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									Program for the
Sixth William R. and Lenore Mote International Symposium

Life History in Fisheries Ecology and Management
14-16 November 2006 Sarasota, Florida

Hosted by

F l o r i d a S t a te U n i v e r s i ty M o t e M a r i n e L a b o r a t o ry

Steering Committee
Felicia Coleman (Chair), Florida State University Larry B. Crowder (2004–2005 Mote Eminent Scholar), Duke University Lobo Orensanz (2003–2004 Mote Visiting Scholar), National Research Council of Argentina Marc Mangel (2000 Mote Eminent Scholar), University of California, Santa Cruz Susan C. Sponaugle, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Kenneth Leber, Mote Marine Laboratory

Cover photo: Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis, in the Steamboat Lumps Marine Reserve on the West Florida Shelf

William Russell Mote (1906-2000) At the age of 93, William R. (Bill) Mote left a legacy of vision, of pursuit, and of accomplishment. Although he made his fortune as a young man in the transportation business, developing efficient means of moving cargo from ship to shore, he is undoubtedly best known for his unwavering commitment to marine discovery and for his generous spirit. A dedicated conservationist and an avid fisherman with a preoccupation for snook rivaling God’s for beetles, Mr. Mote put his energy and his money where his heart led him. Few men or women of means have made similar commitments, particularly as early in their philanthropic careers as he. He rescued a fledgling and orphaned Cape Haze Marine Laboratory and, together with the late Dr. Perry Gilbert, Professor Emeritus at Cornell University, and Dr. Eugenie Clark, professor at the University of Maryland, moved it physically and philosophically to become one of the better independent laboratories in the country. The laboratory bearing his name I think he would consider his finest accomplishment--an institution committed to pursuits in marine education and understanding on every level. Bill Mote’s intent when he established the Mote Endowment at FSU was to provide support for eminent scholars, for international symposia in fisheries ecology, and for young undergraduate students to conduct marine research. His reasoning and his choices in doing so were impeccable. Thousands of school children visit the Mote Marine Laboratory both remotely and actually each year. Hundreds of scientists either use the laboratory as a base or collaborate with resident scientists on issues ranging from red tide to turtle protection and aquaculture. Bill Mote Scores more from around the world gather every other year for the Mote International Symposium to tackle some of the most contentious and complicated issues facing fisheries management today. The intent is to take an emerging area of concern--such as stock enhancement, marine reserves, or precautionary management--to investigate divergent points of view, and always to focus on the root problems of extracting living marine resources from the sea. The publication of the proceedings from these symposia feeds directly into conservation and fisheries policy arenas. Truly, these serve as palpable testimony to Bill Mote's interests and philanthropy and will continue in the same vein in the years ahead. Bill Mote retained to the end a crystal-clear vision of his mission in life. He voiced his often-repeated concern that we’d taken too much from the sea and that it was time to give something back. He was certainly right on the first point, given recent statements by the United Nations and the National Academy of Science that most of the world’s oceans are overfished. Given the legacy he’s left us, he clearly Bill Mote and Perry Gilbert accomplished the second. He has most assuredly given back, and we thank him gratefully for it.

The William R. and Lenore Mote Endowment The William R. and Lenore Mote Endowment in Fisheries Ecology and Enhancement was established at Florida State University in the Department of Biological Science in November of 1994 with a generous gift from the late Bill Mote (1906-2000) of Sarasota, Florida to allow collaborative interactions between Florida State University and the Mote Marine Laboratory. The endowment also enables the Department of Biological Science to expand its ecological focus, providing new research opportunities for faculty and new educational experiences for students. The primary goal is to further the understanding and management of our dwindling marine fisheries. The endowment supports: The Mote Eminent Scholars 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1997 Dr. Larry Crowder, Duke University Dr. Ana María Parma , National Research Council of Argentina. Dr. Carl Walters, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Dr. Carl Walters, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Dr. Marc Mangel, University of California, Santa Cruz. Dr. David Conover, State University of New York, Stony Brook.

The Mote Visiting Scholars 2003 Dr. José "Lobo" Orensanz, National Research Council of Argentina. 1997 Dr. John Miller, North Carolina State University, Raleigh The Mote International Symposia in Fisheries Ecology Proceedings of previous Mote International Symposia have been published as:
"Marine Stock Enhancement: A New Perspective," Bulletin of Marine Science 62:303-714 (1998) "Essential Fish Habitat and Marine Reserves," Bulletin of Marine Science 63:525-1010 (2000) "Targets, Thresholds, and the Burden of Proof," Bulletin of Marine Science 70:397-790 (2002) "Confronting Trade-offs in the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management," Bulletin of Marine Science 74:489-762 (2004) "The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Integrating Marine and Human Ecology into Fisheries Management," Bulletin of Marine Science, in preparation

Young Investigator Awards at Previous Symposia
2000 Shelton Harley, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (best paper) Dan Kehler, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (best poster) 2002 Sarah K. Gaichas, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington (best paper) Teresa Ish, University of California, Santa Cruz (best poster) 2004 Trevor A. Branch, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (best paper) Katy K. Doctor, Sustainable Fishery Advocates, Santa Cruz, California (best poster)

Undergraduate Summer Internships at Mote Marine Laboratory for FSU students
Kathleen O’Malley (pursuing Ph.D. at Oregon State University) Julie Cavin (pursuing DVM at North Carolina State University, veterinary medicine) Julie Krawczyk (currently a graduate student at Nova Southeastern University) Haley Skelton (pursuing a Ph.D. at North Carolina State University) Caitlin Scott (recent Florida State University graduate) Kathy Malik (undergraduate in the Florida State University Department of Biological Science) Emalee Heidt (undergraduate in the Florida State University Department of Biological Science)

Symposium sponsors
The Florida State University William R. and Lenore Mote Endowment The Florida State University Department of Biological Science The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Science Center Environmental Defense The American Fisheries Society Marine Fisheries Section Mote Scientific Foundation

Young Investigator Award
Young Investigator Award: At the end of the symposium, two prizes will be awarded to young investigators (graduate students or individuals who received the Ph.D. degree no more than five years ago), one for best oral presentation and one for best poster. Eligible presentations are designated "(YI)" in the program. The results will be announced during the symposium's closing ceremonies on Thursday afternoon.

Mote Symposium Steering Committee Department of Biological Science Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1100

Symposium Format and Topics Successful fisheries management requires a significant depth of understanding of fisheries operations, but scientists are finding more and more that a thorough understanding of basic life history is critically important if living marine resources are to be managed well. Species with different life-history strategies, for example, cannot necessarily be managed in the same way without risk of colossal management failures. Integrating fisheriesdependent data with information on life-stage linkages with habitat, for instance, is essential. The symposium will address the following issues: (1) Sex allocation, sexual selection, and mating systems. Relevant problems include the harvest of sequential hermaphrodites (e.g., pandalid shrimps, groupers), as well as the implications of self-fertilization in simultaneous hermaphrodites that are also broadcast spawners (e.g., many scallops). The relevance of understanding mating systems is well illustrated in many male-only crab fisheries. (2) Life history of growth and development. Predictive bioenergetics models for enhancement of fishery management; larval condition/survivorship, including maternal/paternal influences on early life. (3) Life-history consequences of fishing. (4) Habitat linkages (associations with life-stage bottlenecks) and individual movements/migrations among habitats (seasonal or ontogenetic).

Participants not presenting papers or posters are welcome.

Sixth William R. and Lenore Mote International Symposium in Fisheries Ecology

"Life History in Fisheries Ecology and Management"
14–16 November 2006 Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida
________________________________________________________________________________

Monday, 13 November 2006
4:00–6:00 pm: Steering Committee Meeting, Lido Beach Resort 6:00–8:00 p.m.: Preregistration and social, Lido Beach Resort ________________________________________________________________________________

Tuesday, 14 November 2006
If a paper will be presented by anyone other than the author listed first, the presenter's name is marked by an asterisk. 7:30–8:40 a.m.: Registration, Mote Marine Laboratory 7:30–9:00 a.m.: Continental breakfast at Mote Marine Laboratory  9:00–9:10 a.m.: Felicia C. Coleman. Florida State University. Introductory remarks  9:10–9:15 a.m.: Kumar Mahadevan. President, Mote Marine Laboratory. Welcome Session Ia. Axes of the Life History Template: Spatial Scale, Habitat Complexity, Size Session chair: Robert Warner  9:15–9:45 a.m.: Robert Warner. University of California, Santa Barbara. Sporadic, short-distance dispersal: implications for management and marine life histories  9:45–10:15 a.m.: John Caddy. International Fisheries Consultant, Rome Italy. The importance of "cover" in structuring the life history of demersal and benthic marine resources: a neglected issue in marine fisheries assessment and management?  10:15–10:45 a.m.(YI): Melissa Snover. Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Hawaii. Interactions between top-down and bottom-up factors influencing of the timing of ontogenetic habitat shifts in marine organisms  10:45–11:05 a.m.: Coffee Break Session Ib. Ultimate: Fishing as a Selective Agent Session chair: Robert Warner  11:05–11:35 a.m.: Mikko Heino1 and Ulf Dieckmann.2 1University of Bergen; 2Leiden University. Fishing as a driving force of contemporary life-history evolution in fishes  11:35–12:05 a.m.: Ray Hilborn and Carolina V. Minte-Vera. University of Washington. Impacts of size selective fishing: ecology trumps evolution  12:05–12:35 p.m.: David O. Conover and Stephan B. Munch. Stony Brook University. Spatial and temporal scales of adaptive divergence in marine fishes  12:35–1:55 p.m.: Lunch

Tuesday, 14 November 2006 (continued)
Session IIa: From Ultimate to Proximate Session chair: Susan C. Sponaugel  1:55–2:25 p.m.: Marc Mangel. University of California, Santa Cruz. Combining proximate and ultimate approaches to understand life-history variation in salmonids with application to fisheries, conservation, and aquaculture  2:25–2:55 p.m.: Bernard Sainte-Marie,1 Thierry Gosselin,1,2 Jean-Marie Sévigny,1 and Nicola Urbani.3 1Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Québec; 2Université du Québec à Rimouski; 3 GeneChem Management Inc., Montréal. Opportunity for natural and unnatural sexual selection in the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio; Brachyura, Majidae)  2:55–3:15 p.m.: Coffee Break Session IIb: Populations: Dynamics and Management Session chair: Susan C. Sponaugel  3:15–3:45 p.m.: Suzanne H. Alonzo,1 Teresa Ish,2 Meisha Key,3 Marc Mangel,2 and Alec D. MacCall.2 1Yale University; 2University of California, Santa Cruz; 3California Department of Fish and Game. Sex change, life history, and stock dynamics: assessing the status of the California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher  3:45–4:15 p.m.: Selina Heppell and Scott Heppell. Oregon State University. There's NOT a sucker born every minute: episodic recruitment, resilience, and management strategies  4:15–4:45 p.m.: Kai Lorenzen. Imperial College London. Beyond "stock and recruitment": density-dependent body growth in recruited fish and its role in population regulation and dynamics  4:45–5:15 p.m.: James H. Cowan. Louisiana State University. Life history, history, hysteresis, and the EFH paradigm  5:15–6:00 p.m.: Round-table Discussion: Joseph Travis, chair.  6:00–8:00 p.m.: Reception and Poster Session at the Mote Marine Laboratory ________________________________________________________________________________

Wednesday, 15 November 2006
7:30–9:00 a.m.: Continental Breakfast at Mote Marine Laboratory Session III. Contributed Papers: Dispersal, Recruitment, and the Influence of Habitat Session chair: Marc Mangel  9:00–9:15 a.m.: (YI) Lyndie A. Hice and David O. Conover. Stony Brook University. Geographic variation in Atlantic silverside vertebral number: the interplay between local adaptation and gene flow  9:15–9:30 a.m.: E. J. Niklitschek1 and David H. Secor.2 1Universidad Austral de Chile; 2 University of Maryland. Modeling growth, survival and behavior to index habitat suitability for juvenile Atlantic sturgeon in estuarine waters  9:30–9:45 a.m. (YI): Lora M. Clarke,1 Benjamin D. Walther,2 Stephan B. Munch,1 Simon R. Thorrold,2 and David O. Conover.1 1Stony Brook University; 2Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Use of otolith geochemistry to determine population connectivity in a locally adapted marine species  9:45–10:00 a.m. (YI): Sarah Walters,1 Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri,1 Joel Bickford,1 and David Mann.2 1Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute; 2University of South Florida. Spatial and temporal variability in spawning habitat use: an example using spotted seatrout  10:00–10:15 a.m. (YI): R. J. Woodland and D.H. Secor. University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. Recovery of an endangered population of shortnose sturgeon due to habitat restoration  10:15–10:30 a.m.: William F. Herrnkind,1 Mark J. Butler,2 and John H. Hunt.3 1Florida State University; 2Old Dominion University; 3Florida Marine Research Institute. From life-history research to a nursery-wide test of recruitment limitation of spiny lobster in the Florida Keys  10:30–10:50 a.m.: Coffee Break  10:50–11:05 a.m.: Steven J. D. Martell,1 Meaghan Darcy,1 Gerard DiNardo,2 and Carl J. Walters.1 1University of British Columbia; 2NOAA Fisheries, Hawaii. A hierarchical assessment framework for metapopulations connected through larval dispersal: application to lobster populations in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands  11:05–11:20 a.m.: David H. Secor1 and Richard T. Kraus.2 1University of Maryland; 2 George Mason University. Alternate life cycles and the storage effect

