Lecture 9 Java GUI by msz78385

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									                  Java Programming

Lecture 9
Java GUI

Cheng-Chia Chen

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                                                             Java GUI

1.   java GUI evolution
2.   Swing Components and Containing Hierarchy
3.   Layout Management
4.   Java Event Model and Event Handling
5.   javaBeans

 The Java Tutorial on the trail: Creating a GUI with JFC/Swing

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                                                      Java GUI
   Evolution of Java GUI

 Java 1.0 AWT built in 30 days, and it shows
 Java 1.1 AWT significantly improved, but GUI not
  finished yet
 Java 2 Swing: very different, vastly improved
 This lecture cover Swing only.

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                                                            Java GUI
   Swing/JFC is very powerful

 Start with the simple approach so you can create basic
 Most of the time this will satisfy your needs
 If you want to modify the standard elements, you can,
  You‟ll have to work harder and learn more
  A number of big, thick books are available

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                                                      Java GUI

 Very easy to add keyboard accelerators, tooltips,
 Pluggable look and feel
 Provides ways to change just about everything, but you
  must work to understand how

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                                                                 Java GUI
    Swing Components and the containment hierarchy
 Borders                              Menus
 Buttons                              Popup Menus
 Checkboxes                           Radio Buttons
 ComboBoxes                           Progress Bars
 Image Icons                          Scrolling Support
 Labels                               Scrollbars
 Layered Panes and Internal           Splitter Control
  Frames (MDI)                         Tabbed Panes
 Lists and List Boxes

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     Swing features and Conecpts
   Components and the containment hierarchy
   Swing Components and the Containment Hierarchy
   Layout Management
   Event Handling
   Painting
   Threads and Swing
   More Swing Features and Concepts
   The Anatomy of a Swing-Based Program

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                                                                    Java GUI
   Swing Components and the Containment Hierarchy
 An example:

 Four components in this GUI:
   a frame, or main window (JFrame) --- top-level container
   a panel, sometimes called a pane (JPanel) --- intermediate container
   a button (JButton) --- atomic components
   a label (JLabel) --- atomic components

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 the containment hierarchy for the gui:

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 The code that adds the button and label to the panel, and the
  panel to the content pane:

    frame = new JFrame(...);
    button = new JButton(...);
    label = new JLabel(...);
    pane = new JPanel();
    frame.getContentPane().add(pane, BorderLayout.CENTER);

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    Classification of swing components
 Top-Level Containers
    The components at the top of any Swing containment hierarchy.
 General-Purpose Containers
    Intermediate containers that can be used under many different circumstances.
 Special-Purpose Containers
    Intermediate containers that play specific roles in the UI.
 Basic Controls
    Atomic components that exist primarily to get input from the user;
    they generally also show simple state.
 Uneditable Information Displays
    Atomic components that exist solely to give the user information.
 Editable Displays of Formatted Information
    Atomic components that display highly formatted information that (if you choose) can
     be edited by the user.

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                                                               Java GUI
top-level containers

           Frame ( and JFrame)
                                            Applet (and JApplet)

                                 Dialog ( and JDialog)

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                                                   Java GUI
General-Purpose Containers

            Panel ( and JPanel)



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Special-Purpose Containers

                         Root Pane


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Basic Controls

JCheckBox                            JMenuItem

                 List ( and JList)

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Basic Controls

Choice ( and JComboBox)             JTextField


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Uneditable Information Displays


 Label ( and JLabel)


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Editable Displays of Formatted Information

          JTree              JText                      JTable

                                      FileDialog ( and JFileChooser)
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Structure of the java.awt (AWT) package.


                       -peer          Component                           Container
                                      {abstract}                         {abstract

                                                       Color                    -layoutMgr

     TextArea     TextField                                              LayoutManager

 Button       Canvas      Checkbox       Choice        Label             List         Scrollbar

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   Layout Management
 the GUIs of five programs, each of which displays five buttons.

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    Common layout tasks
 Identical Buttons, almost identical codes. why do they look so different?
    use different layout managers to control the size and position of the buttons.
 the common layout tasks:
    Setting the layout manager :
    JPanel pane = new JPanel();
    pane.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
    Providing hints about a component :
    privide size Hints : setMinimumSize(Dimension), setPreferredSize(..),
    provide alignmentHints: setAllignmentX(float), setAlignmentY(float)
    Putting space between components :
    the layout manager : can specify hgap and vgap.
    putting invisible component:
    empty border : best for components that have no default border, eg: JPanel, Jlabel

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   Event Handling
 Every time the user types a character (KeyEvent) or pushes a
  mouse button( MouseEvent), an event occurs.
 Any object can be notified of the event.
   implement the appropriate interface and
   be registered as an event listener on the appropriate event source.
 Swing components can generate many kinds of events.

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    Example GUI Events
 Act that results in the event           Listener type
 User clicks a button,
  presses Return while typing in a         ActionListener
  text field, or chooses a menu item

 User closes a frame (main window)        WindowListener
 User presses a mouse button
  while the cursor is over a component     MouseListener
 User moves the mouse over a component    MouseMotionListener
 Component becomes visible                ComponentListener
 Component gets the keyboard focus        FocusListener
 Table or list selection changes          ListSelectionListener

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   Java Event Model
 delegation ( or forwarding ) model
    l = new EventListener(…)
             b=new EventSource(…)
              addXXXListener(l)                                Event e1 occurs


                                                               Event e2 occurs


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   How to Implement an Event Handler
 Implement and instantiate an event Listener :
   public class MyClass implements XXXListener { …}
   XXXListener l = (XXXListener) new MyClass(…);
 Register the eventListener as an listener on event source:
   aEventSource.addXXXListener( l ) ;
 From now on, every time an event e occurs, the event source
  object will call the appropriate doXXXAction(e) from l.
 Threads and Event Handling :
   Event-handling code executes in a single thread, the event-dispatching
   => Event handlers should execute very quickly, Otherwise, the program's
    perceived performance will be poor. If needing lengthy operation,
    starting up another thread
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   How Painting Works
1. background
2. custom painting
3. border
4. children

