remain a slow and arduous process while at war.

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The Army National Guard (ARNG), like the Active Army, continues to undergo a total transformation both in modernization and modular force design. The former Cold War strategic reserve transformed itself into an “agile, lethal operational force capable of joint and expeditionary warfare—a uniquely flexible force simultaneously capable of responding to a broad range of civil and humanitarian crises”. Between the years ending the Cold War and 9/11, the ARNG worked to modernize and transform itself in accordance with the Office of Chief of Staff of the Army (CSA) and Chief, National Guard Bureau (CNGB) to maintain and train for emergency response at home and as a warfighting component of the Army. The attacks on 9/11 catapulted the ARNG into worldwide operations as a reserve component warfighter in every area of combat, combat support and service support. The ARNG is currently undergoing its largest transformation since World War II along side of the Army. As many as 80,000 troops at one time are deployed around the world in support of OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM, IRAQI FREEDOM, NOBLE EAGLE, MFO SINAI, BOSNIA and KOSOVO. As many as 368,000 total Guard members served in all theaters since the initiation of hostilities (Fig.1-1). A total of $4.3 billion since 9/11 invested in the ARNG provided our Soldiers with the best equipment American taxpayers could buy. At no other time before in history has our ARNG been so equipped for the fight, but there are still shortfalls in equipping and technologies to be met. In response to this, Congress, Department of Defense (DoD), Department of the Army G-3/5/7, G-8, and other agencies along with the National Guard Bureau (NGB) continue to work together to fund

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for, acquire and field equipment in order to minimize shortfalls and fill capability gaps while simultaneously transforming to a modular force structure.

Fig. 1-1 While modularizing its forces, of which 74% of all ARNG units are affected, the ARNG has less than 35% of the equipment need to conduct the warfight. This is partly due to stay-behind-equipment (SBE) intended for theater provided equipment (TPE) left behind for follow-on forces and shortfalls in combat support and service support equipment that existed prior to 9/11; long overdue for replenishment. In response to this, Congress set aside $900 million to resource equipment shortfalls for the ARNG to meet modernization and equipment reset; the later a much needed requirement to bring ARNG forces to full equipment readiness in order to fulfill Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN) model and TOE requirements under modularity.

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These modular requirements and its associated analysis processes within the ARNG begin in the G-3 Modular Coordination Cell or MCC. The MCC conducts horizontal integration of modular formations, ensuring the states and units achieve conversion. The MCC does this by assessing the ARNG staff’s ability to provide personnel, equipment, facilities and fiscal resourcing to the BCTs and major units. The MCC recommends alternative resource utilization to achieve capabilities and acts as the link between resource allocators, units, States, NGB and HQDA. In addition it evaluates and analyzes total impact to personnel, facilities, equipment, doctrine, structure and changes in capability. This process starts with ensuring valid operating systems data is derived from current databases and through detailed review of requirements documents. The MCC is the initial point of entry for all information for modular conversion. These requirements are then cross-channeled through the ARNG G-8 to begin the process of planning and programming requirements into the POM/BES. In order to meet these critical requirements in managing the force and bring them to fruition, the ARNG G-8 under the direction of the Director Army National Guard (DARNG), stood up the Material Programs Division (ARQ) to work with its Department of the Army and ARNG counterparts. ARQ acts as the conduit for acquisition planning and program support, systems integration, equipping, and modernization in an effort to mirror HQDA within the ARNG G-8 and in preparation for Program Objective Memorandum (POM) activities. The ARQ branches, ARQ-AS (acquisition planning and program support), ARQ-E (systems integration and equipping) and ARQ-M (systems integration and modernization) form the backbone of this division. ARQ members work hand in
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hand with HQDA Staff Synchronization Officers (SSOs) and the Program Managers (PMs) in conjunction with Army and ARNG G-8 leadership guidance to field new equipment and formulate distribution planning into the execution, planning and POM year builds. ARQ has the lead for securing and integrating HQDA G-8 managed systems and works closely with ARNG internal Divisions such as ARF (Force Structure), ARL-E as part of the ARNG G-4, ART (Training) and ARO (ARNG G-3). ARQ-AS provides timely, relevant information to Force Integration and Readiness Officers (FIROs) within the 54 states, territories and the District of Columbia in an effort to formulate planning, programming and New Equipment and Displaced Equipment Training (NET/DET). ARQ-AS does this through close internal coordination with ARNG System Integrators (SIs), Program Managers and schoolhouses to link planning and distribution to programming, budgeting and distribution of funds for equipment training within the states. Its scope of work also includes reviewing system training plans, NET plans and POIs that are Compo 2 friendly for training and attending New Materiel In-briefs (NMIBs) between the PM NET teams and the State/unit. The NMIB provides ARQ NET/DET members and SIs the interface necessary to validate final equipment delivery timelines and funding for NET against the PM’s current capability to support the receiving State and/or unit. ARQ-E and ARQ-M both work closely with NET/DET, SSOs, PMs, HQDA G-8 and units to integrate new and cascaded equipment in order to modernize and modularize the current ARNG units; ARQ-M working specifically on modernization in addition to integration. Each branch works closely with ARF and
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ARL in an effort to establish viable distribution planning that meets the needs of the units. It ensures a seamless battle hand-off of new equipment tracking and delivery that enables ARL-E to account for new equipment upon execution and when to request disposition of displaced equipment. Additionally all ARQ branches take part in Systems Integration planning, request MSPs from the States and units, and assist with tracking new equipment within the execution and planning years through monthly equipping lay-downs that provide timely and accurate feedback to NGB and HQDA for requirements completed. ARQ also coordinates, informs and participates in key Weapons Systems Reviews (WSRs), attends one and two star reviews, and bi-annual Army Equipping Conferences to ensure ARNG modernization and modularity requirements are incorporated in NGB and HQDA G-8 POM/BES planning. Once requirements are established and validated, and ARQ develops distribution planning in cooperation with SSOs and HQDA G-8 counterparts in preparation for the POM, ARNG G-8, Program Analysis and Evaluation (ARA), develops and defends the ARNG funding strategy, making sure resources are programmed to meet the Army Guard’s strategic objectives within the Future Years Defense Plan (FYDP). ARA Plans does this by working with the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), and Joint and Army Staff’s to document ARNG requirements in The Army Plan (TAP), Strategic Planning Guidance (SPG), and the COCOM Integrated Priority Lists (IPLs). The IPLs provide the ARNG a vehicle to bring critical under-resourced capabilities to the OSD level by incorporating a minimum of five ARNG specific issues.