Wednesday, 15 November 2006 (continued)
 11:20–11:35 a.m. (YI): L. A. Kerr and D. H. Secor. Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland. Bioenergetic implications of alternative habitat use by juvenile white perch (Morone americana) within an estuarine environment Session IV. Contributed Papers: Effects of Fishing on Life Histories: Sex Allocation, Mating, and Development Session chair: Kenneth Leber  11:35–11:50 a.m.: Mark Butler,1 Alison MacDiarmid,2 Thomas Dolan,1 and Michael Goodrich.1 1Old Dominion University; 2NIWA, New Zealand. Mating behavior, sperm limitation, and fishing: empiricism and modeling of spiny lobsters in Florida and New Zealand  11:50–1:10 p.m.: Lunch  1:10–1:25 p.m.: Sean P. Cox1 and Allen Robert Kronlund.2 1Simon Fraser University; 2 Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Evaluating management strategies for British Columbia sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) given uncertain maternal age effects on juvenile survival  1:25–1:40 p.m.: Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri, Joel Bickford, and Sarah Walters. Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. Reproductive output in multiple-batch spawners: how accurate are our estimates?  1:40–1:55 p.m. (YI): Yasmin Lucero. University of California, Santa Cruz. Will rockfish rebuild faster if we bring back the old moms? Maternal effects and fisheries consequences  1:55–2:10 p.m.: Michael R. O‘Farrell1 and Louis W. Botsford.2 1NMFS, Santa Cruz; 2 University of California, Davis. Maternal age dependent larval mortality: implications for fisheries management  2:10–2:25 p.m. (YI): Guido Plaza1 and Minoru Ishida.2 1Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; 2National Research Insitute of Fisheries Science, Kochi, Japan. Evidence for the bigger is better mechanism in larval cohorts of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus  2:25–2:40 p.m. (YI): Darren W. Johnson. Oregon State University. Effects of condition and density on postsettlement survival and growth in a marine fish

Wednesday, 15 November 2006 (continued)
Session IV. Contributed Papers: Effects of Fishing on Life Histories: Sex Allocation, Mating, and Development (continued) Session chair: Nathaniel K. Jue  2:40–2:55 p.m. (YI): Shahaama Abdul Sattar, Christian Jørgensen, and Øyvind Fiksen. University of Bergen. Effects of fisheries on energy and sex allocation in slow-growing hermaphrodites such as groupers  2:55–3:15 p.m.: Coffee Break  3:15–3:30 p.m.: Christopher C. Koenig, Felicia C. Coleman, and Maurizio Tomaiuolo. Florida State University. Mechanism of fishing-induced sex-ratio disruption in gag  3:30–3:45 p.m.: (YI) Tara A. Duffy, David O. Conover, and Anne E. McElroy. Stony Brook University. Effects of xenoestrogens on reproductive traits in a fish with environmental sex determination, the Atlantic silverside Session V. Contributed Papers: Effects of Life-history Changes on Population Dynamics Session chair: Nathaniel K. Jue  3:45–4:00 p.m.: Carl Walters,1 Steven J. D. Martell,1 and Behzad Mahmoudi.2 1University of British Columbia; 2Florida Marine Research Institute. An Ecosim model for exploring ecosystem management options for the Gulf of Mexico: implications of including multistanza life-history models for policy predictions  4:00–4:15 p.m.: (YI) Katja Enberg, Erin S. Dunlop and Ulf Dieckmann. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria. Ecological and evolutionary recovery of exploited fish stocks  4:15–5:00 p.m.: Round-table Discussion: Robert Warner, chair.  After 5:00 p.m.: On your own

Thursday, 16 November 2006
7:30–9:00 a.m.: Continental Breakfast at Mote Marine Laboratory Session V. Contributed Papers: Effects of Life-history Changes on Population Dynamics (continued) Session chair: Kai Lorenzen  9:00–9:15 p.m. (YI): Jill H. Swasey,1 Jennie M. Harrington,1 and Andrew A. Rosenberg.2 1 MRAG Americas, Inc. Essex, MA; 2University of New Hampshire. The effects of fishing pressure and life history characteristics on U.S. rebuilding strategies  9:15–9:30 p.m.: Elizabeth N. Brooks,1 Joseph E. Powers,2 and Enric Cortes.1 1National Marine Fisheries Service; 2Louisiana State University. Analytic benchmarks for age-structured models: application to data-poor fisheries  9:30–9:45 a.m. (YI): Kate Cresswell. University of California, Santa Cruz. Individual-based modeling of the life histories of krill and their predators and implications for the management of the krill fishery  9:45–10:00 a.m. (YI): Robert Lessard, Ray Hilborn, and Brandon Chasco. University of Washington. Explicitly modeling life history to assess sockeye salmon productivity  10:00–10:15 a.m. (YI): Ivan Mateo. University of Rhode Island. Application of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model to Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod populations  10:15–10:30 a.m.: Martin D. Smith. Duke University. Endogenous fishing mortality in life-history models: relaxing some implicit assumptions  10:30–10:50 p.m.: Coffee Break  10:50–11:05 a.m.(YI): William Eldridge,1 Jeff Hard,2 and Kerry Naish.1 1University of Washington; 2NOAA, Seattle. Population viability of Chinook salmon following harvest selection  11:05–11:50 a.m.: Round-table Discussion: Carl Walters, chair.  11:50–1:10 p.m.: Lunch Session VI. Contributed Papers: Effects of Fishing on Life History: Maturity, Growth, and Mortality Session chair: Yasmin Lucero  1:10–1:25 p.m.: Thomas R. Matthews,1 Kerry E. Maxwell,1,2 Rodney D. Bertelsen,1 and Charles D. Derby.2 1Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2Georgia State University. Fishery effects on population structure and reproduction in the Caribbean spiny lobster

Thursday, 16 November 2006 (continued)
Session VI. Contributed Papers: Effects of Fishing on Life History: Maturity, Growth, and Mortality (continued) Session chair: Yasmin Lucero

 1:25–1:40 p.m. (YI): David R. Swank1 and Edward S. Rutherford.2 1University of
California, Santa Cruz; 2University of Michigan. Temporal life-history variation in Great Lakes steelhead populations  1:40–1:55 p.m. (YI): A. T. Laugen,1 P. Boudry,2 and B. Ernande.1 1IFREMER, Port-enBessin, France; 2IFREMER, La Tremblade, France. Exploitation-induced changes in farmed stocks of Pacific oysters along the French Atlantic coast  1:55–2:10 p.m. (YI): David S. Boukal,1 Andr M. de Roos,2 and Lennart Persson.3 1 University of Bergen; 2University of Amsterdam; 3Ume University. Irreversible evolutionary changes in life histories of exploited fish  2:10–2:25 p.m. (YI): Erin S. Dunlop,1 Marissa L. Baskett,2 Mikko Heino,3 and Ulf Dieckmann.1 1International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria; 2 Princeton University; 3University of Bergen. The influence of marine reserves on the evolutionary responses to fishing  2:25–2:40 p.m.: Timothy E. Essington1 and Phillip Levin.2 1University of Washington; 2 NOAA Fisheries, Seattle. Life-history correlates of predation impacts: when is fishing the same as predation?  2:40–2:55 p.m.: Christian Jørgensen,1 Øyvind Fiksen,1 and Bruno Ernande.2 1University of Bergen; 2IFREMER, Port-en-Bessin, France. Effects of different management regimes on harvest-induced life history evolution in Northeast Arctic cod  2:55–3:15 p.m.: Coffee Break  3:15–3:30 p.m. (YI): Neala Kendall and Tom Quinn. University of Washington. Long term fishery selection on length and age at maturity of sockeye salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska  3:30–4:15 p.m.: Round-table Discussion: Mark Mangel, chair.  4:15–5:45 p.m.: Tours of Mote Marine Lab Facilities  6:00 p.m.: Dinner at Mote Marine Laboratory, Presentation of Awards, Symposium Concludes

Posters
(presented 6:00–8:00 p.m., Tuesday, 14 November, and 6:00-8:00 p.m., Thursday, 16 November, at the Mote Marine Laboratory)  (YI) Katy K. Doctor. University of Washington. Fishing out evolution: Fishery selection on the upriver migration timing of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in the Wood River System, Bristol Bay, Alaska  (YI) K. T. Honey1 and R. M. Fujita.2 1Stanford University; 2Environmental Defense. A different type of life history: introducing cultural determinants of success into the biology and economics of California fisheries management  Sergey Ignatyev. Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, Sevastopol. Ukraine Features of the biology of mass species of fishes in the coastal waters of the Antarctic peninsula

 (YI) Holly K. Kindsvater,1 Marc Mangel,2 and Michael B. Bonsall.3 1University of Florida; 2 University of California, Santa Cruz; 3University of Oxford, U.K. Correlates of longevity in Sebastes: patterns of mortality and life history  Peter J. Rubec,1 Jesse Lewis,1 David Reed,1 Charles F. Ashbaugh,2 Curt Lashley,2 Salvatore Versaggi,3 Robert H. Weisberg,4 Lianyuan Zheng,4 Ruoying He,4 and Chris Jenkins.5 1 Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2SASCO Inc., 3Versaggi Shrimp Corp., 4University of South Florida, 5University of Colorado at Boulder. How upwelling affected the pink shrimp fishery during 2004: linking oceanographic modeling and benthic mapping with habitat suitability models on the west Florida shelf  (YI) William H. Satterthwaite. University of California, Santa Cruz. Predicting smolting and maturation in coastal and valley populations of steelhead in central California  (YI) Kate I. Siegfried. University of California, Santa Cruz. When can we assume a constant natural mortality for fish populations? An application to California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher)  J. D. Simons,1 T. J. Shirley,2 J. Wood,2 J. Lester,3 S. Glenn,3 L. Gonzalez,3 J. Ditty,4 J. E. Smith,5 K. Withers,6 and M. E. Vega.7 1Texas Parks and Wildlife Department; 2Harte Research Institute, Corpus Christi, Texas; 3Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, Texas; 4National Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston; 5Texas State Aquarium, Corpus Christi, Texas; 6Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, 7CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. A marine and estuarine trophic database for the Gulf of Mexico: a proposal

Posters (continued)
 C. M. St. Mary and H. K. Kindsvater. University of Florida. Departures from static life-history optima in fishes  (YI) John Wiedenmann. University of California, Santa Cruz. Rebuilding fisheries: the impact of a skewed age distribution on long-term recovery

Abstracts (alphabetical by author)
Effects of fisheries on energy and sex allocation in slow-growing hermaphrodites such as groupers (Wednesday afternoon) Shahaama Abdul Sattar, Christian Jørgensen, and Øyvind Fiksen. University of Bergen. Fishing is identified as a potential cause for driving evolution towards earlier maturation in many fish stocks and has been suggested to lead to earlier sex change in sex-changing species such as groupers. Many studies have focused on the ecological effects of fisheries on sex-changing fish, but little attention has been directed towards understanding the evolutionary responses to high and size-dependent fishing mortality. We have developed an individual-based model of emergent size at maturity and energy allocation under varying levels of fishing mortality. In the model, individuals differ in their age at maturation and energy allocated to reproduction in male and female phase. Our results predict that these traits are quite sensitive to even low fishing mortalities. Age and length at both maturation and sex change decrease in the population with increasing fishing mortalities. The model predicts shifts (at the population level) between a hermaphroditic and dioecious strategy with increasing fishing mortalities, as well as decreasing population size and increasing female to male sex ratios with fishing effort. Yield peaks at low to intermediate levels of fishing mortality (about 0.08 year-1). The simplest form of management of the fishery requires implementing a low fishing mortality and choosing proper size limits for the fishery.

Sex change, life history, and stock dynamics: assessing the status of the California sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher (Tuesday afternoon) Suzanne H. Alonzo,1 Teresa Ish,2 Meisha Key,3 Marc Mangel,2 and Alec D. MacCall.2 1Yale University; 2University of California, Santa Cruz; 3California Department of Fish and Game. Understanding population dynamics and predicting the response of species to exploitation depends on our knowledge of vital rates such survival, growth and reproduction. However, in any species there may be spatial, temporal and individual variation in these parameters. One of the most striking patterns of individual variation occurs in species that exhibit protogynous sex change where individuals reproduce first as females and later as males. Although many sexchanging species are exploited, we still have little information on how this life history pattern influences the response of a species to fishing and the performance of existing assessment methods. We use the California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher, a protogynous sex-changing species) as an illustrative example to determine whether existing methods can be used to assess the status of a sex-changing species and determine how uncertainty in life history parameters affect the estimated status of the stock and its predicted response to fishing. Using data from multiple sources, we developed individual based models to assess the status of the stock, determine the performance of spawning per recruit measures and examine the effect of uncertainty in key life history parameters on our ability to assess the stock dynamics of this sex-changing species.

Irreversible evolutionary changes in life histories of exploited fish (Thursday afternoon) David S. Boukal,1 Andr M. de Roos,2 and Lennart Persson.3 1University of Bergen; 2University of Amsterdam; 3Ume University. (YI) Fish in exploited stocks mature earlier and usually at smaller sizes because of genetic and plastic responses. The latter occur e.g. when individual fish grow faster at lower population sizes due to reduced competition for food. Using a sizestructured consumer-resource model based on a planktivorous fish life history, we show that exploitation can easily induce irreversible evolutionary changes in individual life histories and stock properties. As a result of annual spawning, early maturation at small sizes and late maturation at large sizes can become alternative, evolutionary and ecologically stable states in the same environment. Exploitation of late-maturing populations can induce evolution to smaller maturation sizes associated with stepwise decreases in age at first reproduction. We show that complete and early fishing moratoria slowly reverse this process, but belated or partial moratoria can accelerate or even instigate further evolution to smaller sizes at maturation.

