THE SPACE TRAVEL AND THE SPACE SHUTTLE by czl10931

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									THE SPACE TRAVEL

      AND

THE SPACE SHUTTLE
    INTRODUCTION
• This work talks about the
  space travel and the space
  shuttle, the past and the
  future.

• With it, I pretend to show the
  evolution of space subject.
THE SPACE TRAVEL
HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
    OF SPACE TRAVEL
   HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
       OF SPACE TRAVEL
• Hermann Julius Oberth, born June 25, 1894
  in the Transylvanian town of Hermannstadt,
  is one of the three founding fathers of
  rocketry     and     modern       astronautics.
  Interestingly, although these three pioneers
  arrived at many of the same conclusions
  about the possibility of a rocket escaping the
  earth’s gravitational pull, they seem to have
  done so without any knowledge of each
  other’s work.
     HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
         OF SPACE TRAVEL
• Oberth’s interest in rocketry was sparked at the
  age of 11. His mother gave him a copy of Jules
  Verne's From The Earth To The Moon, a book
  which he later recalled he read "at least five or
  six times and, finally, knew by heart.” It was a
  young Oberth, then, that discovered that many
  of Verne’s calculations were not simply fiction,
  and that the very notion of interplanetary travel
  was not as fantastic as had been assumed by
  the scientific community.
    HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
        OF SPACE TRAVEL
• By the age of 14 Oberth had already
  envisioned a “recoil rocket” that could propel
  itself through space by expelling exhaust
  gases (from a liquid fuel) from its base. He
  had no resources with which to test his
  model, but continued to develop his theories,
  all the while teaching himself, from various
  books, the mathematics that he knew he’d
  need if he was to ever challenge gravity’s
  dominion.
     HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
         OF SPACE TRAVEL
• Oberth realized that the higher the ratio
  between propellant and rocket mass the
  faster his rocket would be able to travel.

• Oberth wrote, “the requirements for stages
  developed out of these formulas. If there
  is a small rocket on top of a big one, and if
  the big one is jettisoned and the small one
  is ignited, then their speeds are added.”
      HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
          OF SPACE TRAVEL
• In 1912 Hermann Oberth enrolled in the University of
  Munich to study medicine. His scholarly pursuits,
  however, were interrupted by the First World War. In
  an indirect way, Hermann Oberth’s participation in the
  war, mostly with the medical unit , was, in some ways,
  fortunate for the future of rocketry. Hermann Oberth
  stated it best when he wrote that one of the most
  important things he learned in his years as an enlisted
  medic, was that he "did not want to be a doctor”.
  When the war was over, Professor Oberth returned to
  the University of Munich, but this time to study Physics
  with several of the most notable scientists of the time.
      HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
          OF SPACE TRAVEL
• In 1922 Oberth’s doctoral thesis on rocketry was
  rejected. He later described his reaction: “I refrained
  from writing another one, thinking to myself: Never
  mind, I will prove that I am able to become a greater
  scientist than some of you, even without the title of
  doctor.” He continued: “In the United States, I am
  often addressed as a doctor. I should like to point out,
  however, that I am not such and shall never think of
  becoming one.” And on education he had this to say:
  “Our educational system is like an automobile which
  has strong rear lights, brightly illuminating the past.
  But looking forward things are barely discernible.”
     HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
         OF SPACE TRAVEL
• In 1923, the year after the rejection of his
  dissertation, he published the 92 page Die
  Rakete zu den Planetenraumen (The Rocket
  into Planetary Space). This was followed by a
  longer version (429 pages) in 1929, which was
  internationally celebrated as a work of
  tremendous scientific importance. That same
  year, he lost the sight in his left eye in an
  experiment while working as a technical advisor
  to German director Fritz Lang on his film, “Girl in
  the Moon.”
     HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
         OF SPACE TRAVEL

• In the thirties Oberth took on a young assistant who
  would later become one of the leading scientists in
  rocketry research for the German and then the
  United States governments; his name was Werhner
  von Braun. They worked together again during the
  Second World War, developing the V2 rocket, the
  “vengeance weapon” for the German Army, and
  again after the war, in the United States at the U.S.
  Army’s Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville,
  Alabama. However, three years later Professor
  Oberth retired and returned to Germany.
     HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
         OF SPACE TRAVEL
• That Hermann Oberth is one of the three founding
  fathers of rocketry and modern astronautics is, I
  think, indisputable. That all three have advanced
  the science of rocketry is also indisputable -
  Professor Oberth, though, possessed a vision that
  set him apart, even from these great men. In 1923
  he wrote in the final chapter of Die Rakete zu den
  Planetenraumen (The Rocket into Planetary
  Space), “The rockets... can be built so powerfully
  that they could be capable of carrying a man aloft.”
  In 1923, then, he became the first to prove that
  rockets could put a man into space.
    HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
        OF SPACE TRAVEL