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    More Swing Features and Concepts
 Features that JComponent provides
    the ability to have borders,
    tool tips, and
    a configurable look and feel.
 Icons
    Many Swing components -- notably buttons and labels -- can display images. You
    specify these images as Icon objects.
 Actions
    provide support for sharing data and state between two or more components that
     can generate action events.
 Pluggable Look & Feel support
    A single program can have any one of several looks and feels.
    can let the user determine the look and feel, or
    can specify the look and feel programatically.
 Support for assistive technologies
 Separate data and state models

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     Using Swing Components
   The JComponent Class
   Using Top-Level Containers
   Using Intermediate Swing Containers
   Using Atomic Components

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   The JComponent Class
 JComponent  Container  Component
 Tool tips:
 Borders
   The setBorder method allows you to specify the border that a
    component displays around its edges.
 Keyboard-generated actions
   Using the registerKeyboardAction method, you can enable the user to
    use the keyboard, instead of the mouse, to operate the GUI.
 Application-wide pluggable look and feel
 Properties
   can associate one or more properties (name/object pairs) with any
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 Support for layout
   get/set minimum/preferred/maximum Size(..).
   get/set alignmentX/Y(…)
 Support for accessibility
 Double buffering
 Methods to increase efficiency
   getX(), getY(), getWidth(), getHeight(),…

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   The JComponent API
 Customizing Component Appearance :
    get/set for properties: border, forground, background, font, opaque
    eg: setBorder(Border) / Border getBorder(), …
 Setting Component State
    void setToolTipText(String)
    void setEnabled(boolean b) , boolean isEnabled()
    void setLocale(Locale l) , Locale getLocale()
    void setCursor(Cursor), Cursor getCursor() // mouse curser Icon
    void setVisible(boolean) , boolean isVisible()
 Handling Events :
    add/remove (component, mouse, mouseMotion, key, container, focus) Listenser
    get/set nextFocusComponent property
    requestFocus(), hasFocus()
    boolean contains(int x, int y), contains(Point)
    Component getComponentAt(int, int)

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 Painting Components
   void repaint() , repaint(int, int, int, int), repaint(Rectangle)
   void revalidate() : ReLay out the component and its affected containers.
   void paintComponent(Graphics)
 Dealing with the Containment Hierarchy
   Component add(Component [, int index | Object constraint ] )
   void remove(int) , void remove(Component comp) , void removeAll()
   JRootPane getRootPane()
   Container getParent()
   int getComponentCount()
   Component getComponent(int)
   Component[] getComponents()

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 Laying Out Components
   get/set LayoutManager property: layout
   get/set Dimension properties: minimumSize, preferredSize,
                                  maximumSize
   get/set float property: allignmentX, allignmentY
 Getting Size and Position Information
   int getWidth(), getHeight(), getX(), getY()
    Dimension getSize(), Dimension getSize(Dimension)
   Rectangle getBounds() , Rectangle getBounds(Rectangle)
   Point getLocation() , getLocation(Point), getLocationOnScreen();
    Insets getInsets()
 Specifying Absolute Size and Position
   setLocation(int,int) setLocation(Point), setSize(int,int),
    setSize(Dimension), setBounds(int x,y,w,h), setBounds(Rectangle)
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   Using Top-Level Containers
 three generally useful top-level container classes:
   JFrame, JDialog, and JApplet.
 Each has a content pane that contains the visible components
  in the GUI.
 Can optionally add a menu bar to a top-level container.
   positioned within the top-level container, but outside the content pane.

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 Adding Components to the Content Pane :
   frame.getContentPane().add(yellowLabel, BorderLayout.CENTER);
 Adding a Menu Bar :
 The Root Pane :

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   How to Make Frames (Main Windows)
 code creates and
 sets up the frame

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   the code
public static void main(String s[]) {
      JFrame frame = new JFrame("FrameDemo");

       frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
           public void windowClosing(WindowEvent e) {System.exit(0);}

       //...create a blank label, set its preferred size...

       frame.getContentPane().add(emptyLabel, BorderLayout.CENTER);


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   JFrame APIs
 Constructors: JFrame(), JFrame(String)
 void setDefaultCloseOperation(int), int
   Possible choices: DO_NOTHING_ON_CLOSE, HIDE_ON_CLOSE (the
    default) , DISPOSE_ON_CLOSE
 void setContentPane(Container) , Container getContentPane()
 void setJMenuBar(JMenuBar) , JMenuBar getJMenuBar()
 …

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   Using Intermediate Swing Containers
 Panel
   The most flexible, frequently used intermediate container.
 Scroll Pane
   Provides scroll bars around a large or growable component.
 Split Pane
   Displays two components in a fixed amount of space, letting the user
    adjust the amount of space devoted to each component.
 Tabbed Pane
   Contains multiple components but shows only one at a time. The user
    can easily switch between components.
 Tool Bar
   Holds a group of components (usually buttons) in a row or column,
    optionally allowing the user to drag the tool bar into different locations.
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   special intermediate containers
 Internal Frame
   Looks like a frame and has much the same API, but must appear within
    another window.
 Layered Pane
    Provides a third dimension, depth, for positioning components. You
    specify the position and size of each component. One type of layered
    pane, a desktop pane, is designed primarily to contain and manage
    internal frames.
 Root Pane :
    Provides behind-the-scenes support to top-level containers.