Analytic benchmarks for age-structured models: application to data-poor fisheries (Thursday morning) Elizabeth N. Brooks,1 Joseph E. Powers,2 and Enric Cortes.1 1National Marine Fisheries Service; 2Louisiana State University. We derive analytic results for MSY benchmarks and show that they can be calculated directly from maximum lifetime reproductive rate. This rate can be calculated directly from biological parameters of maturity, fecundity, and natural mortality, or a distribution can be derived from appropriate metadata. Given an index of relative abundance, current stock status can be evaluated relative to the benchmarks to determine overfished and overfishing status. Our derivations lead to a reparameterization of the common stock recruit relationships, Beverton-Holt and Ricker, in terms of SPRMSY. Often, the parameters in a stock recruit relationship are set based on a hypothesized or presumed level of stock resiliency; parameterizing directly in terms of SPRMSY makes those hypotheses more transparent and more intuitive. The ability to directly calculate benchmarks from biological data makes the method an attractive option for datapoor fisheries such as those for many sharks, artisanal fisheries (e.g., the Caribbean), or bycatch species. The benchmark derivation in terms of life history information provides a link between biological characteristics and appropriate management.

Mating behavior, sperm limitation, and fishing: empiricism and modeling of spiny lobsters in Florida and New Zealand (Wednesday morning) Mark Butler,1 Alison MacDiarmid,2 Thomas Dolan,1 and Michael Goodrich.1 1Old Dominion University; 2NIWA, New Zealand. Fishing-induced changes in the size structure of exploited populations may alter reproductive success not only through its effects on female size and egg production, but also via effects on male size. Fertilization success may decline in fished populations if mating depends on male-female size relationships and frequency- or size-dependent behavioral interactions. We are using spatially-explicit, individual-based modeling to integrate laboratory and field data, and to disentangle the roles that male and female abundance and size structure play in determining reproductive success. We compare spiny lobster populations in MPAs and fished regions, as well as species with contrasting mating systems and reproductive strategies, namely: the New Zealand Rock Lobster (Jasus edwardsii) and the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus). Our results indicate that brood size may be sperm limited in heavily exploited New Zealand populations where operational sex ratios are heavily skewed toward females by fishing. In Florida, where fishing removes large individuals of both sexes from the population, we find no evidence of sperm limitation. Model results suggest that the large number of small males in the Florida population, each mating with only a few small females, may counter-balance the loss of large males that would otherwise dominate matings.

The importance of "cover" in structuring the life history of demersal and benthic marine resources: a neglected issue in marine fisheries assessment and management? (Tuesday morning) John Caddy. International Fisheries Consultant, Rome Italy. The literature on habitat requirements of early life history stages of motile demersal macrofauna are reviewed from the perspective of the essential role of cover in many life history functions. Post-planktonic stages often settle in complex habitats with fractal characteristics that protect small organisms, and post-larval and juvenile stages may depend on topographical features which are limited in extent. A majority of benthic habitats are sedimentary and low in structural complexity and structural elements may have been further reduced by anthropogenic activities. Many marine demersal organisms move between specific habitats with size, stage and age, but the stage-specific risk of death from natural causes remains approximately the same for all stages, since as stage duration increases, predation risk per unit time declines. An evolutionary motive for this generalisation is suggested. In addition to maintaining spawning potential as suggested by a stock-recruit focus, stock replenishment is equally threatened by degradation of the habitats of successive life history stages. Migration often occurs across seascapes where cover connectivity is limited and predation risk is high. Bottlenecks in recruitment supply may occur naturally and nullify spawning success, and can be further accentuated by human activities which fragment cover resources. For motile marine organisms, two rates of natural mortality apply: one while ‗under cover‘, and a higher rate ‗in the open‘ of the foraging arena, or when migrating between stage-specific habitats. Hence, loss of cover increases risk of death. It also reduces foraging success by restricting the area of adjacent foraging arenas, and affects other life history activities tied to cover. The carrying capacity of a marine habitat may thus be determined by the holding capacity of that stage-specific habitat with the lowest carrying capacity, and not by gamete production or the trophic supplies available to adults. Where a habitat bottleneck exists or is created, trophic resources and suitable habitat for adults are underused and do not necessarily limit fishery productivity. Mature individuals may also require spawning refugia where habitat protection from harvesting is essential to stock replenishment. Remediation of limited areas of critical habitat offers the potential for production enhancement or counteracting the effects of overfishing, but cannot co-exist with trawl gear designed to fish on rough bottom. A summary of representative literature on the role of marine cover is provided as an annex, and the relevance of this perspective to standard assessment and stock rebuilding theory is briefly discussed.

Use of otolith geochemistry to determine population connectivity in a locally adapted marine species (Wednesday morning) Lora M. Clarke,1 Benjamin D. Walther,2 Stephan B. Munch,1 Simon R. Thorrold,2 and David O. Conover.1 1Stony Brook University; 2Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. (YI) Patterns of connectivity are important in understanding the geographic scale of local adaptation. High connectivity, or the exchange of individuals among subpopulations, is assumed in most marine species because of life histories that include widely dispersive stages. However, evidence of local adaptation in coastal species raises questions concerning the degree of connectivity. We examined geochemical signatures in the otoliths of juvenile Atlantic silversides, Menidia menidia, collected in 16 locations along the northeastern coast of the United States from New Jersey to Maine in 2003 and 9 locations in 2004 using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Spatial and temporal trends in otolith geochemistry were examined. Juvenile fish showed significant site-specific differences and were assigned to natal sites with 70% classification accuracy using quadratic discriminant analysis. Use of this algorithm allowed us to assign natal origin to spawning adults captured the following year in the same locations. Results show that Menidia menidia exhibit highly dispersive behavior with over 50% migrating greater than 200 km from natal sites. These findings suggest high connectivity and demonstrate marine species with largely open populations are capable of local adaptation despite apparently high gene flow.

Spatial and temporal scales of adaptive divergence in marine fishes (Tuesday morning) David O. Conover and Stephan B. Munch. Stony Brook University. Knowledge of geographic and temporal scales of adaptive genetic variation is crucial to species conservation yet our understanding of these phenomena, particularly in marine systems, is scant. Until recently, the belief has been that because most marine species have highly dispersive or mobile life stages, local adaptation could occur only on broad geographic scales. Similarly, the time scale of adaptive divergence has also been assumed to be very long, requiring thousands of generations. Recent studies of a variety of species have challenged these beliefs. There is strong evidence of geographically structured local adaptation in physiological and morphological traits and the proportion of quantitative trait variation at the among-population level (QST) is much higher than it is for neutral markers (F ST). Moreover, evidence is accumulating that selection can cause rapid adaptive divergence on contemporary time scales. The differing spatial and temporal scales of adaptive vs. neutral genetic divergence call for a new paradigm in our thinking about the relationship between phenogeography (the distribution of phenotypic variation) and phylogeography (the distribution of lineages) in marine species. The idea that contemporary selective processes can cause fine scale spatial and temporal divergence underscores the need for a new emphasis on Darwinian fishery science.

Life history, history, hysteresis, and the EFH paradigm (Tuesday afternoon)
James H. Cowan. Louisiana State University. The success of single species approaches to fisheries management has been disappointing, and has resulted in a national dialogue about concepts of ecosystem management, as emphasized in the President’s Commission Report on the State of the Ocean, the Pew Ocean’s Report, language in the Sustainable Fisheries Act (SFA), and in a recent NRC (2006) study. As a first step towards the ecosystem approach, the SFA mandated delineation of “essential fisheries habitat”, but provided only a vague description of how this was to be defined. Subsequent guidelines and research in response to this mandate have attempted to clarify the definition of EFH, and to describe important fish/habitat relationships for a variety of species, but neither have convincingly excluded or included many habitats from consideration. I contend that problems have arisen because delineation of EFH is an extension of the single species approach, albeit with more consideration of geography and life history. Moreover, in several recent studies it has been shown that man-induced changes in ecosystem function can result from top-down effects such as fishing, habitat modifications, pollution, eutrophication, etc., resulting in a shift in the ecological baseline. In such cases, the altered ecosystems are often much less responsive to simple management actions that attempt to recover ecosystem functionality. This occurs for a variety of reasons ranging from reductions or changes in habitat, to reorganizations of foodwebs because of the removal of strong interactors in the ecosystem. Regardless of the mechanisms, however, alternate steady states that have been caused by forcing from the top-down may be less likely to return to a state that resembles “pristine”, and thus less likely to provide ecological goods and services and fisheries productivity that are similar to pre-disturbed conditions. In my opinion, this further compromises the need to define EFH from a single species perspective, and reiterates the need to move as quickly as possible towards ecosystems-based fisheries management.

Evaluating management strategies for British Columbia sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) given uncertain maternal age effects on juvenile survival (Wednesday afternoon) Sean P. Cox1 and Allen Robert Kronlund.2 1Simon Fraser University; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Maternal age effects, in which survival rates of progeny from older mature fish are greater than those for younger mature fish, are likely to cause non-stationarity in stock production relationships. Such non-stationarity could cause rapid stock declines, or even collapse, under intense size-selective fishing. Although maternal age effects have been demonstrated in laboratory studies, it is unlikely that this phenomenon could be detected and taken into account in quantitative stock assessments for large-scale commercial fisheries. However, this does not imply that such effects should be ignored in developing robust fishery management procedures. We developed a closed-loop simulation procedure to test the performance of adaptive and non-adaptive harvest decision rules under severe, moderate, and no maternal age effects on juvenile survival. Neither the assessment models nor the decision rules took maternal age effects into account. We applied the approach to British Columbia sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), which is a longlived, deep water species that grows relatively rapidly in early life and matures at 5-7 years of age despite longevity of approximately 70-80 years.

Individual-based modeling of the life histories of krill and their predators and implications for the management of the krill fishery (Thursday morning) Kate Cresswell. University of California, Santa Cruz. (YI) Antarctic krill are central to Southern Ocean ecosystems, forming in many areas a direct link between the primary production and higher predators. The chief economic interest in krill stems from a krill fishery that began in the late 1970‘s, and although the catch has remained at a low steady rate, recent advancements in krill processing threaten to increase drastically the impact of this fishery. Krill are under additional pressure due to a particularly high predation rate from land-based predators during summer in the Southern Ocean. In addition, some authors have reported a longterm decline in krill by as much as 80% over the last 30 years, due most probably to a life-history constraint that links juvenile survival to a sea-ice extent that is declining rapidly with global warming. The abundance of krill manifests itself in the breeding success of land-based predators during sensitive life-history stages; predators in some areas suffer breeding failure in years of low krill abundance. We used an individual-based modeling technique to investigate the interaction between krill and their predators in specific areas of the Southern Ocean, to predict the effects of an increasing krill fishery.

Fishing out evolution: fishery selection on the upriver migration timing of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, in the Wood River System, Bristol Bay, Alaska (poster) Katy K. Doctor. University of Washington. (YI) Fisheries have the ability to create strong selection pressures on life history traits of target species. The effects of fishery selection on the upriver migration timing of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations in the commercially productive Bristol Bay region of Alaska is one such example. This fishery is highly productive, as indicated by record sockeye catches occurring over the past 20 years. One explanation for this sustained success is the inherent biocomplexity of these stocks. Local adaptation of life history traits has enabled stocks to sustain productivity and has provided the system as a whole with resilience during different climatic regimes and events. Migration timing is a highly heritable trait that exists within many aquatic and marine species. The predictable and consistent upriver migration timing of Pacific salmon provide an excellent model to study fishery selection. Consistent upriver migrations of locally adapted populations are driven by a combination of environmental and genetic controls. Evidence of segregation in upriver migration timing among spawning populations has been tested and could prove important when examining the effects of commercial fishing. The Bristol Bay fishery is managed by escapement and, due to the nature of this strategy, is temporally biased towards heavier fishing at the end of the run. This bias in fishing pressure allows the examination of the effects that selective fishing may have on segregated migratory stocks.

Effects of xenoestrogens on reproductive traits in a fish with environmental sex determination, the Atlantic silverside (Menidia menidia) (Wednesday afternoon) Tara A. Duffy, David O. Conover, Anne E. McElroy. Stony Brook University. (YI) Reproductive capacity, sex ratio skew, and population success of aquatic organisms are affected by xenobiotic chemicals in coastal waters, demonstrated in numerous species of fish. Organisms that possess unique sex determining systems, may be particularly sensitive indicators of these anthropogenic impacts. The Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, is used to address reproductive impacts as it exhibits both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genetic sex determination (GSD), depending upon latitude. Populations across the species range were reared at two temperatures to determine the geographic distribution of the sex determining mechanism. Fish tissues were examined to determine patterns of reproductive development. Endocrine disruption of populations was addressed by exposing silversides to varying concentrations of an exogenous estrogen. Exposure during the period of sex differentiation indicated differential sensitivity to xenoestrogens between populations, with greater impact in fish exhibiting TSD. Microgeographic variation ofsex ratio in relation to urbanization was assessed using fish collected from New York estuaries. Histological sections were examined to determine reproductive impairment. Disruption was noted both in fish tissues and in skewed sex ratios. Species with ESD appear to be more sensitive to xenoestrogens than those with strict genetic sex determination, and may therefore be better indicators of anthropogenic influence.