• By all accounts Hermann Oberth was a
  humble man (especially considering his
  achievements) who had, in his own words,
  simple goals. He outlined them in the last
  paragraph of his 1957 book Man into Space:
  “To make available for life every place where
  life is possible. To make inhabitable all
  worlds as yet uninhabitable, and all life
  purposeful.”
HERMANN OBERTH: FATHER
    OF SPACE TRAVEL

            • Hermann Julius
              Oberth died in a
              Nuremberg
              hospital in West
              Germany on
              December 29,
              1989 at the age of
              95.
HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL
   HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL

• To design and build a spacecraft, you need to
  be able to figure out how big to make it, how
  heavy it can be, how fast it will have to go,
  how much fuel it needs and so forth. For that,
  you need a theory of how objects move in
  space and how to make the calculations.
  Almost all theory of space flight was worked
  out by three brilliant men over a period of
  nearly three centuries - from 1600 to 1900.
   HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL

• Johannes Kepler - Working out the theory

  – was the German mathematician who, in
    1609, figured out the equations for orbiting
    planets & satellites. In particular, he
    determined that the planets move in ellipses
    (flattened circles) rather than true circles.
   HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL

• Isaac Newton - Working out the theory

• in 1687 he wrote what is probably the single
  greatest intellectual achievement of all time.
  In a single book he established the basic laws
  of force, motion, and gravitation and invented
  a new branch of mathematics in the process
  (calculus). He did all this to show how the
  force of gravity is the reason that planet’s
  orbits follow Kepler’s equations.
      HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL
• Konstantin Tsiolkovsky - Working out the theory


  – a Russian school teacher who, without ever
    launching a single rocket himself, was the first to
    figure out all the basic equations for rocketry - in
    1903! From his very broad and extensive reading,
    including Jules Verne’s "From the Earth to the
    Moon", he concluded that space travel was a
    possibility, that it was in fact man’s destiny, and
    that rockets would be the way to pull it off.
       HISTORY OF SPACE TRAVEL

• Konstantin Tsiolkovsky - Working out the theory


  – He anticipated and solved many of the problems that
    were going to come up for rocket powered flight and
    drew up several rocket designs. He determined that liquid
    fuel rockets would be needed to get to space, and that the
    rockets would need to be built in stages (he called them
    "rocket trains"). He concluded that oxygen and hydrogen
    would be the most powerful fuels to use. He had
    predicted how, 65 years later, the Saturn V rocket would
    operate for the first landing of men on the moon.
 BULDING THE FIRST ROCKETS
     - ROBERT GODDARD

• An American who is now called "the father of
  modern rocketry" .


• By contrast to Tsiolkovsky, Goddard was the man
  who designed, built, and flew the rockets. He was a
  university professor who also developed the theory
  of rocketry and although he didn't know about
  Tsiolkovsky's work, reached the same conclusions as
  Tsiolkovsky did. Goddard proved the theory was
  true.
 BULDING THE FIRST ROCKETS
     - ROBERT GODDARD
• He was also heavily influenced by the science fiction
  of Jules Verne, and he worked hard to develop
  rockets because he wanted to see them take us into
  space.


• In 1926 he launched the world’s first liquid fueled
  rocket. In the course of his experiments in
  Massachusetts and Roswell, New Mexico, he
  virtually developed the entirety of rocket technology.
 SPACE
TOURISM
             SPACE TOURISM

• Space tourism was born on 28th April 2001 it was
  then that the worlds first space tourist launched into
  space from the Baikonur launch site at 11:37
  Moscow time on the "Soyuz TM-32" space vehicle.
  Dennis Tito, an American millionaire, spent 7 days
  in orbit and dedicated his in-flight time to the
  photographing Earth from space. This mission
  successfully ended on May 6, 2001 at 9:41 Moscow
  time, after the capsule softly landed in the Kazakh
  steppes.
SPACE TOURISM



  • Dennis Tito

  • First Tourist
             SPACE TOURISM
• The second space tourist, resident of the South
  African Republic Mark Shuttleworth was launched
  into space a year later, on the 25th April 2002 Mark.
  Unlike Dennis Tito, Mark Shuttleworth was allowed
  to freely move around the space station
  ROSAVIAKOSMOS and NASA Mr. Shuttleworth
  had an agreement between them that allowed use of
  the onboard notebook computers for sending and
  receiving the e-mail. He was also given specified
  times for using the US communication system for
  down - linking video- and photo footage.
             SPACE TOURISM