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ARA then programs and guides the ARNG Staff through the POM/BES development assessing requirements, developing alternatives and assisting senior leaders with priorities recommendations in support of national security objectives. ARA liaisons with General Officer Committees including the Army Reserve Forces Policy Committee (ARFPC), Reserve Component Coordination Council (RCCC), Reserve Forces Policy Board (RFPB), Army Business Initiatives Council, Councils of Colonels (COCs), and other special committees. ARA Programs also informs the Program Evaluation Groups (PEGs) through representation on each requirement validation team. Analysis is provided to the ARNG senior leadership to inform the Army’s Planning, Programming, Budget Committee (PPBC), the Senior Review Group (SRG) and the Army Resource Board (ARB). Through these processes the ARNG is able to manage a changing environment of new force structure requirements for modularity and modernization. The processes mentioned are not all inclusive to the many internal ARNG divisions but provide a better understanding of inter-cooperation between the Army and Army National Guard. ARQ is not the only new organization created and will not be the last in the continuity of effort being applied to transforming the ARNG. In response to transforming the ARNG and supporting DoD initiatives for Joint Force concepts, the Chief, NGB directed the transformation and re-organization of 54 State and Territorial Area Commands (STARCs) into a Joint Force Headquarters (JFHQ) made up of both Army and Air National Guard (ANG). This transformation, in compliance with SECDEF priorities to form new Joint relationships established a capability for the ARNG to
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exercises C4 over all forces either assigned, attached or OPCON. These JFHQs’ Joint Operations Centers operate around the clock and maintain a capability of responding, mobilizing and directing appropriate force levels in the event of an emergency with information reporting links to NGB, DA, NORTHCOM, and other civil authorities and agencies. Transformation is not limited to Modularity, JFHQs and NGB divisions. As part in parcel to Homeland Defense, the ARNG plays a critical role in defending the nation against ballistic missile threat. The ARNG, in its new role, assigned Active Guard-Reserves (AGRs) as force providers for the Ground-based Midcourse Defense system capable of performing both a federal and State mission. Federally, the ARNG must plan, train, certify, secure, inspect and coordinate and execute defense against missile attack through system employment. Under U.S. code Title 32, the AGRs must continue to maintain trained and ready units, personnel and admin-log support. Logistical support to units is also at a premium and a must in order to maintain equipment during a period of high usage in the GWOT. The ARNG continues to work with the Army and PMs to import technologies to improve logistics support and cut maintenance times in half. These technology imports, such as embedded diagnostics (ED) for tanks, IFVs, CFVs and other armored vehicles, will provide the ARNG the ability to maintain equipment at higher OPTEMPOs for longer durations of time when the ARNG is critically short on specific equipment for modernization. In an effort to reduce size and enhance maintenance capabilities, the Army and ARNG are consolidating maintenance