The influence of marine reserves on the evolutionary responses to fishing (Thursday afternoon) Erin S. Dunlop,1 Marissa L. Baskett,2 Mikko Heino,3 and Ulf Dieckmann.1 1International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria; 2Princeton University; 3University of Bergen. (YI) Several recent theoretical and empirical studies have provided evidence that fishing is capable of inducing evolutionary changes in key life history traits. These evolutionary changes can have unwanted consequences, such as reduced body sizes in the catch, which might lead to a deterioration of the quality of the fishery. Therefore, managers need viable options for slowing, stopping, or reversing the evolutionary consequences of fishing. In this study, we explore one potential management strategy by developing and analyzing an eco-genetic model aimed at studying the effects of marine reserves on fishing-induced evolution. Our model advances previous theoretical approaches by including features such as phenotypic plasticity, density-dependent growth, and evolution of multiple life history traits. We parameterize our model for a population of cod that undergoes an annual migration from feeding grounds to spawning grounds. Using our model, we explore the consequences of marine reserve location (either in the feeding grounds or in the spawning grounds) and proportion of area protected on the speed, direction, and magnitude of evolutionary responses. The results of our model underscore the importance of having an evolutionary perspective when implementing management strategies aimed at protecting commercially important fish stocks.

Population viability of Chinook salmon following harvest selection (Thursday morning) William Eldridge,1 Jeff Hard,2 and Kerry Naish.1 1University of Washington; 2NOAA, Seattle. (YI) There are several empirical examples of the role of harvest in causing evolution of fish populations. Few methods, however, have explicitly used quantitative genetic approaches to understand the relationships between life history variation, harvest strategies and fishery induced evolution. We developed a genetic-based model of a Chinook salmon fishery, parameterized from empirical data and incorporating heritability values for length at age, to assess a range of harvest regimes on long-term abundance. Lengths at age for each age group were treated as different, but correlated, traits. The model showed that a constant exploitation rate above a minimum size will reduce abundance below levels predicted by a model that does not consider genetic diversity. All age groups, including those not under selection, respond to selection by becoming smaller and less fecund. When harvest occurs between a minimum and maximum size limit only, the population will evolve rapid growth to avoid the fishery, and the population may have higher abundance after 100 years than would be predicted by a nongenetic model. Under both selection regimes a faster growing population could sustain higher harvest rates and therefore had greater responses to selection.

Ecological and evolutionary recovery of exploited fish stocks (Wednesday afternoon) Katja Enberg, Erin S. Dunlop and Ulf Dieckmann. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria. (YI) As a result of the ongoing declining trends in the abundance of many exploited fish stocks, fisheries management is compelled to deal also with stocks that have collapsed and are in the phase of recovery. Evolutionary changes caused by fisheries are known to affect the genetic and phenotypic structure of the exploited fish stocks. These changes have been most visible on the life history characteristics influencing age and size at maturation traits that have a major influence on the reproductive potential of an individual. Is the recovery potential of fished stocks also influenced by such changes? Moreover, are such adaptive changes in, for example, maturity schedule, restorable? In our paper we study, by means of an eco-genetic model with multiple evolving traits, how fisheries-induces evolution affects and is affected by the collapse and recovery of fish stocks. The population dynamical component of our model is influenced by environmental variability, and we have parameterized the model with life history traits resembling those of Atlantic cod. We investigate the interplay between ecological (population size and biomass) and evolutionary (genetic composition and adaptability) recovery and study whether it is possible to facilitate the recovery process.

Life-history correlates of predation impacts: when is fishing the same as predation? (Thursday afternoon) Timothy E. Essington1 and Phillip Levin.2 1University of Washington; 2NOAA Fisheries, Seattle. One justification for developing fisheries on lower-trophic level species is that fishing ―replaces‖ predation that would otherwise be carried out by the depleted high trophic level species. Yet, fish predators and fisheries generally have markedly different size selectivities, so they remove individuals in different life-history stages. We evaluated the equivalancy of predation and fishing losses in generic population models that were based on empirically derived lifehistory invariants. These invariants, which are markedly similar across taxonomically related species, characterize the gross nature of life-history strategies adopted by taxonomic groups. We parameterized the model for the orders pleuronectiformes, clupeiformes, gadiformes, and the genus Sebastes and evaluated whether the magnitude of population regulation imposed by predation is equivalent to that imposed by fishing. We find that in most cases, fishing has the largest effect on population growth rate because it tends to remove individuals in life stages that have the highest reproductive value. This pattern was most pronounced for Sebastes and pleuronectiformes and was least pronounced for clupeiformes. These contrasts result from the markedly different life-history strategies adopted by these species. We suggest that fishing be viewed as distinct from predation when the cumulative impacts of fisheries development on food webs are evaluated.

Fishing as a driving force of contemporary life-history evolution in fishes (Tuesday morning) Mikko Heino1 and Ulf Dieckmann.2 1University of Bergen; 2Leiden University. Today, fishing is the dominant source of mortality in most commercially exploited fish stocks. Life-history theory predicts that changes in mortality regimes cause selection on life-history traits. In particular, increased mortality can strongly favor earlier maturation. Indeed, commercially exploited fish stocks often show trends towards earlier maturation. However, earlier maturation may also simply reflect phenotypic plasticity – triggered, for example, by improved individual growth in overexploited stocks. Until recently, the difficulties involved in disentangling plastic and evolutionary components of life-history changes have hindered understanding the nature of these phenotypic changes. To help overcome this problem, we introduced probabilistic reaction norms for age and size at maturation: by estimating such reaction norms, one can control for growth-related phenotypic plasticity and changes in mortality. A suite of methods for estimating these reaction norms is now available. Addressing different types of data, these methods have been applied to at least 17 stocks, representing eight different species of marine and freshwater fish. All but two of these case studies suggest that a significant evolutionary component has contributed to the observed trends in age and size at maturation. Remarkably, this component is often detectable at time scales as short as a couple of decades.

Theres NOT a sucker born every minute: episodic recruitment, resilience, and management strategies (Tuesday afternoon) Selina Heppell and Scott Heppell. Oregon State University. Simple compensation models for stock assessment assume a constant and instantaneous relationship between population density and growth. While the models can be modified for slow species such as sharks, or fast species, such as herring, it has long been recognized that this fast-slow continuum is insufficient for teleosts because many species follow a periodic or bet-hedging spawning strategy linked to extreme variability in environmental conditions that affect larval survival. The importance of strong year classes is well recognized, but selection pressures that have shaped the bethedging strategy have generally not been considered in management. For long-lived species such as Pacific rockfishes, Atlantic cod, orange roughy, sturgeon and freshwater suckers, populations may typically exhibit a declining annual population growth rate marked by occasional pulses of strong recruitment. Occasional may be as rare as once per generation episodic, rather than periodic and density-dependence may be manifested differently from Beverton-Holttype stock-recruit relationships. Age-structure may be critical in these populations to assure adequate spawning during the good years, either through protracted spawning seasons or larval condition factors determined by maternal effects. These species must be managed in ways that promote, rather than suppress, their natural resilience to environmental perturbations, including climate change.

From life-history research to a nursery-wide test of recruitment limitation of spiny lobster in the Florida Keys (Wednesday morning) William F. Herrnkind,1 Mark J. Butler,2 and John H. Hunt.3 1Florida State University; 2Old Dominion University; 3 Florida Marine Research Institute. On the basis of extensive empirical research on the early life history of Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in the Florida Keys nursery, we hypothesized that recruitment is limited in a density-dependent manner by shelter-imposed thresholds, below which the population fluctuates in response to local changes in postlarval supply. Thus, we envisioned the nursery to be a mosaic where, at the extremes, juvenile recruitment at some sites is limited by nurseryhabitat suitability and at others by postlarval supply. Local juvenile populations are linked by the subsequent movement of older nomadic juveniles among sites, any of which can be influenced by temporal variation in postlarval supply or environmental degradation. Our spatially explicit individual-based model, constructed from measured biological and ecological parameters of early life stages, suggested that recruitment operates in this way. We recently concluded a four-year study designed to test the hypothesis and to specify how the supply of postlarvae varies along the Florida Keys archipelago and whether these conditions vary according to regional oceanographic features. We also modeled and experimentally tested how postlarval supply and nursery habitat structure link to the local recruitment of juveniles at sites throughout the nursery. Results support our hypothesis, suggesting that integrating life-stage features, spatial and temporal heterogeneity in habitat structure, and postlarval supply is essential to understanding and predicting population-level consequences to recruitment.

Geographic variation in Atlantic silverside vertebral number: the interplay between local adaptation and gene flow (Wednesday morning) Lyndie A. Hice and David O. Conover. Stony Brook University. (YI) The Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia , displays strong latitudinal variation in vertebral number along the east coast of North America. To determine how gene flow and local adaptation might influence this pattern, we are investigating fine-scaled variation in vertebral number. Field data showed an increase in the mean number of vertebrae with increasing latitude, in accordance with Jordan‘s rule. Progeny of field populations reared in a common environment show a similar trend, indicating a genetic basis to the trait. Such strong correlation with an environmental gradient implies that variation in vertebral number is adaptive. Moreover, we present evidence from a long-term selection experiment that vertebral number evolves rapidly in concert with selection on body size. Our field results also provided evidence of a flattening of correlation with latitude at the northern and southern ends of the distribution, implying that gene flow constraints local adaptation at the edges of the range. There were also abrupt shifts in the relationship between vertebral number and latitude near regions of distinct habitat change such as Cape Hatteras and Cape Cod. Taken together, these results reveal the interplay of gene flow and local adaptation in determining geography of vertebral number.

Impacts of size selective fishing: ecology trumps evolution (Tuesday morning) Ray Hilborn and Carolina V. Minte-Vera. University of Washington. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the evolutionary impacts of fishing, and many have argued that selective pressure on large fish can cause growth rates to decline with major implications to sustainability of fishing. In this paper we review the data on heavily exploited fish populations and show that contrary to these expectations, most marine fish stocks tend to grow faster rather than slower when subjected to heavy fishing. Further we show that the actual selective regimes in marine fish stocks are vastly different from the experimental fishing regimes which are the basis for most concerns, and the selective pressure in most fisheries is not particularly strong. While certainly there is some selective pressure in many fisheries against fast growing individuals, the trophic dynamics of ecosystem appear to trump any evolutionary impacts.

A different type of life history: introducing cultural determinants of success into the biology and economics of California fisheries management (poster) K. T. Honey1 and R. M. Fujita.2 1Stanford University; 2Environmental Defense. (YI) Many California fisheries have declined in recent decades, both ecologically and economically. Historically, fishery managers focused on maximizing access to public trust ocean resources. This management approach fostered an emphasis on short-term cash flow, rather than on longer-term asset building in many fisheries. Alternative management models exist to create stewardship incentives with potential to simultaneously benefit the environment, fishermen, and coastal communities. The aim of our project is to ascertain the key biological, economic, and cultural determinants of success in meeting specific objectives for a variety of fishery management regimes (e.g., community-based management, fishery cooperatives, area-based management, community development quotas, and individual transferable quota programs). Results from our primary literature review and preliminary field interviews suggest that collaborative research, localized management, and regulatory reform will be necessary. We are developing several pilot projects in collaboration with California fishermen incorporating these elements. We are also developing an integrated approach to reforming the harvest, processing, and distribution/marketing sectors in order to achieve synergies. These integrated research and management models will include detailed proposals of preferred management optionsexplicitly incorporating fisherman "life-history" and coastal community preferencesto enhance prospects for protecting and enhancing ocean ecosystems, fishery revenues, coastal communities, and working waterfronts.

Features of the biology of mass species of fishes in the coastal waters of the Antarctic peninsula (poster) Sergey Ignatyev. Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU, Sevastopol, Ukraine. My research is based on a year-round study of the ichthyofauna in coastal waters near the Ukrainian Vernadsky Antarctic Station in 2002-03. Of the eight species collected (seven Notothenidae, one Harpagiferidae), bullhead notothen (Notothenia coriiceps) occurred most frequently (71%), followed by emerald notothen (Trematomus bernacchii) (17%) and dusky notothen (T. newnesi) (7%). All species were benthic or near-benthic, and most were predators-benthophages. Amphipods and isopods dominated their diet, which also include algae and mollusks. Krill made up less than 3%. Bullhead notothen mean length was 22.8 cm (ranged 12.5–43.5 cm); mean weight was 387.4 g (range 60–1820 g); 35% of individuals were 12–25 cm in length and 65% over 25 cm. Male:female ratio was 1:1.6. Males averaged 25.7 cm in length (range 13.0–37.0 cm); females 23.5 cm (range 12.5–43.5 cm). Gonadsomatical index revealed one pulse in gametogenesis and autumn-winter spawning. It peaked in April–May, but began increasing as early as September. Emerald notothen mean length was 14.3 cm (range 5.4–21.0 cm); mean weight was 72.8 g. Male:female ratio was 1:1.6. Males averaged 11.95 cm (range 5.4–15.5 cm), females 15.7 cm (range 11.5–21.0 cm. Spawning took place in October–November.

Effects of condition and density on postsettlement survival and growth in a marine fish (Wednesday afternoon) Darren W. Johnson. Oregon State University. (YI) For many marine species, variation in the condition of settling larvae may affect post-settlement survival and growth. It has been suggested that such effects are an important source of recruitment variability. However, the effects of variation in condition must be considered together with other processes that affect post-settlement performance and operate at the same time. In this study, I investigated both the independent and interactive effects of condition and population density on postsettlement survival and growth of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus). In a field experiment I crossed two levels of population density with two levels of condition (established by laboratory feeding of recent settlers) and measured growth and survival over a 30-day period. Low condition and high density both decreased survival. However, the effects of density were much stronger and the effects of condition and density on survival were additive. In contrast, condition and density had interactive effects on growth where local density reduced growth only in the high condition treatments. An overall comparison based on the production of new biomass throughout the experiment indicated no significant interaction and further suggested that the effects of variation in early condition are small relative to the effects of density.