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                                Java GUI
How to Use Panels

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 Setting the Layout Manager :
   JPanel aPanel = new JPanel();
   aPanel.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
 Adding Components
   aBorderPanel.add(aComponent, BorderLayout.CENTER);
   aBorderPanel.add(anotherComponent, BorderLayout.SOUTH);

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     The JPanel API
   Constructors: JPanel() , JPanel(LayoutManager)
   void add(Component [, Object ] [, int ]),
   void add(String, Component)
   int getComponentCount()
   Component getComponent(int)
   Component[] getComponents()
   Component getComponentAt( [int, int | Point] )
   void remove(Component), void remove(int) , void removeAll()
    void setLayout(LayoutManager), LayoutManager getLayout()

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   How to Use Scroll Panes

textArea = new JTextArea(5, 30);
JScrollPane scrollPane = new JScrollPane(textArea);
contentPane.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(400, 100));
contentPane.add(scrollPane, BorderLayout.CENTER);
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How to use Split Pane

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   the code
//Create a split pane with the two scroll panes in it.
 splitPane = new JSplitPane(JSplitPane.HORIZONTAL_SPLIT,
                     listScrollPane, pictureScrollPane);

//Provide minimum sizes for the two components in the split pane
     Dimension minimumSize = new Dimension(100, 50);

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How to Use Tool Bars

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public ToolBarDemo() {    ...
      JToolBar toolBar = new JToolBar();
      JPanel contentPane = new JPanel();
      contentPane.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
      contentPane.add(toolBar, BorderLayout.NORTH);
      contentPane.add(scrollPane, BorderLayout.CENTER);
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protected void addButtons(JToolBar toolBar) {
      JButton button = null;
      //first button
      button = new JButton(new ImageIcon("images/left.gif"));
      ... toolBar.add(button);
      //second button
      button = new JButton(new ImageIcon("images/middle.gif"));
      ... toolBar.add(button);
      //third button
      button = new JButton(new ImageIcon("images/right.gif"));
      ... toolBar.add(button);  }
 Other methods:
    isFloatable(), setFloatable(boolean)
    addSeparator()

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    Using Atomic Components
 The following atomic components exist primarily to get input from the user:
 Button, Check Box, Radio Button
    Provides easy-to-use, easy-to-customize button implementations.
 Combo Box
    Provides both uneditable and editable combo boxes -- buttons that bring up menus
     of choices.
 List
    Displays a group of items that the user can choose.
 Menu
    Includes menu bar, menu, and menu item implementations, including specialized
     menu items such as check box menu items.
 Slider
    Lets the user choose one of a continuous range of values.
 Text Field
    Lets the user enter a single line of text data.
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   Some atomic components exist only to give information:
   Label : Presents some text, an icon, or both.
   Progress Bar : Displays progress toward a goal.
   Tool Tip : Brings up a small window that describes another component.

 The rest of the atomic components provide formatted information and a
  way of editing it:
 Color Chooser : A UI for choosing colors; can be used inside or outside a
 File Chooser :A UI for choosing files and directories.
 Table: An extremely flexible component that displays data in a grid format.
 Text Support : A framework including everything from simple text
  components, such as text fields, to a full-featured, extensible kit for
  building text editors.
 Tree : A component that displays hierarchical data.
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   How to Use Buttons, Check Boxes, and Radio Buttons

ImageIcon leftButtonIcon = new ImageIcon("images/right.gif")
b1 = new JButton("Disable middle button", leftButtonIcon);
   position of the text relative to the icon
b1.addActionListener(this); b1.setToolTipText(“… ");

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 // can use setText(“<html> …<.html>”) for multiFonts text
 b1 = new JButton("<html><font size=-1>
  <b><u>D</u>isable</b>“ + " middle button</font>",

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How to Use Check Boxes

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   the code
//In initialization code:
  chinButton = new JCheckBox("Chin");
 glassesButton = new JCheckBox("Glasses");
 glassesButton.setSelected(true); …
// Register a listener for the check boxes.
    CheckBoxListener myListener = new CheckBoxListener();
     chinButton.addItemListener(myListener); …
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   How to use RadioButtons
 Radio buttons are groups of buttons in which, by convention,
  only one button at a time can be selected.
 Swing release supports radio buttons with the JRadioButton
  and ButtonGroup classes.

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//In initialization code:
// Create the radio buttons.
         JRadioButton birdButton = new JRadioButton(birdString);
         birdButton.setSelected(true); …
// Group the radio buttons.
         ButtonGroup group = new ButtonGroup();
         group.add(birdButton); group.add(catButton);
         group.add(dogButton); group.add(rabbitButton);
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// Register a listener for the radio buttons.
        RadioListener myListener = new RadioListener();
    class RadioListener implements ActionListener ... {
        public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
           picture.setIcon(new ImageIcon("images/"
                             + e.getActionCommand()
                             + ".gif"));
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    The event listener
class CheckBoxListener implements ItemListener {
      public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent e) {
        Object source = e.getItemSelectable();
        if (source == chinButton) {      //...make a note of it...
        } else if (source == glassesButton) { //...make a note of it...
        } else if (source == hairButton) {        //...make a note of it...
        } else if (source == teethButton) {     //...make a note of it...
        if (e.getStateChange() == ItemEvent.DESELECTED)
            //...make a note of it...
        picture.setIcon(/* new icon */);
      }     }

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final JLabel banner = new JLabel("Welcome to the Tutorial Zone!",
banner.setForeground(Color.yellow);       ...
final JColorChooser tcc = new ColorChooser
  ( banner.getForeground()); // initial selected color ...
getContentPane().add(tcc, BorderLayout.CENTER);
 A color chooser uses an instance of ColorSelectionModel to
  contain and manage the current selection, which fires a change
  event whenever the user changes the color in the color chooser.