• Mark Shuttleworth carried out his own scientific-
  research program, when in space, as well as
  participating in multiple press releases. Mr.
  Shuttleworth announced, after his 10-day space
  mission of his firm desire to partake in a new space
  mission "at any time". Mark Shuttleworth purchased
  a mock-up of the "Soyuz TM-33" descent capsule
  and space suit, in order to commemorate his
  incredible adventure as the second space tourist.
SPACE TOURISM


• Mark Shuttleworth

  • Second Tourist
   NASA: Space Travel “Inherently
    Hazardous” to Human Health

• WASHINGTON -- According to a new study created
  for NASA the medical risks -- both physical and
  psychological -- of long treks beyond Earth orbit
  remain daunting and a far greater challenge than the
  public has been led to believe.
• The new, no-holds-barred study says part of the
  problem comes from "underreporting" by space
  travelers about their health woes. Also, there is too
  much data privacy and confidentiality between
  astronauts and flight surgeons.
   NASA: Space Travel “Inherently
    Hazardous” to Human Health
• "Space travel is inherently hazardous. The
  risks to human health of long duration
  missions beyond Earth orbit, if not solved,
  represent the greatest challenge to human
  exploration of deep space," the committee
  noted. Furthermore, the development of
  solutions "is complicated by lack of a full
  understanding of the nature of the risks and
  their fundamental causes."
     NASA: Space Travel “Inherently
      Hazardous” to Human Health
• "Some of the physiologic effects of shorter periods in
  space such as loss of bone calcium are likely to continue
  indefinitely during longer missions," Kenneth Shine
  (President of the Institute of Medicine) said. Furthermore,
  psychological and mental health issues -- spurred by
  stuffing people from diverse social and cultural
  background into tight quarters and sending them outward
  from Earth -- will grow increasingly important, he said.
• "For prolonged missions, it will not be feasible to return
  an acutely ill individual to Earth in a timely manner,"
  Shine said.
 THE

 SPACE

SHUTTLE
  HOW SPACE SHUTTLES WORK
• In its 23 year history, the space shuttle
  program has seen exhilarating highs and
  devastating lows. The fleet has taken
  astronauts on dozens of successful missions,
  resulting in immeasurable scientific gains. But
  this success has had a serious cost. In 1986,
  the Challenger exploded during launch
  procedures, and on February 1st of 2003, the
  Columbia broke up during re-entry over
  Texas.
     A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
         SPACE SHUTTLE
• Near the end of the Apollo space program,
  NASA officials were looking at the future of the
  American space program. At that time, the
  rockets used to place astronauts and equipment in
  outer space were one-shot disposable rockets.
  What they needed was a reliable, but less
  expensive, rocket, perhaps one that was reusable.
  The idea of a reusable "space shuttle" that could
  launch like a rocket but deliver and land like an
  airplane was appealing and would be a great
  technical achievement.
  A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
      SPACE SHUTTLE




• Artist's concept of a space shuttle with a
       manned booster and orbiter
         A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
             SPACE SHUTTLE
• NASA began design, cost and engineering studies on a
  space shuttle. Many aerospace companies also explored the
  concepts. The concepts varied from a reusable, manned
  booster concept (shown above) to a shuttle lifted by solid
  rockets. In 1972, President Nixon announced that NASA
  would develop a reusable space shuttle or space
  transportation system (STS). NASA decided that the
  shuttle would consist of an orbiter attached to solid rocket
  boosters and an external fuel tank because this design was
  considered safer and more cost effective. NASA awarded
  the prime contract to Rockwell International.
     A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
         SPACE SHUTTLE
• At that time, spacecraft used ablative heat
  shields that would burn away as the spacecraft
  re-entered the Earth's atmosphere. However, to
  be reusable, a different strategy would have to
  be used. The designers of the space shuttle
  came up with an idea to cover the space shuttle
  with many insulating ceramic tiles that could
  absorb the heat of re-entry without harming the
  astronauts.
      A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
          SPACE SHUTTLE