Effects of different management regimes on harvest-induced life history evolution in Northeast Arctic cod (Thursday afternoon) Christian Jørgensen,1 Øyvind Fiksen,1 and Bruno Ernande.2 1University of Bergen; 2IFREMER, Port-en-Bessin, France. Field and lab experiments, analyses of fisheries data, theory, and models all corroborate that harvest may induce rapid and substantial life-history changes in many exploited fish stocks. Which life history trait will change and to what degree depend on the selectivity of the fishery and the ecology and life history of the species in question, making it hard to reach generalizable conclusions about potentially successful management options. Here, we ask to what degree different management regimes may decrease or reverse the negative effects of harvest-induced life-history evolution in the Northeast Arctic cod. We use a state-dependent energy-allocation life-history model for cod. A set of life-history strategies are optimized by varying the mortality, and we then use quantitative genetics to describe how these strategies change in frequency in a population as a result of harvest-induced selection. We can thus quantify the evolutionary effect of fishing on life-history change and assess evolutionary rates. We present the effects of three different management regimes: marine protected area, maximum size limit, and minimum size limit. Marine protected areas and minimum size limits result in reduced evolutionary rates compared to current fishing regimes, while maximum size limits produce little change.

Long term fishery selection on length and age at maturity of sockeye salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska (Thursday afternoon) Neala Kendall and Tom Quinn. University of Washington. (YI) Life history traits of wild animals can be strongly influenced by human activities. Fishing gear, specifically gillnets, selectively remove certain individuals within a population and can affect life-history traits such as size and age at maturity. A sockeye salmon gillnet fishery has been located at the Wood River system of Bristol Bay, Alaska, for over 100 years. Past research suggests that this fishery can be selective on size and age based on mesh size and fishery timing. However, fishing pressure and fishery management have varied greatly among years, and long-term selection has not been examined. I am investigating the magnitude and nature of gear selectivity by this fishery on length and age at maturity of the sockeye salmon over time. These processes will be examined for the lake system as a whole and individual spawning populations within the system using over 50 years of data. A historical reconstruction of size- and age-selective fishing will be performed. Selection metrics to estimate vulnerability of sockeye of different lengths and ages and selection variability will be calculated. I will also assess population-specific fishery exploitation, and will model the effects of fishing on size and age at maturity on these populations.

Bioenergetic implications of alternative habitat use by juvenile white perch (Morone americana) within an estuarine environment (Wednesday morning) L. A. Kerr and D. H. Secor. Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, University of Maryland. (YI) During their first year of life, estuarine-dependent white perch in the Patuxent River will either exhibit retentive behaviors causing juveniles to persist in freshwater natal habitats (retentive contingent) or disperse into down-estuary brackish habitats (dispersive contingent). Otolith microchemical analysis showed that these two behaviors are discrete and have consequences to population resiliency. Here, we test bioenergetic consequences of either behavior. A randomized factorial experiment with two contingent types (fresh and brackish water) and two salinity treatments (1 and 8) was conducted over a 30 day period. Based upon osmoregulatory costs, we hypothesized that fish reared in mesohaline conditions would devote a greater apportionment of energy towards growth, and feeding metabolism than those reared in freshwater, regardless of contingent membership. Alternatively, if contingent membership is associated with varying energetic tactics, a contingent effect should be observed. Experiments supported higher allocation of energy to growth in mesohaline conditions and evidence a small amplitude contingent effect. We conclude that habitat use of mesohaline environments by juvenile white perch results in higher growth rates regardless of dispersal history. We speculate that the retention of juveniles in freshwater nurseries is related to survival benefits, perhaps due to reduced exposure to predation that occurs during dispersal.

Correlates of longevity in Sebastes: patterns of mortality and life history (poster) Holly K. Kindsvater,1 Marc Mangel,2 and Michael B. Bonsall.3 1University of Florida; 2University of California, Santa Cruz; 3University of Oxford, U.K. (YI) Life history has recently been recognized to be a critical component of species management, especially for the longlived members of the genus Sebastes, a diverse group of fishes in the Northeast Pacific. We examine correlations in ecological and physical habitat traits with life-history. Some members of this genus exhibit extraordinary longevity (>150 years). Life-history theory provides the expectation that ecological traits (asymptotic body size, age, and size at maturity) are correlated with lifespan. Alternatively, habitat traits (depth, temperature, and oxygen concentration) may underlie physiological mechanisms explaining lifespan. We used phylogenetically independent contrasts in order to control for the possibility that the correlation in traits was due to evolutionary history. We used the most recent phylogeny available with estimates of ecological (maximum size, age at maturity and size at maturity) and physical traits (depth, temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentration) compiled from the literature. We found that, after phylogeny is corrected for, age and size at maturity predicted lifespan, suggesting the primary importance of natural mortality in shaping the evolution of Sebastes species and supporting a more comprehensive treatment of this parameter in fishery stock-assessment models.

Mechanism of fishing-induced sex-ratio disruption in gag (Wednesday afternoon) Christopher C. Koenig, Felicia C. Coleman, and Maurizio Tomaiuolo. Florida State University. During the 1990s researchers discovered that the percent males in the gag, Mycteroperca microlepis, population had declined from a historical level of 17–20% to 2.4% in both the Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic Bight. The decline was correlated with, and thus assumed related to, increased fishing pressure. Our work on gag in the Madison Swanson Fishery Reserve (NE Gulf) and other work suggest a mechanism for fishing-induced changes in sex ratio. We found that males remain on spawning sites year-round, sex change is initiated during the spawning period, and most transitionals and new males occur after this period. Males increase in the catch after the spawning season, as fishers target aggregation sites year round. It is therefore likely that the species is constantly compensating for the paucity of males in the spawning aggregations, but never realizing the unfished spawning sex ratio because males are caught up between spawning (and sexchange induction) periods. Based on this model only closed areas, not closed seasons, protect the normal sex ratio in this species.

Exploitation-induced changes in farmed stocks of Pacific oysters along the French Atlantic coast (Thursday afternoon) A. T. Laugen,1 P. Boudry,2 and B. Ernande.1 1IFREMER, Port-en-Bessin, France; 2IFREMER, La Tremblade, France. (YI) In addition to demographic consequences for the target species, commercial exploitation of living resources may induce adaptive changes in life history traits because of selective harvesting. Such changes may be expressed as either immediate plastic responses to environmental variation or as microevolution potentially occurring within decades. Using a suitable model system, the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), we aim to disentangle plastic and evolutionary components of life-history changes in this commercially important species. Following the extinction of the Portuguese oyster (C. angulata) 35 years ago, Pacific oysters originating from Japan were introduced to the France to sustain production. Since then, there has been a gradual decrease in growth rates and delay in timing of spawning. By using time series of environmental parameters to remove noise due to plastic responses in time series of phenotypic traits we may observe temporal trends in residuals and thereby separate the effects of plasticity and evolution on the observed changes in growth and reproduction. Whereas plastic responses can be reversed within a generation, backtracking undesirable evolutionary changes generally requires several generations. Investigating the causes of life-history changes is therefore crucial for the selection of correct management strategies to obtain long-term sustainable yields in this species.

Explicitly modeling life history to assess sockeye salmon productivity (Thursday morning) Robert Lessard, Ray Hilborn, and Brandon Chasco. University of Washington. (YI) Managing salmon stocks generally involves establishing escapement goals by fitting mathematical curves to spawnerrecruit data. The objective is usually to optimize for optimal sustained yield, a biological conservation target, or some combination of the two. Analyses have generally not considered more detailed life-history either because of a lack of data on abundances at intermediate stages of life history against which to test models, or because maturation and migration rates do not vary enough for consideration. Sockeye salmon populations in Bristol Bay, Alaska, show a great deal of variation in smolt migration timing and duration of ocean residency, distinguishing them from other salmonid species as well as sockeye populations from many other systems. We compare the results of establishing escapement goals without life-history details to those of an analysis where age-structured migration and survival are considered in greater detail. We show explicitly that these life-history details can explain variation otherwise indiscernible in simple spawner-recruit models, lending different perspectives to harvest strategies.

Beyond "stock and recruitment": density-dependent body growth in recruited fish and its role in population regulation and dynamics (Tuesday afternoon) Kai Lorenzen. Imperial College London. Most fish population models and stock assessment methods assume that population regulation occurs exclusively in the pre-recruit phase of the life cycle, through density-dependent mortality. However, there is increasing evidence that processes in the recruited phase of the life cycle can play an important role in population regulation and dynamics. Quantitatively the most important processes is density-dependent growth which affects both current population biomass and, through interaction with size-dependent reproductive development, reproductive output and future recruitment. I review the literature and use population modelling and comparative analyses to synthesize current understanding of the role of density-dependent growth in fish population dynamics. The effect of density-dependent growth on reproductive output depends on population structure and thus, the processes driving variation in abundance. In general, the strength of density-dependence in the recruited phase is somewhat lower than that in the pre-recruit phase of the life cycle, but not insignificant. Density-dependent effects in the pre-recruit and recruited phases are not independent, so that population carrying capacity can be predicted from the density-dependent parameters of either the stock-recruitment or body growth models. This suggests a need to review the concept of recruitment limitation in fish populations and its implications. Analysis of density-dependence in growth, which reflects resource limitation, also helps to disentangle the action of bottom-up and top-down effects on population regulation. I close by outlining implications of densitydependent growth for fisheries management, including the design of marine reserves and stock enhancement initiatives.

Reproductive output in multiple-batch spawners: how accurate are our estimates? (Wednesday afternoon) Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri, Joel Bickford, and Sarah Walters. Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute. Estimates of reproductive output, or fecundity, play an important roll in stock assessment. In multiply spawning fish, fecundity is the product of batch fecundity (the number of eggs released in one event) and spawning frequency (the number of times a female spawns within a spawning season). Population spawning frequency estimates are calculated from the percentage of females that are active spawners and on the assumption that there is not immigration or emigration from the spawning population. This method was developed based on northern anchovy, a schooling species, and has since been applied to numerous species with varying levels of aggregation. The degree to which spotted seatrout aggregate to spawn varies with spawning habitat/location. Because spawning fish are contagious, estimates of the percentage of active spawners will vary due to the proximity of sampling to a spawning site. Spawning frequencies based on fish collected the following morning would be expected to be more representative of the population. However, with the advent of telemetry we begin to be able to evaluate individual spawning frequencies. For a nonschooling fish, such as seatrout, individual spawning frequencies appear to be both sex-specific and much lower for females than expected from population estimates.

Will rockfish rebuild faster if we bring back the old moms? Maternal effects and fisheries consequences (Wednesday afternoon) Yasmin Lucero. University of California, Santa Cruz. (YI) Laboratory research has measured an age-dependent maternal effect in black rockfish (Sebastes melanops); larvae from old mothers grow faster and survive longer under starvation conditions than do larvae from young mothers. This observation raises the question: Has fishing, and its concurrent change in population age-structure, affected rockfish productivity more than we thought? The answer to this question depends on how the observed maternal effect interacts with the highly variable recruitment and complex early-life history of rockfish. I use an explicit population model to address the question. I have adapted a Beverton-Holt stock recruitment model to depend on maternal age-distribution, and modeled mortality parameters to be functions of maternal age. This yields a very general and tunable model of a population with an age-dependent maternal effect. I will show how population productivity and fisheries metrics change with the addition of a maternal effect. I will show how time to recovery is affected by a marine reserve in the presence of age-dependent maternal effects.

Combining proximate and ultimate approaches to understand life-history variation in salmonids with application to fisheries, conservation, and aquaculture (Tuesday afternoon) Marc Mangel. University of California, Santa Cruz. One of the great challenges of biology is to understand, simultaneously, pattern (across time or space) and variation (differences in pattern). In the salmonids, this challenge arises in the context of the major life-history events of migration from fresh water to the sea and returning from seawater to fresh water. I will present life-history models that combine proximate (physiological mechanism) and ultimate (natural selection) considerations and that allow us to understand both the pattern and variation in Atlantic, Chinook, and coho salmon, Arctic charr, and steelhead. The models suggest generalizations about top-down and bottom-up control of life histories, about the evolution of diadromy, and about implications for the management of fisheries, the recovery of salmonid populations, and effective aquaculture.

A hierarchical assessment framework for metapopulations connected through larval dispersal: application to lobster populations in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Wednesday morning) Steven J. D. Martell,1 Meaghan Darcy,1 Gerard DiNardo,2 and Carl J. Walters.1 1University of British Columbia; 2 NOAA Fisheries, Hawaii. Benthic fishes and invertebrates in archipelago regions are isolated at the post-recruitment stage due to vast distances and extreme depths between adjacent islands. Connectivity between islands primarily occurs through larval dispersal, and settlement rates at each island are largely dictated by physical oceanography. Consequences of ignoring connectivity on estimates of FMSY and optimal harvest strategies are unknown. We develop a hierarchical assessment framework that assumes density-independent dispersal and density-dependent settlement rates.. The model is fit to commercial catch-effort data from 13 fishing banks for two lobster species in the northwester Hawaiian Islands. Ignoring meta-population structure biases estimates of maximum fishing mortality thresholds (MFMT) upwards and minimum stock size thresholds at each bank (MSST) downwards. Including meta-population structure protracts recovery times and requires alternative strategies for the allocation of fishing effort.