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 The example program registers a change listener with the color
  selection model so that it can update the banner at the top of
  the window. The following code registers and implements the
  change listener:
      new ChangeListener() {
         public void stateChanged(ChangeEvent e) {
           Color newColor = tcc.getColor();
         }      }       );

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File Chooser

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//Create a file chooser
   final JFileChooser fc = new JFileChooser();
// Event Handler for the OpenFile button
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { // container
         int returnVal = fc.showOpenDialog(FileChooserDemo.this);
           //= fc.showDialog(FileChooserDemo.this, “OK”)
           // other: fc.ShowSaveDialog(…)
         if (returnVal == JFileChooser.APPROVE_OPTION) {
                     // other possibilities: CANCEL_OPTION, ERROR_OPTION
             File file = fc.getSelectedFile();
             //this is where a real application would open the file.
             log.append("Opening: " + file.getName() + "." + newline);
         } else {
             log.append("Open command cancelled by user." + newline);
         }       }
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ImageIcon icon = new ImageIcon("images/middle.gif");
       // 2nd arg sets the position of contents relative to label
   label1 = new JLabel("Image and Text", icon, JLabel.CENTER);
   //Set the position of the text, relative to the icon:

   label2 = new JLabel("Text-Only Label");

   label3 = new JLabel(icon);

   //Add labels to the JPanel.
   add(label1);     add(label2);   add(label3);

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    Using HTML on a Label

   The action listener for the button executes this single line of code:
    theLabel.setText(htmlTextArea.getText());

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    Combo Boxes
 very different forms: uneditable and editable.
 Uneditable Combo Box:            Editable Como Box

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  String[] petStrings = { "Bird", "Cat", "Dog", "Rabbit", "Pig" };
    // Create the combo box, select item at index 4.
    // Indices start at 0, so 4 specifies the pig.
    JComboBox petList = new JComboBox(petStrings);
petList.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
        public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
          JComboBox cb = (JComboBox)e.getSource();
          String petName = (String)cb.getSelectedItem();
          picture.setIcon(new ImageIcon("images/" +
                              petName + ".gif"));

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String[] patternExamples = { "dd MMMMM yyyy", "dd.MM.yy",
 "MM/dd/yy",       "yyyy.MM.dd G 'at' hh:mm:ss z",
  "EEE, MMM d, ''yy", "h:mm a", "H:mm:ss:SSS",
 "K:mm a,z",           "yyyy.MMMMM.dd GGG hh:mm aaa"
 JComboBox patternList = new JComboBox(patternExamples);

 // still use getSelectedItem() to fetch selected item even it is
 entered by user.
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How to Use Lists

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 //...where member variables are declared:
   static Vector imageList; … // not limited to Strings
// Create the list of images and put it in a scroll pane
    JList list = new JList(imageList);
    JScrollPane listScrollPane = new JScrollPane(list);
 possible selection modes:

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 JList fires list selection events whenever the selection
 You can process these events by adding a list selection listener
  to the list with the addListSelectionListener method.
 A list selection listener must implement one method:

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public void valueChanged(ListSelectionEvent e) {
      if (e.getValueIsAdjusting()) return;
      JList theList = (JList)e.getSource();
      if (theList.isSelectionEmpty()) { picture.setIcon(null);
      } else {
          int index = theList.getSelectedIndex();
          ImageIcon newImage = new ImageIcon("images/" +
          picture.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(
                    newImage.getIconHeight() ));
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     Adding Items to and Removing Items from a List
   ListModel listModel = new DefaultListModel();
   listModel.addElement("Alison Huml");
    listModel.addElement("Kathy Walrath");
    listModel.addElement("Lisa Friendly");
    listModel.addElement("Mary Campione");
   list = new JList(listModel);

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                                                                         Java GUI

public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
 int index = list.getSelectedIndex(); // or int[ ] getSelectedIndecies()
 int size = listModel.getSize();

 //Nobody's left, disable firing
  if (size == 0) { fireButton.setEnabled(false);
        //Adjust the selection
        } else {
         //removed item in last position
          if (index == listModel.getSize())
            //otherwise select same index
        }      }
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                                                          Java GUI
How to Use Menus ( with JMenu and JMenuBar)

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                                           Java GUI
The Menu Component Hierarchy

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                                                          Java GUI
   Creating Menus
//in the constructor for a JFrame subclass:
      JMenuBar menuBar;
      JMenu menu, submenu;
      JMenuItem menuItem;
      JCheckBoxMenuItem cbMenuItem;
      JRadioButtonMenuItem rbMenuItem;
      //Create the menu bar.
      menuBar = new JMenuBar();

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                                                                           Java GUI

//Build the first menu.
     menu = new JMenu("A Menu");
          "The only menu in this program that has menu items");
//a group of JMenuItems
menuItem = new JMenuItem("A text-only menu item", KeyEvent.VK_T);
       KeyEvent.VK_1, ActionEvent.ALT_MASK));
       "This doesn't really do anything");

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                                                                  Java GUI

//a group of radio button menu items
     ButtonGroup group = new ButtonGroup();
     rbMenuItem = new JRadioButtonMenuItem("A radio button menu item");

   rbMenuItem = new JRadioButtonMenuItem("Another one");
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                                                       Java GUI

//a group of check box menu items
cbMenuItem = new JCheckBoxMenuItem("A check box menu

cbMenuItem = new JCheckBoxMenuItem("Another one");

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                                                                  Java GUI

//a submenu
 menu.addSeparator(); submenu = new JMenu("A submenu");
     menuItem = new JMenuItem("An item in the submenu");
          KeyEvent.VK_2, ActionEvent.ALT_MASK));
     menuItem = new JMenuItem("Another item");
     submenu.add(menuItem);       menu.add(submenu);
 //Build second menu in the menu bar.
  menu = new JMenu("Another Menu");
          "This menu does nothing");
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                                                             Java GUI
   Handling Events from Menu Items
 To detect when the user selects a JMenuItem, you can listen for
  action events (just as you would for a JButton).
 To detect when the user selects a JRadioButtonMenuItem, you
  can listen for either action events or item events.
 For JCheckBoxMenuItems, you generally listen for item events
public class MenuDemo ... implements ActionListener,
                           ItemListener {       ...