• The Enterprise separates from a Boeing 747 to
     begin one of its flight and landing tests
     A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
         SPACE SHUTTLE
• Finally, after many years of construction and
  testing (i.e. orbiter, main engines, external fuel
  tank, solid rocket boosters), the shuttle was
  ready to fly. Four shuttles were made
  (Columbia, Discovery, Atlantis, Challenger).
  The first flight was in 1981 with the space
  shuttle Columbia, piloted by astronauts John
  Young and Robert Crippen. Columbia
  performed well and the other shuttles soon
  made several successful flights.
        A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
            SPACE SHUTTLE
• In 1986, the shuttle Challenger broke up in flight
  when a flame from a leaky joint on one of the solid
  rocket boosters ignited the fuel in the external fuel
  tank. The Challenger exploded and the entire crew
  was lost. NASA suspended the shuttle program for
  several years, while the reasons for the disaster were
  investigated and corrected. After several years, the
  space shuttle flew again and a new shuttle,
  Endeavour, was built to replace Challenger in the
  shuttle fleet.
     A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
         SPACE SHUTTLE

• To date, the space shuttles have flown
  about one-fourth of their expected lifetime
  (each shuttle was designed for 100
  missions) and have undergone many refits
  and design changes to make them safer
  and to carry heavier payloads into orbit.
     SPACE SHUTTLE - GETTING
            INTO ORBIT
• To lift the 4.5 million pound (2.05 million kg) shuttle
  from the pad to orbit (115 to 400 miles/185 to 643 km)
  above the Earth, the shuttle uses the following
  components:
          two solid rocket boosters (SRB)
          three main engines of the orbiter
          the external fuel tank (ET)
          orbital maneuvering system (OMS) on the
           orbiter
SPACE SHUTTLE - GETTING
       INTO ORBIT


             • One of the
              space
              shuttle's main
              engines
    SPACE SHUTTLE - ORBITER

• Once in space, the shuttle orbiter is your home
  for seven to 14 days. The orbiter can be
  oriented so that the cargo bay doors face toward
  the Earth or away from the Earth depending
  upon the mission objectives; in fact, the
  orientation can be changed throughout the
  mission. One of the first things that the
  commander will do is to open the cargo bay
  doors to cool the orbiter.
  SPACE SHUTTLE - ORBITER


• Cut-away
 drawing of
 the orbiter's
 crew
 compartment
     SPACE SHUTTLE - IN ORBIT:
          LIFE IN SPACE
• The shuttle orbiter must provide an environment where you can
  live and work in space. It must be able to do the following:
           provide life support
           change position and change orbits
           let you talk with ground-based flight controllers
            (communications and tracking)
           find its way around (navigation)
           make electrical power
           coordinate and handle information (computers)
           enable you to do useful work
   SPACE SHUTTLE - IN ORBIT:
        LIFE IN SPACE




• Artist's concept of the space shuttle in orbit
SPACE SHUTTLE - LIFE SUPPORT

• The orbiter must provide you with an
  environment similar to Earth. You must have
  air to breathe, food to eat, water to drink, and a
  comfortable temperature. The orbiter must also
  take away the wastes that your body produces
  (carbon dioxide, urine, feces) and protect you
  from fire. Let's look at these various aspects of
  the orbiter's life support system.
    SPACE SHUTTLE - POSITION
           AND ORBIT

• To change the direction that the orbiter is
  pointed (attitude), you must use the reaction
  control system (RCS) located on the nose and
  OMS pods of the aft fuselage.
• To change orbits (e.g., rendezvous, docking
  maneuvers), you must fire the OMS engines.
  These engines change the velocity of the orbiter
  to place it in a higher or lower orbit .
   SPACE SHUTTLE - POSITION
          AND ORBIT


• A - Remote
  Manipulator Arm
• B - Forward
  Reaction Control
  Thrusters
• C - Radiator on
  Cargo Bay Door
      SPACE SHUTTLE -
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRACKING
• Talking with the Ground

  – NASA's Mission Control in Houston will send signals to a 60 ft
    radio antenna at White Sands Test Facility in New Mexico. White
    Sands will relay the signals to a pair of Tracking and Data Relay
    satellites in orbit 22,300 miles above the Earth. The satellites will
    relay the signals to the the space shuttle. The system works in
    reverse as well.
  – The orbiter has two systems for communicating with the ground:
          S-band - voice, commands, telemetry and data files
          Ku-band (high bandwidth) - video and transferring two-way
           data files
       SPACE SHUTTLE -
 COMMUNICATIONS AND TRACKING
• Talking to Each Other

• The orbiter has several intercom plug-in audio terminal
  units located throughout the crew compartment. You will
  wear a personal communications control with a headset. The
  communications control is battery-powered and can be
  switched from intercom to transmit functions. You can
  either push to talk and release to listen or have a
  continuously open communication line. To talk with
  spacewalkers, the system uses a UHF frequency, which is
  picked up in the astronaut's spacesuit.
 SPACE SHUTTLE - NAVIGATION