Application of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model to Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod populations (Thursday morning) Ivan Mateo. University of Rhode Island. (YI) Several authors state that foraging conditions and food web dynamics may be contributing to declines in Atlantic cod stocks. Therefore, it is essential to take a food web perspective to understand the complicated array of potential interactions affecting marine communities. The widely used Wisconsin bioenergetics model uses an energy-balance approach calculated on a daily time step, which allows for a fine-grained analysis of trophic interactions over various time scales. Bioenergetics modeling syntheses have been made for many important fishes within the Great Lakes. However, few have been developed for US Northeastern Continental Shelf. Growth performance of Georges Bank and Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod during year 2004 was examined using bioenergetics modeling to synthesize information on their trophic dynamics. Growth efficiency, which incorporates daily growth and consumption rates, was used as a measure of growth performance. Overall growth performance for Atlantic cod was significantly lower at Georges Bank than in Gulf of Maine. Monthly individual consumption demand and specific growth rates for Atlantic cod were significantly higher on Georges Bank than in the Gulf of Maine. Increasing water temperatures, which approached the upper limits of thermal tolerances for cod in Georges Bank, led to decreasing growth efficiencies for cod. Temperatures and energetic content of diets were less variable in Gulf of Maine, which generated more consistent growth efficiencies.

Fishery effects on population structure and reproduction in the Caribbean spiny lobster (Thursday afternoon) Thomas R. Matthews,1 Kerry E. Maxwell,1,2 Rodney D. Bertelsen,1 and Charles D. Derby.2 1Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2Georgia State University. Accurate age estimates in the commercially important Caribbean spiny lobster, P. argus, are an essential element of life history and population analyses. We histologically determined the lipofuscin content in the central nervous system of known-age spiny lobsters reared in the laboratory to verify lipofuscin accumulation patterns. The quantification of neurolipofuscin is a relatively new but established technique for aging crustaceans but has not been previously attempted on P. argus. We then applied the technique to determine the age of wild lobsters in the Florida Keys and explored the potential effect of lobster age on egg production. Modal progression suggested that the vast majority of lobsters in the population were in the year 1 or year 2 age class and those older lobsters may reproduce earlier in the year and produce more clutches of eggs.

Modeling growth, survival and behavior to index habitat suitability for juvenile Atlantic sturgeon in estuarine waters (Wednesday morning) E. J. Niklitschek1 and David H. Secor.2 1Universidad Austral de Chile; 2University of Maryland. We tested and modeled bioenergetics, growth, survival and behavior responses of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon to temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen levels currently observed in the Chesapeake Bay. A semi-mechanistic multivariable bioenergetics model for predicting growth was built based upon Fry‘s paradigm. The model explained a higher fraction of the variance (Akaike‘s index) than one simply fit by multinomial quadratic functions. In laboratory behavioral studies, sturgeon selected those water quality conditions according to preferred habitats predicted by the bioenergetics model. Explicit maps of potential production were generated for a year coinciding with an experimental hatchery release of juvenile Atlantic sturgeon. Recapture locations of released and wild juvenile Atlantic sturgeon occurred in regions of the Chesapeake Bay predicted to support positive production. On the other hand, higher than expected growth rates suggested active habitat selection by released fish during the time from release to recapture.

Maternal age dependent larval mortality: implications for fisheries management (Wednesday afternoon) Michael R. O‘Farrell1 and Louis W. Botsford.2 1NMFS, Santa Cruz; 2University of California, Davis. A common goal of fisheries management is to maintain a stock‘s reproductive potential at a level that will allow for population sustainability, given inherent uncertainties in the relationship between stock and recruitment. However, measures of reproductive potential commonly used in fisheries generally do not include functions accounting for variation in larval survival dependent on maternal age. Here, we incorporate maternal age dependent larval mortality into calculations of lifetime reproduction to evaluate the performance of conventional fisheries management when the manager is ignorant to the existence of maternal age effects. Results suggest that managing without knowledge of maternal effects can be effective when high larval mortality rates occur only for the progeny of the youngest reproductive females. However, if larval mortality is a continuously decreasing function of maternal age over a large portion of the maternal lifespan, ignorance of maternal effects may be costly for sustainability. We conclude by considering the role of marine reserves in managing a population in which maternal age effects exist. This paper investigates the converse of a central theme for this Mote symposium: the fishery consequences of life histories.

Evidence for the bigger is better mechanism in larval cohorts of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus (Wednesday afternoon) Guido Plaza1 and Minoru Ishida.2 1Universidad Católica de Valparaíso; 2National Research Insitute of Fisheries Science, Kochi, Japan. (YI) The bigger is better mechanism (i.e., mortality is a decreasing function of size) was tested for larvae of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanostictus using (i) general linear models (GLM) and (ii) the traditional approach. In GLMs the radii at age were used as the dependent variables, and the standardized residuals of both regressions OR on age and OR on total length (TL), age class (AC), and day of the year (DOY) as independent variables. In the traditional approach the increment width and otolith radius of original cohorts were compared with those of survivors sampled in later stages. GLMs showed a significant increase in radii at age from younger to older age classes supporting the bigger is better mechanism. Likewise, the traditional approach showed that survivors from 10-days-hatched cohorts had significantly wider daily increment widths and otolith radii at age, throughout their first month of life, than the original populations. A further outcome was a distinctive linear growth pattern throughout larval and early juvenile stages in the relationships TL on age (r2 = 0.87), OR on age (r2 = 0.90) and OR on TL (r2 = 0.95), contrasting with the allometric growth patterns previously documented for the larval stage of this species and other clupeoids.

How upwelling affected the pink shrimp fishery during 2004: linking oceanographic modeling and benthic mapping with habitat suitability models on the west Florida shelf (poster) Peter J. Rubec,1 Jesse Lewis,1 David Reed,1 Charles F. Ashbaugh,2 Curt Lashley,2 Salvatore Versaggi,3 Robert H. Weisberg,4 Lianyuan Zheng,4 Ruoying He,4 and Chris Jenkins.5 1Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2 SASCO Inc., 3Versaggi Shrimp Corp., 4University of South Florida, 5University of Colorado at Boulder. A study was conducted to model and map the spatial distributions and abundances of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duorarum) on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) using habitat suitability modeling (HSM). Data loggers and an electronic logbook system installed on three shrimp boats were used to gather data concerning catch (lbs) and effort (hours fished) for pink shrimp along with associated bottom temperature, salinity, and depth data at known coordinates during fishing operations. Data provided by the fishing company collected using a vessel monitoring system (VMS) allowed the creation of a map depicting areas with high fishing effort. Significantly higher mean catch rates (CPUEs) of pink shrimp occurred on the WFS during June to September, and October to December 2004 in comparison to January to March, and April to June 2005. Oceanographic modeling predicted monthly averaged bottom currents (speed and direction) and temperatures for a 16-month period from March 2004 to June 2005. Current speed and direction data indicated marked upwelling onto the WFS during 2004, and downwelling from the shelf during 2005. Sediment data from the WFS were interpolated to produce a sediment distribution map. Suitability functions were created across environmental gradients to predict CPUEs in relation to depth, aspect, bottom type, bottom temperature, current speed, current direction, and VMS zones. The HSM linked to geographic information systems were used to predict spatial distributions and abundances of pink shrimp monthly from March 2004 to June 2005. The areas with the most pronounced upwelling were also the areas that the HSM analyses predicted should have the highest catch rates. This was verified by overlaying observed CPUEs from the fishing vessels onto the suitability zones predicted by the HSM. Nutrients carried onto the shelf promoted higher shrimp abundances. The analyses estimated mean CPUEs by HSM zones. Linking fisheries to oceanography can explain how the ecosystem functions to the benefit of both the fishing industry and fisheries management.

Opportunity for natural and unnatural sexual selection in the snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio; Brachyura, Majidae) (Tuesday afternoon) Bernard Sainte-Marie,1 Thierry Gosselin,1,2 Jean-Marie Sévigny,1 and Nicola Urbani.3 1Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Québec; 2Université du Québec à Rimouski; 3GeneChem Management Inc., Montréal. The impact of fishing as a force of sexual selection is not well understood in crustaceans. Fishing must be viewed as acting in conjunction with, or in opposition to, natural factors which also modify the context for sexual competition and mate choice. We review knowledge of the polygynandrous mating system of the snow crab and evaluate the likely interplay between natural and fishing forces in the process of sexual selection. Snow crab has determinate growth and two female reproductive stages (primiparous, multiparous) with discrete mating seasons. Temperature shifts the spectrum of size-at-maturity in both sexes and determines female reproductive tempo, thereby altering sperm supply, egg production and operational sex ratio. ―Boom-and-bust‖ population dynamics modulate the phenotype of receptive individuals and the direction and intensity of sexual competition and mate choice. Fishing directed only at large males may attenuate or exacerbate some aspects of sexual conflict at primiparous mating, depending on the natural context, but otherwise it consistently promotes mating of small mature males, reduces opportunity for female mate choice and increases the likelihood of sperm limitation. These changes have mixed but still incompletely appreciated effects on female fitness. The long-term potential for selection against large size-at-maturity remains uncertain.

Predicting smolting and maturation in coastal and valley populations of steelhead in central California (poster) William H. Satterthwaite. University of California, Santa Cruz. (YI) Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) display diverse life histories; fish are potentially anadromous or nonanadromous and vary in their time to smolting and/or maturity. Steelhead in central California face very different environmental conditions in cooler, relatively undammed coastal streams than in warmer, heavily regulated streams in the Central Valley. In an attempt to predict smolting and maturity patterns in steelhead and how they differ in coastal and valley streams, I have adopted the framework developed by Thorpe et al. (1998) predicting smolting and maturity in salmonids as a function of projected growth over time windows prior to the actual smolting or maturation process. Based on literature searches, I have identified the approximate timing of these life history windows for steelhead and obtained estimates of growth, mortality, and fecundity in both stream systems. I used stochastic dynamic programming to predict optimal thresholds for smolting and maturity for fish in the different stream systems, and generated additional fitness estimates for fish using nonoptimal thresholds. I will compare my model results with empirical results to assess the degree to which the smolting and maturity patterns in these populations are optimal in the current, human-affected state of these systems and the likely impacts of changes in water flow. Alternate life cycles and the storage effect (Wednesday morning) David H. Secor1 and Richard T. Kraus.2 1University of Maryland; 2George Mason University. A modern theory that has application to the recruitment problem and life cycles is the storage effect, whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year in long lived species so that when early survival conditions are favorable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. Contingent structure—dispersive and retentive modalities in life cycles within populations—is an attribute that contributes to the storage effect. Here, a nursery habitat associated with one contingent behavior may make a small contribution in a given year, but over a decade contribute significantly to spawning stock biomass. Based upon retrospective microchemical analysis of otoliths, we apportioned white perch contingent structure associated with fresh water and brackish nursery habitats in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland over an 11 year period. The dispersive contingent was associated with brackish nursery habitats, high flow years, and dominant year-classes. The retentive freshwater contingent predominated in drought conditions and was associated with weak year-classes. Thus, under extended drought cycles, the minority contingent behavior is predicted to contribute to resiliency. The dominant role of climate on recruitment in many exploited marine fishes highlights the importance in conserving contingent structure as a population attribute. When can we assume a constant natural mortality for fish populations? An application to California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) (poster) Kate I. Siegfried. University of California, Santa Cruz. (YI) Calculating natural mortality, /M/, for long-lived fishes is often difficult. We rarely have a data set that is long enough to derive the parameter directly, in which case we depend on established models for estimating /M/ that require life history or length data. A prime example of this dilemma is the recent stock assessment of California sheephead, Semicossyphus <http://www.fishbase.org/Eschmeyer/GeneraSummary.cfm?ID=Semicossyphus> pulcher <http://www.fishbase.org/Eschmeyer/EschPiscesSummary.cfm?ID=3671>. California sheephead are a protogynous (female to male) sequential hermaphroditic species found in shallow, temperate waters from Monterey Bay to Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. There are active commercial (live-fish) and recreational fisheries for sheephead in Californian waters. The first stock assessment was undertaken by the California Department of Fish and Game in 2005, aided by researchers on the UC Santa Cruz campus. The researchers used Hoenig's method to estimate /M /proportional to the maximum age (53 years). Since there are other models available to calculate /M/, I will compare those model results using data from the sheephead commercial fishery. I determine estimates of /M/, using weight and life history-based methods. I find that the estimate of /M/ converges to a constant if the fish recruit to the model after age two. Therefore it may be reasonable, under certain assumptions, to use a constant natural mortality for California sheephead.

A marine and estuarine trophic database for the Gulf of Mexico: a proposal (poster) J. D. Simons,1 T. J. Shirley,2 J. Wood,2 J. Lester,3 S. Glenn,3 L. Gonzalez,3 J. Ditty,4 J. E. Smith,5 K. Withers,6 and M. E. Vega.7 1Texas Parks and Wildlife Department; 2Harte Research Institute, Corpus Christi, Texas; 3Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, Texas; 4National Marine Fisheries Service, Galveston; 5Texas State Aquarium, Corpus Christi, Texas; 6Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, 7CINVESTAV-IPN, Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. With the ever increasing computing power being developed and the increasing volumes of data being collected, a new era of gigantic databases has been ushered in. Projects such as the Census of Marine Life (CoML), National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), WhyWhere?, BioGeomancer, FishBase, and others are capturing taxonomic and biological data into, in most cases, spatially explicit databases. We report on a proposed project to build a temporally and spatially explicit web-based marine and estuarine trophic database for the Gulf of Mexico. It will include foodhabit data for marine mammals, sea turtles, sea and shore birds, fishes, crustaceans, ctenophores, and jellyfish extracted from published and unpublished literature resources. This database will provide data for the analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the trophodynamics of the Gulf of Mexico. It will provide a rich database for theoretical investigations into food-web structure by groups such as Webs on the Web. These data will be made available to fisheries and food web modelers using Ecopath and other modeling projects. Techniques will be developed to make these data available to the general public through organizations such as the Texas State Aquarium and other education and outreach groups.