      public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {… }

      public void itemStateChanged(ItemEvent e) {... }

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                                                            Java GUI
   Bringing Up a Popup Menu
//Create the popup menu.
 JPopupMenu popup = new JPopupMenu();
 menuItem = new JMenuItem("A popup menu item");
 menuItem.addActionListener(this);     popup.add(menuItem);
 menuItem = new JMenuItem("Another popup menu item");
 menuItem.addActionListener(this);        popup.add(menuItem);
//Add listener to components that can bring up popup menus.
  MouseListener popupListener = new PopupListener();

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                                                             Java GUI

class PopupListener extends MouseAdapter {
     public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e)
   { maybeShowPopup(e); }
     public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e)
   { maybeShowPopup(e); }
     private void maybeShowPopup(MouseEvent e) {
         if (e.isPopupTrigger()) { popup.show(e.getComponent(),
                   e.getX(), e.getY()); }    }    }

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                                         Java GUI
   Using Text Components
 JTextComponent Hierarchy

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                                                        Java GUI

 An Example of Using Each Text Component

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                                                                      Java GUI
// An Example of Using a Text Field
JTextField textField = new JTextField(10);
//An Example of Using a Password Field
JPasswordField passwordField = new JPasswordField(10);
// Event handler for both components
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
…          if (e.getActionCommand().equals(textFieldString)) {
            JTextField source = (JTextField)e.getSource();
            actionLabel.setText(prefix + source.getText() + "\"");
        } else { JPasswordField source = (JPasswordField)e.getSource();
   actionLabel.setText(prefix + new String(source.getPassword()) +
    "\"“ ) ;       }    }
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                                                                Java GUI
   Using Text Area
JTextArea textArea = new JTextArea(
       "This is an editable JTextArea " +
       "that has been initialized with the setText method. " +
       "A text area is a \"plain\" text component, " +
       "which means that although it can display text " +
       "in any font, all of the text is in the same font."
textArea.setFont( new Font("Serif", Font.ITALIC, 16));

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                                                                     Java GUI
 the foundation for Swing's styled text components and provides
  the mechanism through which you can add support for custom
  text formats.
 Using an Editor Pane to Display Text from a URL:
   JEditorPane editorPane = new JEditorPane();
      ...//create a URL object for the TextSamplerDemoHelp.html file...
      try {
      } catch (IOException e) {
          System.err.println("Attempted to read a bad URL: " + url);

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                                                                           Java GUI
    Using a Text Pane
JTextPane textPane = new JTextPane();
   String[] initString = { /* ... fill array with initial text ... */ };
   String[] initStyles = { /* ... fill array with names of styles ... */ };

 //Create the styles we need.
    Document doc = textPane.getDocument();
  //Load the text pane with styled text.
    try { for (int i=0; i < initString.length; i++) {
           doc.insertString(doc.getLength(), initString[i],
           textPane.getStyle(initStyles[i]));        }
    } catch (BadLocationException ble) {
       System.err.println("Couldn't insert initial text.");

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                                Java GUI
How to Use Border

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                                                      Java GUI
   Layout components within a container

 Probably different than other GUIs you‟ve used
 All code, no resources
 Components are placed on panel using “layout
  manager” based on the order in which you add( ) the
 Size, shape and placement quite different depending on
  layout manager
 Applet and application window size also affects layout

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                                    Java GUI
     Types of Layouts
   FlowLayout
   BorderLayout
   GridLayout
   CardLayout
   GridBagLayout
   BoxLayout
   NullLayout

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                                                            Java GUI

 Components “flow” onto form left-to-right and top-to-bottom
 Components take on “normal” size

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                                                         Java GUI
   The Code

Container contentPane = getContentPane();

   contentPane.setLayout(new FlowLayout());
   contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 1"));
   contentPane.add(new JButton("2"));
   contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 3"));
   contentPane.add(new JButton("Long-Named Button 4"));
   contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 5"));

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                                                                   Java GUI
   The FlowLayout API
 Three constructors:
   public FlowLayout()
   public FlowLayout(int alignment)
   public FlowLayout(int alignment, int horizontalGap, int verticalGap)

 The alignment argument must have one of the values :
   FlowLayout.LEFT, FlowLayout.CENTER, FlowLayout.RIGHT.
 horizontalGap and verticalGap specify the number of pixels to
  put between components.
   default gap value = 5 pixels.
 Properties:
   Alignment, Hgap, Vgap: int, RW,

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                                                              Java GUI

 Container divided into five regions: West, North, East, South,

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                                                                    Java GUI
public class BorderLayout1 extends JApplet {
   public void init() {
     Container cp = getContentPane();
     cp.setLayout(new BorderLayout()); // default is FlowLayout
    cp.add(new JButton("North") , BorderLayout.NORTH);
// cp.add(BorderLayout.NORTH, new JButton("North")); // also ok!
// cp.add(new JButton("North"), “North”); // also ok!
    cp.add(BorderLayout.SOUTH, new JButton("South"));
    cp.add(BorderLayout.EAST, new JButton("East"));
    cp.add(BorderLayout.WEST, new JButton("West"));
    cp.add(BorderLayout.CENTER, new JButton("Center"));
 Default for most things
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                                                           Java GUI
   Additional properties of BorderLayout
 (Horizontal and Vertical ) Gaps between components
 constructor:
   BorderLayout(int hgap, int vgap)
 methods:
   void setHgap(int)
   void setVgap(int)

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                                            Java GUI
 Organized in rows & columns