• The orbiter must be able to know precisely
  where it is in space, where other objects are and
  how to change orbit. To know where it is and
  how fast it is moving, the orbiter uses global
  positioning systems (GPS). To know which
  way it is pointing (attitude), the orbiter has
  several gyroscopes. All of this information is
  fed into the flight computers for rendezvous and
  docking maneuvers, which are controlled in the
  aft station of the flight deck.
SPACE SHUTTLE - NAVIGATION




 • Spacelab module in the orbiter's cargo bay
         provides additional lab space
       SPACE SHUTTLE - POWER
• All of the on-board systems of the orbiter require
  electrical power. Electricity is made from three
  fuel cells, which are located in the mid fuselage
  under the payload bay. These fuel cells combine
  oxygen and hydrogen from pressurized tanks in
  the mid fuselage to make electricity and water.
  Like a power grid on Earth, the orbiter has a
  distribution system to supply electrical power to
  various instrument bays and areas of the ship.
  The water is used by the crew and for cooling.
    SPACE SHUTTLE - COMPUTERS
• The orbiter has five on-board computers that handle data processing
  and control critical flight systems. The computers monitor
  equipment and talk to each other and vote to settle arguments.
  Computers control critical adjustments especially during launch and
  landing:
            operations of the orbiter (housekeeping functions,
             payload operations, rendezvous/docking)
            interface with the crew (IBM Thinkpads with
             microprocessors and Windows operating systems)
            caution and warning systems
            data acquisition and processing from experiments
            flight maneuvers
• Pilots essentially fly the computers, which fly the shuttle.
        SPACE SHUTTLE - DOING
            USEFUL WORK
• You will spend most of your time on the shuttle doing
  work to accomplish the mission objectives. Besides
  work, you will have to exercise frequently on the
  treadmill to counteract the loss of bone and muscle
  mass associated with weightlessness. You will also
  eat at the galley and sleep in your bunk-style sleeping
  quarters. You will have a toilet and personal hygiene
  facilities for use. You may have to perform
  spacewalks to accomplish the mission objectives.
  This will involve getting into a space suit and going
  through depressurization procedures in the airlock.
SPACE SHUTTLE - DOING
    USEFUL WORK


              • Astronauts
              working in the
             Spacelab module
 SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO
EARTH: RE-ENTRY AND LANDING
• The orbiter must be maneuvered into the
  proper position. This is crucial to a safe
  landing.


• When a mission is finished and the shuttle is
  halfway around the world from the landing
  site (Kennedy Space Center, Edwards Air
  Force Base), mission control gives the
  command to come home.
 SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO
EARTH: RE-ENTRY AND LANDING



                  • Artist's
                   concept of
                   a shuttle
                   re-entry
 SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO
EARTH: RE-ENTRY AND LANDING


                   • Space
                    shuttle
                    orbiter
                    touching
                    down
 SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO
EARTH: RE-ENTRY AND LANDING


                   • Parachute
                     deployed
                     to help
                     stop the
                     orbiter on
                     landing
 SPACE SHUTTLE - RETURN TO
EARTH: RE-ENTRY AND LANDING


                    • Orbiter
                     being
                     serviced
                     just after
                     landing
    FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE

• The current shuttle fleet has been through
  about a quarter of its expected lifetime. These
  shuttles have undergone and will have many
  improvements to make them lighter, safer
  and more efficient. Some of the
  improvements include:
         ET - redesigned to reduce the weight by 7,500 lb
          (3400 kg); This improvement allows the shuttle to
          carry that much more weight in payload.
FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE

 Main engines - pumps, combustion chambers and
  nozzles have been redesigned for safety.
 SRB - improve the valves, seals, filters and propellant for
  safety.
 Hydraulic systems - change from rocket fuel-powered
  electric generators to safer, lighter, battery-powered
  generators.
 Glass cockpit - lightweight LCD displays replaced
  cumbersome mechanical displays and redesigned for
  more efficient use.
       FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE
• Undoubtedly, the space shuttle computers will be
  overhauled as computer technology improves.
  Space shuttles may also have touchscreen controls
  in the future.
         FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE
• The current space shuttle has four components, three of which
  are recovered after each flight. The ET is discarded after each
  use. But what if you could have a shuttle that was all one piece
  and 100 percent recoverable? NASA is currently exploring
  this idea with the X-33 and VentureStar designs.
      FUTURE SPACE SHUTTLE


• Flightpath
  of X Prize
  concept:
  Pablo De
    Leon
     CONCLUSION
• Nowadays, space tourism is
  no longer in the realms of
  science fiction, but science
  fact.

• Today, if you enjoyed and
  have money, you can do a
  space world adventure.
 THE END
DONE BY: NUNO ESTEVES

								
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