Endogenous fishing mortality in life-history models: relaxing some implicit assumptions (Thursday morning) Martin D. Smith. Duke University. Life history models of exploited fish populations typically treat fishing mortality as an exogenous parameter. Implicitly, this approach assumes that the supply of fishing effort is perfectly inelastic. That is, the supply curve of effort is vertical. Fishery modelers often run simulations for different values of fishing mortality, but his exercise also assumes vertical supply and simply explores a series of these curves as different scenarios. The seemingly innocuous assumption of vertical supply conflicts with a large body of empirical work on behavior of fishermen and fishing fleets. Economists and fisheries scientists consistently find that fishing behavior is responsive to economic opportunities over time and space as well as across target species. Accounting for this phenomenon requires that fishing mortality be made endogenous. This paper explores approaches to endogenizing fishing mortality in life history models by allowing the fish stock in the previous period and other behavioral drivers to enters into the equation that predicts fishing effort in the next period. The paper examines conditions under which the standard approach is approximately accurate and when endogenous fishing mortality dramatically alters model predictions. Accounting for fishing behavior ultimately will help to improve predictions from management models and avoid fisheries management failures.

Interactions between top-down and bottom-up factors influencing of the timing of ontogenetic habitat shifts in marine organisms (Tuesday morning) Melissa Snover, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Hawaii. (YI) Many marine animals must increase several orders of magnitude in size as they grow from egg or larvae to adults and ecological scaling properties limit the size range over which certain life style are exploitable. Hence, many organisms undergo one or several ontogenetic habitat shifts as they grow to maximize growth rates while minimizing predation risk. An understanding of the mechanisms that drive these shifts is critical in managing both target and bycatch populations impacted by fisheries. Fundamental differences between habitats impacting survival and growth rates include food availability, both total density and individual availability (e.g. gape limits or jaw crushing strength), temperature, and predation intensity. I developed a model building on previous theoretical studies of ontogenetic habitat shifts that considers each of these factors with the goal of teasing apart how these top-down and bottom-up influences may interact to affect the timing, and the variability in timing, of ontogenetic habitat shifts. While the model is very general in applicability, as a case study, I look at differences in the timing of the shift from pelagic to neritic habitats in populations of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), which are vulnerable to bycatch in different fisheries in the different habitats.

Departures from static life-history optima in fishes (poster) C. M. St. Mary and H. K. Kindsvater. University of Florida. Life history theory predicts that allocation of energy to growth, reproduction, and to offspring size and number depends on maximizing lifetime expected fitness; that is, number of grandchildren. The optimal strategy will vary under different types of selective pressure. However, existing theory is static: it does not account for the role of variation in maternal quality and offspring quality, although such variation has recently been documented in a variety of fishes in several families. We generate a simulated population of individual fish according to the predicted constraints, and explore the optimal life history strategy in a dynamic environment, using a genetic algorithm approach. We are able to evaluate the optimal strategy of allocation to growth, offspring number, and offspring size under a range of selective environments, focusing on the role of predation and/or fishing pressure. In some cases, our simulations converge to the expected result: for instance, uncertain adult survival results in an earlier age at first reproduction. However, there is more variation within individuals and within populations in the optimal phenotypes than is seen in wild fish populations, suggesting that a more comprehensive approach is needed to address all the forces shaping life history strategies.

Temporal life-history variation in Great Lakes steelhead populations (Thursday afternoon) David R. Swank1 and Edward S. Rutherford.2 1University of California, Santa Cruz; 2University of Michigan. (YI) To determine how life-history traits of fish populations may be expected to vary over time in response to environmental changes, I examined temporal variation in life-history traits of five wild Great Lakes steelhead populations from historic (1950s, 1960s, and 1980s) and recent (1997–2000) samples taken from past scale collections, new population sampling, and the literature, all collected from steelhead spawning runs in northern Michigan streams. I also analyzed a long-term (22-year) data set from one of these wild steelhead populations for significant temporal changes in life-history traits. Significant temporal variation in stream age structure, female age at maturity, and adult mortality was found within most steelhead populations. Female age at maturity increased in four populations, while adult mortality decreased in all five populations. There were no changes in growth rates for four populations. Female age at maturity was negatively correlated with adult mortality, as measured by percent repeat spawners. The Black River steelhead population had significant changes in female age at first maturity, mean length at age, and adult survival that were related to a large decrease in sea-lamprey predation since the 1950s. Variation in fall run size was considerable and was positively related to mean September stream flow.

The effects of fishing pressure and life history characteristics on U.S. rebuilding strategies (Thursday morning) Jill H. Swasey,1 Jennie M. Harrington,1 and Andrew A. Rosenberg.2 1MRAG Americas, Inc. Essex, MA; 2University of New Hampshire. (YI) In this paper we will explore the interaction between fishing pressure and life history characteristics in the application of rebuilding strategies for U.S. fisheries. In most situations, an overfished stock has been exploited beyond an explicit limit that would ensure a level of safe reproduction. The Magnuson-Stevens Act mandates that overfished fishery resources must be rebuilt within a specified time period to the biomass level that will support maximum sustainable yield, and be sustainable over the long term. This time period for rebuilding should be as short as possible, not to exceed ten years except for biologically compelling reasons, often dictated by life history characteristics. In those cases, timelines have often been set for much longer than 10 years, up to 90 years. Typically, fisheries comprised of slow-growing species will have longer rebuilding timelines. However, the Councils and NMFS often apply the longest timelines allowed which slows the process of recovery. Of particular interest are the situations in which overfishing continues into rebuilding and the possibility that excessive fishing mortality rates are more affected by what is happening in the fishery than the actual life history (i.e. slow growth) of the stock.

An Ecosim model for exploring ecosystem management options for the Gulf of Mexico: implications of including multistanza life-history models for policy predictions (Wednesday afternoon) Carl Walters,1 Steven J. D. Martell,1 and Behzad Mahmoudi.2 1University of British Columbia; 2Florida Marine Research Institute. An Ecopath-Ecosim ecosystem model under development for coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico simulates responses of 63 biomass pools to changes in fisheries and primary productivity. 10 key species are represented by detailed, multistanza population dynamics models (31 of the biomass pools) that attempt to explicitly account for possible changes in recruitment rates due to changes in bycatch rates and trophic interactions. Over a 1950-2004 historical reference period, the model shows good simulated agreement with time series patterns estimated from stock assessment and relative abundance index data for many of the species, and in particular offers an explanation for apparent nonstationarity in natural mortality rates of menhaden (declining apparent M over time). It makes one highly counterintuitive policy prediction about impacts of management efforts aimed at reducing bycatch in the shrimp trawl fishery, namely that bycatch reduction may cause negative impacts on productivity of several valued species (menhaden Brevoortia patronus, red drum Sciaenops ocellatus, red snapper Lutjanus campechanus) by allowing recovery of some benthic predators such as catfishes that have been impacted by trawling but are also potentially important predators on juveniles of the valued species. Recognition of this policy implication would have been impossible without explicit, multistanza representation of juvenile life histories and trophic interactions, since the predicted changes in predation regimes represent only very small overall biomass fluxes.

Spatial and temporal variability in spawning habitat use: an example using spotted seatrout (Wednesday morning) Sarah Walters,1 Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri,1 Joel Bickford,1 and David Mann.2 1Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute; 2University of South Florida. (YI) Evaluating essential spawning habitat and its usage are important aspects of fisheries management. Classifying these habitats can be challenging as the definition of habitat itself is multifaceted, involving physical location, environmental parameters, and/or the interaction between the two. Spatial and temporal variations must also be accounted for as spawning habitat is not necessarily static. A comprehensive, multiple year research study was conducted in Tampa Bay, Florida examining spawning habitat of spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). Spawning habitat of these estuarine, multiple-batch spawning fish was evaluated using passive acoustics, an effective and noninvasive methodology involving permanent as well as mobile hydrophones. As spotted seatrout males produce sounds associated with reproduction, spawning aggregations were easily located with hydrophones. Areas where aggregations were detected were compared to areas from which spawning was absent to determine factors potentially driving spawning-site selection such as bottom type, water quality, and current. To evaluate temporal variation in spawning-habitat use, one spawning site was continually monitored for five years to assess diel, seasonal, lunar, and tidal periodicities. Both of these long-term spawning habitat studies contribute to our understanding of what spawning habitat is and how it can shift over time and space.

Sporadic, short-distance dispersal: implications for management and marine life histories (Tuesday morning) Robert Warner. University of California, Santa Barbara. Evidence from a variety of sources suggests two important features of marine larval dispersal that can affect management and also may be an important source of selection on life-history characteristics. First, larval dispersal distances appear to be much shorter than previously thought, and include substantial amounts of self-recruitment. Second, larval recruitment into coastal habitats appears to be intermittent and heterogeneous on annual time scales, driven by advection in turbulent coastal circulation. The stochastic nature of larval transport in particular will create unavoidable uncertainty that complicates the management of nearshore ecosystems. Short dispersal paths and self-recruitment suggest that management may be more effective if carried out on a local scale, and that the effects of spatial management approaches may be limited in their extent. The pulsed aspect of recruitment, even at long distances from a source, may alleviate the Allee effects that limit the success of long-distance colonization. High variation in recruitment, especially occasional large pulses of recruitment, may enhance the contribution of the storage effect on species persistence and coexistence. On the other hand, local rates of larval settlement may be largely decoupled from local stock abundances, even if self-recruitment is substantial. This provides an unexplored source of uncertainty in stock-recruitment relationships. Finally, the stochastic nature of connectivity may make it difficult to assess the effects of spatial fisheries management policies, because it is likely to take long periods of sampling in order to detect recruitment responses to a management change. Models suggest that the stochastic nature of successful settlement could exert strong selection on life histories, leading to extreme iteroparity and fine partitioning of reproductive effort. Thus the long lives and high fecundity of many marine organisms may be an evolutionary response to coastal ocean circulation.

Rebuilding fisheries: the impact of a skewed age distribution on long-term recovery (poster) John Wiedenmann. University of California. Santa Cruz. (YI) An overfished stock is typically considered rebuilt when the population biomass or spawning biomass cross some threshold, often (but not always) the population size that produces maximum sustainable yield (BMSY or SSBMSY). In cases where rebuilding is the result of a single strong year class, and if that year class does not produce a large number of recruits, then the population will likely drop below the rebuilding threshold as the cohort ages and moves out of the population. I model the effects of a skewed age-distribution (relative to the stable age-distribution) on the probability of long-term recovery for rebuilt populations with different life histories. For the model populations, having a skewed agedistribution does affect the probability of long-term recovery, but how it affects them depends not only on magnitude and direction of skew, but also on the life history of the population. Therefore, effective management of rebuilt stocks might benefit from considerations of the population age structure. Recovery of an endangered population of shortnose sturgeon due to habitat restoration (Wednesday morning) R. J. Woodland and D.H. Secor. University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science. (YI) In comparison to coastal species, anadromous fishes such as sturgeons are highly sensitive to alterations in nursery habitat volumes due to small nursery size and its proximity to sources of anthropogenic degradation. Here, we present a case study where geometric growth of a population of endangered sturgeon coincided with a two-fold increase in habitat nursery volume. Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum), a U.S. Endangered Species, experienced a four-fold increase in abundance in the Hudson River during the period 1985-2000. Life table elasticity analysis indicated that such population growth can only occur through large changes to first year survivorship. We evaluated the hypothesis that improvements in water quality during the 1970‘s stimulated population recovery by increasing nursery habitat volume. Hindcast year-class strengths, estimated by age structure of the extant population (corrected for gear selectivity and cumulative mortality), indicated high recruitments (31,000-52,000 yearlings) during 1986-1992. This period was preceded and succeeded by c. 5 year-periods of lower recruitment (6,000-17,500 yearlings); trends corroborated by shortnose sturgeon bycatch from a beam trawl survey. This evidence supports the view that improved nursery volumes can promote species recovery in endangered coastal species.