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                                                               Java GUI
   The code
 Container contentPane = getContentPane();
   contentPane.setLayout(new GridLayout(3,2));
  contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 1"));
  contentPane.add(new JButton("2"));
  contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 3"));
  contentPane.add(new JButton("Long-Named Button 4"));
 contentPane.add(new JButton("Button 5"));
 APIs:
public GridLayout(int rows, int columns [, int hgap, int vgap ])

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                                                                        Java GUI
 Use JTabbedPane instead.
import java.awt.*;
public class main extends JApplet implement ActionListner {
   CardLayout cards = new CardLayout();
   JButton b1 = new JButton(“one”), …, b3 = new JButton(“three”);
   b1.addActionListner( this); … ; b3.addActionListner(this)
   public void init() {
     setLayout( cards );
     add( new Button("one"), "one" );
     add( new Button("two"), "two" );
     add( new Button("three"), "three" );
  public void actionPerformed( ActionEvent e) { // flip to next card!
     cards.next( this ); }
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                                                      Java GUI
     CardLayout API
   void first(Container)
   void next(Container)
   void previous(Container)
   void last(Container)
   void show(Container, String cardID)
    show card identified by cardID.

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                                                         Java GUI

 Flexible layout manager that aligns components
  horizontally and vertically, without requiring that the
  components be the same size
 Quite a mess to program
   Must use GridBagConstraints
   This is what happens without resources
 You can accomplish a lot by combining other layout
 To make it easier, Swing has BoxLayout

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                                                           Java GUI

 Place all components in a row or in a column.
 Much of the benefit of GridBagLayout without the pain
 Has helper class Box which uses BoxLayout and builds
  components for you

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                        Java GUI

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                                                                     Java GUI
     The Layout structure


rigidArea(0,5)                                                   Center



                 HorizontalGlue   JButton         JButton
  JPanel (BorderLayout)                rigidArea(10,0)
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                                                                 Java GUI
The Code
JScrollPane listScroller = new JScrollPane(list);
 listScroller.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(250, 80));
 listScroller.setMinimumSize(new Dimension(250, 80));
 //Lay out the label and scroll pane from top to bottom.
 JPanel listPane = new JPanel();
 listPane.setLayout(new BoxLayout(listPane, BoxLayout.Y_AXIS));
 JLabel label = new JLabel(labelText);
 listPane.add(Box.createRigidArea(new Dimension(0,5)));

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                                                                     Java GUI

// Lay out the buttons from left to right.
    JPanel buttonPane = new JPanel();
    buttonPane.setLayout(new BoxLayout(buttonPane, BoxLayout.X_AXIS));
    buttonPane.setBorder(BorderFactory.createEmptyBorder(0, 10, 10, 10));
    buttonPane.add(Box.createRigidArea(new Dimension(10, 0)));

// Put everything together, using the content pane's BorderLayout.
    Container contentPane = getContentPane();
    contentPane.add(listPane, BorderLayout.CENTER);
    contentPane.add(buttonPane, BorderLayout.SOUTH);
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                                                                     Java GUI
   Box Layout Features
 the box layout takes the components„ alignments and minimum,
  preferred, and maximum sizes into account.
 Respect each component's requested minimum and maximum
 Use preferred height ( or weight ) as default.
 layout principles:
   tries to make all of its container's components equally wide -- as wide
    as the largest preferred width.
   container wider => make all the components as wide as the container.
    If the components aren't all the same width then X alignment comes
    into play.

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                                                       Java GUI
   Container wider than maximumSize
 All components‟s AllignmentX are LEFT_ALLIGNMENT(0.0)
 All components‟s AllignmentX are CENTER_ALLIGNMENT(0.5)
 All components‟s AllignmentX are RIGHT_ALLIGNMENT(1.0)

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                                                             Java GUI

 Components have different allignmentXs: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0.

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                                                                   Java GUI
   When no component has maximumSize
 same allignmentX => made as wide as their container.
 different allignmentX :
   components with an X alignment of 0.0 (left) or 1.0 (right) will be
   components with an intermediate X alignment will be as wide as their

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                                                                      Java GUI
   Using Invisible Components as Filler
 to have space between components:
   add an empty border to one or both components, or
   insert invisible components to provide the space.
   use Box class to create invisible components.
 Creating invisible components with Box and Box.Filler.

         Type              SizeConstraint   HowToCreate

  rigidArea                                 Box.createRigidArea(size)

              horizontal                    Box.createHorizontalGlue()
              vertical                      Box.createVerticalGlue()

  custom Box.Filler                         new Box.Filler(minSize,
                                            prefSize, maxSize)
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                                                           Java GUI
   Rigid area
 Use this when you want a fixed-size space between two
 container.add(firstComponent);
 container.add(Box.createRigidArea(new Dimension(5,0)));
 container.add(secondComponent);

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                                                               Java GUI
          container.add(firstComponent);
          container.add(Box.createHorizontalGlue());
          container.add(secondComponent);

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                                                         Java GUI
   Custom Box.Filler
// ensure 5~100 pixels b/t components and 100 px height
Dimension minSize = new Dimension(5, 100);
Dimension prefSize = new Dimension(5, 100);
Dimension maxSize = new Dimension(Short.MAX_VALUE, 100);
container.add(new Box.Filler(minSize, prefSize, maxSize));