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systems, providing efficient diagnosis of equipment failures and quick turn around. Administratively the ARNG seeks to transform the Standard Installation Defense Personnel System (SIDPERS) and the Reserve Component Automation System (RCAS) into systems that enhance readiness and support by providing electronic record briefs and selection board automated support. ARNG Aviation continues to modernize though be it at a slower than planned rate. This is due to delayed delivery of new aircraft from the Army because of aircraft requests and aircraft loss in theater. The GWOT demand for aircraft will continue to affect delivery of cascaded and reset airframes to the ARNG. Modernization however is still happening despite ARNG crews flying in excess of 94,000 hours in support of the GWOT since 2005 and over 7,400 missions in support of emergency and disaster relief against fires and hurricanes (Katrina and Rita). ARNG pilots transported in excess of 62,000 civilians out of the ravaged hurricane areas alone and carried over 31 tons of supplies. But continued usage will place greater demand on replacement and maintenance support for aircraft. The pace at which the ARNG is operating aircraft will only require determined support from Congress and DoD in the next few years to ensure ARNG aviation modernization reaches fulfillment. ARNG modular IBCT and HBCT conversions are on track. Currently the ARNG maintains 34 BCTs, with the 256th HBCT just converting to an IBCT. The original plan called for 10 HCBTs, SBCT #7 and 23 other IBCTs. The 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review for ARNG Rebalancing recommended that 6 BCTs,

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4 x HBCT and 2 x IBCTs, be cut from the ARNG ranks, but to date only the 256th BCT, LA-ARNG, has opted to convert, and the numbers still remain at 34. In March 2006, a General Officer Steering Committee (GOSC) assembled to address ARNG rebalancing initiatives culminating ARNG requests to approach rebalancing in a two phase process. Phase I would deal primarily with the conversion of the four HBCTs and upon completion phase II would address the remaining IBCTs and conversion to CS and CSS brigade structures. The mix would still have an endstate of 106 total brigades in the ARNG, but would change from 34/72 to a 28/78 mix in combat structure vs. CS and CSS. Modernization of the BCTs under modularity reflects the plug and play concept. Units are being fielded Long-Range Surveillance Systems (LRAS3), Integrated Targeting and Acquisition Systems (ITAS), M1A2 AIM tanks and ODS IFVs and CFVs through reset, and modern families of wheeled tactical vehicles as well as current Joint interoperable communications systems. The ARNG focus shifted to fill requirements in combat support and service support units within the modularity concept for sustainment brigades, and those plug and play units that support it. Recently the ARNG submitted a $21 billion dollar requirement for CS and CSS equipment needs to the Army G-8 and HQDA while at the same time the President requested states provide ARNG Soldiers for border duty on the U.S.-Mexican border. The ARNG remains fully engaged in every area of transformation, modernization and modularity. It continues to work with the DA to submit ARNG needs and requirements in support of the Army Campaign Plan (ACP) and ARFORGEN to support the National Military Strategy and Strategic Planning
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Guidance. To date Congress is aware of ARNG shortfalls and it is evident in their recent legislation to set aside $900 million. The working relationships between DA and the ARNG have never been better. Program Managers are working closely with the ARNG and the HQDA SSOs to build and meet delivery timetables. The bottom line; without proper funding and continued congressional oversight and support, ARNG requirements and shortfalls will increase; it will remain a slow and arduous process while at war. Rebalancing, modularity and modernization still have many gates to complete. Though all participants are currently engaged in this capacity and the willingness to complete transformation for all components in the Army is there, future cancellation of supplemental funding will drastically impact and incur program reductions. Whatever the outcome, the ARNG remains a strategic partner in the War on Terror, Homeland Security and Transformation, and continues to be ready to meet the future’s challenges despite any shortfalls while constantly moving forward. Always Ready! Always There!

References; National Guard Posture Statement; FY 2007; Chief Executive Summary
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National Guard Posture Statement; FY 2007; (ARNG) Transformation for the 21st Century; Ready, Reliable, Essential and Accessible National Guard Posture Statement; FY 2007; (Joint Staff) Transformation for the 21st Century Army Equipping Conference AEC 4.0; December 2005 Army Equipping Conference AERC 5.0; May 2006

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