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                                                           Java GUI
   Specifying Component Sizes
 change the minimum, preferred, and maximum sizes in two
 Invoking setXxxSize method ( defined by the JComponent
   comp.setMinimumSize(new Dimension(50, 25));
   comp.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(50, 25));
   comp.setMaximumSize(new Dimension(Short.MAX_VALUE,
    Short.MAX_VALUE ));
 Overriding getXxxSize method:
   ...//in a subclass of a component class:
    public Dimension getMaximumSize() {
    size = getPreferredSize();
    size.width = Short.MAX_VALUE;
         return size;
         }
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                                                                              Java GUI
    The Box and BoxLayout API
 Constructors:
    BoxLayout(Container, int axis)
    Box(int axies)
    // create a Box : subclass of Container but not JComponent
    static Box createHorizontalBox() // = new Box(BoxLayout.X_AXIS)
    static Box createVerticalBox()
 Constructors or methods creating Space Fillers
    Component createRigidArea(Dimension) Create a rigid lightweight component.
    Component createHorizontalGlue()
    Component createVerticalGlue()
    Component createGlue()      Create a glue lightweight component.
                          Horizontal glue and vertical glue can be very useful.
    Component createHorizontalStrut()
    Component createVerticalStrut()       Create a "strut" lightweight component. We
                          recommend using rigid areas instead of       struts.
    Box.Filler(Dimension, Dimension, Dimension)

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                                                             Java GUI
   Null Layout (absolute Positioning)
 setLayout(null);
 Programmers are responsible for setting the size and position
  of each component. ( via setBounds(x, y, witdth, height))

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                                                                       Java GUI
    The code
public class NoneWindow extends JFrame { . . .
   private boolean laidOut = false;   private JButton b1, b2, b3;
   public NoneWindow() {
      Container contentPane = getContentPane();

       b1 = new JButton("one");           contentPane.add(b1);
       b2 = new JButton("two");           contentPane.add(b2);
       b3 = new JButton("three");         contentPane.add(b3);
       Insets insets = contentPane.getInsets();
       b1.setBounds(25 + insets.left, 5 + insets.top, 75, 20);
       b2.setBounds(55 + insets.left, 35 + insets.top, 75, 20);
       b3.setBounds(150 + insets.left, 15 + insets.top, 75, 30);
      }       ...    }
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                                                               Java GUI
   Event Handling
 Not limited to ActionListener
   InputEvent: KeyEvent, MouseEvent, MouseMotionEvent,
   ContainerEvent, ComponentEvent,…
 Each type of event represented by a class
 Component responds to an event by making an event object
  and calling each “listener” registered for that event
 An event listener implements a particular listener interface
  using an inner class
 addXXXListener( ) adds a listener to your component,
  removeXXXListener( ) un-registers it

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                                                                     Java GUI
   Java Event Model
 delegation ( or forwarding ) model
    l = new EventListener(…)
             b=new EventSource(…)
              addXXXListener(l)                                Event e1 occurs


                                                               Event e2 occurs


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                                                                         Java GUI

Event, listener interface and add-and   Components supporting this event
ActionEvent                             Button, List, TextField, MenuItem,
ActionListener ; addActionListener( )   CheckboxMenuItem, Menu and
removeActionListener( )                 PopupMenu

AdjustmentEvent                         Scrollbar, Anything you create that
AdjustmentListener ;                    implements Adjustable
addAdjustmentListener( )
removeAdjustmentListener( )
ComponentEvent                          Component and its derivatives,
ComponentListener                       including Button, Canvas, Checkbox, Choice,
                                        Container, Panel, Applet,
addComponentListener( )                 ScrollPane,Window,Dialog,FileDialog,Frame,L
removeComponentListener( )              abel,List, Scrollbar, TextArea and TextField

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                                                                           Java GUI
Event, listener interface and add-and   Components supporting this event

ContainerEvent                          Container and its derivatives,
ContainerListener                       including Panel, Applet, ScrollPane, Window,
addContainerListener( )                 Dialog, FileDialog and Frame
removeContainerListener( )
FocusEvent                              Component and its derivatives,
FocusListener                           including Button, Canvas, Checkbox, Choice,
addFocusListener( )                     Container, Panel, Applet, ScrollPane,
removeFocusListener( )                  Window, Dialog, FileDialog, Frame Label,
                                        List, Scrollbar, TextArea and TextField
KeyEvent                                Component and its derivatives,
KeyListener                             including Button, Canvas, Checkbox, Choice,
addKeyListener( )                       Container, Panel, Applet, ScrollPane,
removeKeyListener( )                    Window,Dialog,FileDialog,Frame,Label,
                                        List, Scrollbar, TextArea and TextField

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                                                                               Java GUI

Event, listener interface and add-and     Components supporting this event
MouseEvent (for both clicks and motion)   Component and its derivatives,
MouseListener;                            including Button, Canvas, Checkbox, Choice,
addMouseListener( )                       Container, Panel, Applet, ScrollPane,
removeMouseListener( )
                                          List, Scrollbar, TextArea and TextField
                                          MouseEvent (for both clicks and motion)
MouseMotionEvent                          Component and its derivatives,
MouseMotionListener                       including Button, Canvas, Checkbox, Choice,
addMouseMotionListener( )                 Container, Panel, Applet, ScrollPane,
removeMouseMotionListener( )
                                          List, Scrollbar, TextArea and TextField

WindowEvent                               Window and its derivatives,
WindowListener                            including Dialog, FileDialog, Frame, JFrame,
addWindowListener( )
removeWindowListener( )

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                                                         Java GUI

 Event type: ItemEvent
  listener interface: ItemListener
  add-and-remove-methods : addItemListener( ),
   removeItemListener( )
  Components supporting this event : Checkbox,
   CheckboxMenuItem, Choice, List and anything that
   implements ItemSelectable.
 Event type: TextEvent
  listener interface: TextListener
  add-and-remove-methods : addTextListener( ),
   removeTextListener( )
  Components supporting this event :Anything derived from
   TextComponent, including TextArea and TextField
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                                                                  Java GUI

    Subinterfaces of EventListner and their methods
 Listener interface/ adapter Methods in interface
 ActionListener              actionPerformed(ActionEvent)
 AdjustmentListener          adjustmentValueChanged(AdjustmentEvent)

 ComponentListener,         componentHidden(ComponentEvent)
  ComponentAdapter           componentShown(ComponentEvent)

 ContainerListener,         componentAdded(ContainerEvent)
  ContainerAdapter           componentRemoved(ContainerEvent)
 FocusListener,             focusGained(FocusEvent) // get keyboard
  FocusAdapter               focusLost(FocusEvent) // lost keyboard
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                                                                 Java GUI
   Subinterfaces of EventListner and their methods
 Listener interface w/ adapter Methods in interface
 KeyListener,                 keyPressed(KeyEvent)
  KeyAdapter                   keyReleased(KeyEvent)

 MouseListener,                   mouseClicked(MouseEvent)
  MouseAdapter                     mouseEntered(MouseEvent)

 MouseMotionListener,             mouseDragged(MouseEvent)
 MouseMotionAdapter               mouseMoved(MouseEvent)
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                                                                 Java GUI
   Subinterfaces of EventListner and their methods
 Listener interface w/ adapter Methods in interface
WindowListener,            windowOpened(WindowEvent)
WindowAdapter              windowClosing(WindowEvent)

 ItemListener              itemStateChanged(ItemEvent)
 TextListener              textValueChanged(TextEvent)
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                                                        Java GUI
    And more in Swing:
 AncestorListner
 CaretListner, CellEditorListner
 ChangeListner
 HyperlinkListner
 InternalFrameListner
 ListDataListner
 ListSelectionListner
 MenuDragMouseListner, MenuKeyListner,,MenuListner
 PopupMenuListner
 TreeExpansionListner, TreeSelectionListner,
 java.bean.propertyChangeListner, vetoableChangeListner

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                                                               Java GUI

 Component programming model
 True power in visual programming
 Must be able to instantiate, query and configure objects
  at design time
 Java 1.1 reflection provides method and field
  information on a live object
  Methods, arguments, return values
 Beans specifies a naming convention
  Identifies design-time fields, event handlers

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                                                              Java GUI
   What is a Bean?

 Just a class (thus easy to learn & use)
 Supports three concepts:
 Follows naming convention to identify these
  Java call this convention a “design pattern”

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                                                            Java GUI
   Properties, Methods, Events

 For a property named xxxx of type T, create two
  pubic T getXxxx( ) // capitalize the first char
  public void setXxxx(T ).
  (First letter automatically capitalized).
  boolean property: may also use “is” instead of “get.”
  boolean isXxxx()
  Ordinary methods are public
 Events use the same “Listeners,” with add- and
  remove- methods like before
 You can create your own event types
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                                                           Java GUI
   A Simple Bean
class Spots {}
public class Frog {
private int jumps;
private Color color;
private Spots spots;
private boolean jmpr;
public int getJumps() { return jumps; }
public void setJumps(int js) { jumps = js; }
public Color getColor() { return color; }
public void setColor(Color c) { color = c; }
public Spots getSpots() { return spots; }
public void setSpots(Spots newSpots) { spots = newSpots; }
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                                                                          Java GUI

public boolean isJumper() { return jmpr; }
public void setJumper(boolean j) { jmpr = j; }
public void addActionListener(ActionListener l) { //...
public void removeActionListener(ActionListener l) { // ...
public void addKeyListener(KeyListener l) { // ...
public void removeKeyListener(KeyListener l) { // ...
// An "ordinary" public method:
public void croak() { System.out.println("Ribbet!"); }
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                                                       Java GUI

 Introspector automatically analyzes a Bean for
  properties, events & methods

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                                                    Java GUI

 “Listener” event model and Beans are a big step
 Swing is the best UI library I‟ve seen
 All Swing components are JavaBeans
 Numerous application builders use Beans
 Beans enable RAD environments
 Beans support more sophistication than shown here

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                                                            Java GUI

   Java GUI has gone through a lot of design changes
   Enough of an intro to get you started
   Use a GUI builder for serious development
   Other references:
    “Core Java 2” by Horstmann & Cornell, Prentice-Hall
    Online help

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                                                             Java GUI
   Problem 4
1. Create an JFrame with a text field and 3 buttons. When you
   press each button, make some different text appear in the text
2. Add a check box to your JFrame,capture the event and insert
   different text into the text field.
3. Add a set of radio buttons which change the text in the text
4. Add a menu that changes the text field when any of its menu
   item is selected.

                                                 Transparency No. 142
            Java GUI

Transparency No. 143
                                                                              Java GUI
    More Java topics …
 Not detailed:
    JDBC, RMI, JavaBeans
    advanced Swing :Jtree, JTable, JText,…
 Not covered:
    Java Security model
    Internationalization ( i18n, l10n )
    Native Methods,
    Java 2D, Java 3D, Java mulitmedia framework (JMF)
    XML, JavaMail
 J2EE:
    JDBC, RMI, Servlet and JavaServer page, java IDL (Corba), Java Transaction service
     (JTS), RMI over IIOP, Java Message Queue(JMQ), JNDI, Enterprise JavaBeans
 J2ME:
    KVM, Configuration: CLDP,
    profile: MIDP

                                                                  Transparency No. 144
                                                                      Java GUI
   Java 2 platform targeted at consumer electronics and
    embedded devices.
   consists of
     a virtual machine ( KVM, thirdParty: Colored KVM, J9 ) and
     a set of APIs suitable for providing tailored runtime environments for
      consumer and embedded electronics.
   two primary kinds of components
     Configurations: low-level APIs and optimized virtual machines
      targeted at two broad categories of devices:
     180K ~512K(CLDC: Connection limited device configuration), and
     profile: a specification that details the JavaTM technology APIs, built
      on top of and utilizing the underlying Configuration, necessary to
      provide a complete runtime environment for a specific kind of device.
     Known profiles: MIDP (Mobile Information Device profile)
                                                          Transparency No. 145

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