STEERING COMMITTEE
Felicia C. Coleman (Chair) FSU Coastal and Marine Laboratory and Department of Biological Science Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1100 Larry B. Crowder Department of Biology Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708 Lobo Orensanz Centro Nacional Patagónico, CONICET 9120 Puerto Madryn Chubut, Argentina Marc Mangel Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics Jack Baskin School of Engineering University of California Santa Cruz, California 95064 Susan C. Sponaugle University of Miami RSMAS/MBF 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway Miami, Florida 33149-1098 Kenneth Leber Mote Marine Laboratory 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway Sarasota, Florida 34236 telephone: (850) 644-2019 fax: (850) 644-9829 e-mail: coleman@bio.fsu.edu

telephone: (919) 504-7637 fax: (919) 660-7293 e-mail: lcrowder@mail.duke.edu

telephone: (54) (2965) 451024 fax: (54) (2965) 451543 e-mail: lobo@cenpat.edu.ar, lobo@u.washington.edu telephone: (831) 234-2970 fax: (831) 688-5385 e-mail: msmangel@soe.ucsc.edu

telephone: (305) 421-4069 fax: (305) 421-4600 e-mail: ssponaugle@rsmas.miami.edu

telephone: (941) 388-4441 fax: (941) 388-4242 e-mail: kleber@mote.org

DIRECTORY OF AUTHORS (First author of each author's paper is listed in brackets) Shahaama Abdul Sattar [Abdul Sattar] Marine Research Centre Ministry of Fisheries, Agriculture and Marine Resources Male‘, Republic of Maldives telephone: +960-332-2242 fax: +960-332-2509 e-mail: fab077@student.uib.no Suzanne H. Alonzo [Alonzo] 427 Osborn Memorial Labs PO Box 208106 Yale University New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8106 telephone: (203) 432-0690 fax: (203) 432-5176 e-mail: suzanne.alonzo@yale.edu Charles F. Ashbaugh [Rubec] SASCO Inc. 4101-C 12 Avenue, Suite 2 Tampa, Florida 33605 telephone: (813) 247-6448 e-mail: chuck@sasco-inc.com Marissa L. Baskett [Dunlop] Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 telephone: (609) 258-6881 e-mail: mbaskett@princeton.edu Rodney D. Bertelsen [Matthews] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 2796 Overseas Hwy, #119 Marathon, Florida 33050 telephone: (305)289-2330 fax: (305) 289-2330 e-mail: rod.bertelsen@myfwc.com Joel W. Bickford [Lowerre-Barbieri, S. Walters] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 100 8th Avenue Southeast St. Petersburg, Florida 33701-5020 telephone: (727) 896-8626 e-mail: joel.bickford@myfwc.com Michael B. Bonsall [Kindsvater] Department of Zoology University of Oxford South Parks Road Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX1 3PS, U.K. telephone: (44) 1865-281064 e-mail: michael.bonsall@zoo.oxford.ac.uk Louis W. Botsford [O'Farrell] Department of Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue Davis, California 95616 telephone: (530) 752-6169 e-mail: lwbotsford@ucdavis.edu P. Boudry [Laugen] Laboratoire de Génétique et Pathologie, IFREMER Ronce-les-Bains 17390 La Tremblade, France telephone: +33-546-762610 e-mail: pierre.boudry@ifremer.fr Elizabeth N. Brooks [Brooks] National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Center 75 Virginia Beach Drive Miami, Florida 33149 telephone: (305) 361-4243 fax: (305) 361-4562 e-mail: liz.brooks@noaa.gov David S. Boukal [Boukal] Institute of Marine Research Box 1870 Nordnes N-5817 Bergen, Norway telephone: +47-5523-5349 fax: +47-5523-8687 e-mail: davidb@imr.no Mark Butler [Butler, Herrnkind] Department of Biological Sciences Old Dominion University Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0266 telephone: (757) 683-3609 fax: (757) 683-5283 e-mail: mbutler@odu.edu

John F. Caddy [Caddy] Via Cervialto 3, Aprilia, Latina, 04011, Italy telephone: 020-7594-9265 e-mail: jfcaddy@yahoo.co.uk Brandon Chasco [Lessard] University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences Box 355020 Seattle, Washington 98195-5020 telephone: (206) 221-6768 e-mail: bchasco@u.washington.edu Lora M. Clarke [Clarke] Marine Sciences Research Center Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 telephone: (631) 632-8659 fax: (631) 632-8915 e-mail: clarke@msrc.sunysb.edu Felicia C. Coleman [Koenig] Coastal and Marine Laboratory and Department of Biological Science Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1100 telephone: (850) 697-4120 fax: (850) 697-3822 e-mail: coleman@bio.fsu.edu David O. Conover [Clarke, Conover, Duffy, Hice] Marine Sciences Research Center Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 telephone: (631) 632-8781 fax: (631) 632-8915 e-mail: dconover@notes.cc.sunysb.edu Enric Cortes [Brooks] National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Center Panama City Laboratory 3500 Delwood Beach Road Panama City, Florida 32408 telephone: (850) 234-6541 x 220 fax: (850) 235-3559 e-mail: enric.cortes@noaa.gov

James H. Cowan Jr. [Cowan] Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences Coastal Fisheries Institute 2173 Energy, Coast, and Environment Building Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 telephone: (225) 578-9400 fax. (225)578-6513 e-mail: jhcowan@lsu.edu Sean P. Cox [Cox] School of Resource and Environmental Management Simon Fraser University 8888 University Drive Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, Canada telephone: (604) 291-5778 fax: (604) 291-4968 e-mail: spcox@sfu.ca Kate Cresswell [Cresswell] Applied Mathematics and Statistics Department University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California 95064 telephone: (831) 459 4942 e-mail: kcre@soe.ucsc.edu Meaghan Darcy [Martell] Fisheries Centre 2204 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada e-mail: m.darcy@fisheries.ubc.ca Andr M. de Roos [Boukal] Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics University of Amsterdam P.O. Box 94084 NL-1090 GB Amsterdam, the Netherlands telephone: +31-20-525-7747 fax: +31-20-525-7754 e-mail: aroos@science.uva.nl Charles D. Derby [Matthews] Department of Biology Georgia State University P.O. Box 4010 Atlanta, Georgia 30302-4010 telephone: (404)651-3058 fax: (404) 651-2509 e-mail: cderby@gsu.edu

Ulf Dieckmann [Dunlop, Enberg, Heino] Evolution and Ecology Program International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1 Laxenburg, A-2361, Austria telephone: +43 2236-807-386 fax: +43 2236-71313 e-mail: dieckman@iiasa.ac.at and Institute of Biology Leiden University Leiden, The Netherlands Gerard DiNardo [Martell] Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center 2570 Dole Street Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2396 telephone: (808) 983-5397 fax: (808) 983-2902 e-mail: gerard.dinardo@noaa.gov J. Ditty [Simons] National Marine Fisheries Service 4700 Avenue U Galveston, Texas 77551 e-mail: jim.ditty@noaa.gov Katy K. Doctor [Doctor] School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences Box 355020 University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195-5020 telephone: (206) 616-5761 e-mail: kkdoc@u.washington.edu Thomas Dolan [Butler] Department of Biological Sciences Old Dominion University Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0266 telephone: 757 683-3595 e-mail: tdola001@odu.edu Tara A. Duffy [Duffy] Marine Sciences Research Center Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 telephone: (216)408-9564 fax: (631) 632-8915 e-mail: taduffy@ic.sunysb.edu

Erin S. Dunlop [Dunlop, Enberg] Evolution and Ecology Program International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1 A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria telephone: +43-2236-807-321 fax: +43-2236-71313 e-mail: dunlop@iiasa.ac.at William Eldridge [Eldridge] School of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences University of Washington Box 355020 Seattle, Washington 98195 telephone: (206) 543-0103 e-mail: whe@u.washington.edu Katja Enberg [Enberg] Evolution and Ecology Program International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Schlossplatz 1 A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria telephone: +43 2236 807 249 e-mail: enberg@iiasa.ac.at Bruno Ernande [Jørgensen, Laugen] Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, IFREMER Avenue du Général de Gaulle, BP 32 14520 Port-en-Bessin, France telephone: +33-231-515600 e-mail: bruno.ernande@ifremer.fr Timothy E. Essington [Essington] School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences University of Washington Box 355020; Seattle, Washington 98195 telephone: (206) 616-3698 fax: (206) 685-7471 e-mail: essing@u.washington.edu Øyvind Fiksen [Abdul Sattar, Jørgensen] Department of Biology University of Bergen P.O. Box 7800 N-5020, Bergen, Norway telephone: +47-5558-4624 fax: +47-5558-4450 e-mail: oyvind.fiksen@bio.uib.no

R. M. Fujita [Honey] Environmental Defense 5655 College Avenue, Suite 304 Oakland, California 94618 telephone: (510) 658-8008 fax: (510) 648-0630 e-mail: rfujita@environmentaldefense.org S. Glenn [Simons] Houston Advanced Research Center 4800 Research Forest Drive The Woodlands, Texas 77381 e-mail: sglenn@harc.edu L. Gonzalez [Simons] Houston Advanced Research Center 4800 Research Forest Drive The Woodlands, Texas 77381 e-mail: lgonzalez@harc.edu Michael Goodrich [Butler] Department of Biological Sciences Old Dominion University Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0266 telephone: 757 683-3595 e-mail: mgood028@odu.edu Thierry Gosselin [Sainte-Marie] Division of Invertebrates and Experimental Biology Maurice Lamontagne Institute Department of Fisheries and Oceans 850 Route de la Mer P.O. Box 1000 Mont-Joli, Québec, Canada G5H 3Z4 telephone: (418) 775-0809 fax: (418) 775-0740 e-mail: gosselint@dfo-mpo.gc.ca and Institut des sciences de la mer Université du Québec à Rimouski Rimouski, Canada Jeff Hard [Eldridge] Northwest Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service 2725 Montlake Blvd E. Seattle, Washington 98112 telephone: (206) 860-3275 e-mail: jeff.hard@noaa.gov

Jennie M. Harrington [Swasey] MRAG Americas, Inc. 65 Eastern Avenue Unit B2C Essex, Massachusetts 01929 telephone: (978) 768-3880 fax: (978) 768-3878 e-mail: jennie.harrington@mragamericas.com Ruoying He [Rubec] Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 telephone: (508) 289-3671 e-mail: ruoying@whoi.edu Mikko Heino [Dunlop, Heino] Institute of Marine Research P.O. Box 1870 Nordnes N-5817 Bergen, Norway telephone: +47 5523-6962 fax: +47 5523-8687 e-mail: mikko@imr.no, heino@iiasa.ac.at and Department of Biology University of Bergen, Norway and Evolution and Ecology Program International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria Scott Heppell [Heppell] Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3803 telephone: (541) 737-1086 fax: (541) 737-3590 e-mail: scott.heppell@oregonstate.edu Selina Heppell [Heppell] Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3803 telephone: (541) 737-9039 fax: (541) 737-3590 e-mail: selina.heppell@oregonstate.edu William F. Herrnkind [Herrnkind] Department of Biological Science Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1100 telephone: (850) 644-9840 fax: (850) 644-9829 e-mail: herrnkind@bio.fsu.edu

Lyndie A. Hice [Hice] Marine Sciences Research Center Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794 telephone: (631) 632-8700 e-mail: lhice@ic.sunysb.edu Ray Hilborn [Hilborn, Lessard] School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences Box 355020 University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195-5020 telephone: (206) 543-3587 fax: (206) 685-7471 e-mail: rayh@u.washington.edu Kristen T. Honey [Honey] Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (IPER) School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University 397 Panama Mall Mitchell Building, Rm B-02 Stanford, California 94305-2210 telephone: (831) 359-8848 (cell); (650) 725-1439 (office) fax: (650) 725-4139 e-mail: khoney@stanford.edu John H. Hunt [Herrnkind] Florida Marine Research Institute Marathon Field Laboratory 2796 Overseas Highway, Suite 119 Marathon, Florida 33050 telephone: (305) 289-2330 fax: (305) 289-2334 e-mail: john.hunt@myfwc.com Sergey Ignatyev [Ignatyev] Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas NASU 49, October revolution ave, fl 63 99057, Sevastopol. Ukraine e-mail: fme@ibss.iuf.net, s-ignat2004@yandex.ru

Teresa Ish [Alonzo] Sustainable Fishery Advocates P.O. Box 233 Santa Cruz, California 95061 telephone: (831) 247-2822 fax: (309) 213-4688 e-mail: t.ish@sustainablefishery.org and Department of Applied Math and Statistics University of California, Santa Cruz 1156 High Street Santa Cruz, California 95064 telephone: (831) 459-5385 e-mail: ish@soe.ucsc.edu Minoru Ishida [Plaza] Kochi Kuroshio Research Laboratory National Research Institute of Fisheries Science 6-1-21 Sanbashidori Kochi 780-8010, Japan telephone: +81-88-8325146 e-mail: ishidam@affrc.go.jp. Chris Jenkins [Rubec] Institute for Arctic & Alpine Research University of Colorado at Boulder 1560 30th Street Boulder, Colorado 80309 telephone: (303) 735-5250 fax: (303) 492-6388 e-mail: chris.jenkins@colorado.edu Darren W. Johnson [Johnson] Department of Zoology 3029 Cordley Hall Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97333 telephone: (541) 231-6830 e-mail: johnsoda@science.oregonstate.edu Christian Jørgensen [Abdul Sattar, Jørgensen] Department of Biology University of Bergen P.O. Box 7800 N-5020, Bergen, Norway telephone: +47-5558-4618 fax: +47-5558-4450 e-mail: christian.jorgensen@bio.uib.no Neala Kendall [Kendall] University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences Box 355020 Seattle, Washington 98195 telephone: (206) 616-5761 e-mail: kendalln@u.washington.edu

L. A. Kerr [Kerr] Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Solomons, Maryland 20688 telephone: (410) 326-7225 e-mail: kerr@cbl.umces.edu Meisha Key [Alonzo] California Department of Fish and Game 20 Lower Ragsdale Dr., Suite 100 Monterey, California 93940 telephone: (831) 649-7196 e-mail: mkey@dfg.ca.gov Holly K. Kindsvater [Kindsvater, St. Mary] Department of Zoology University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 telephone: (352) 392-1685 e-mail: hollyk@zoology.ufl.edu and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Yale University P.O. Box 208106 New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8106 telephone: (352) 392-1685 e-mail: hollyk@zoology.ufl.edu Christopher C. Koenig [Koenig] Coastal and Marine Laboratory and Department of Biological Science Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1100 telephone: (850) 697-4139 fax: (850) 697-3822 e-mail: koenig@bio.fsu.edu Richard T. Kraus [Secor] Environmental Science and Policy Department George Mason University 4400 University Drive, MSN 5F2 Fairfax, Virginia 22030 telephone: (703) 993-4356 fax: (703) 993-1066 e-mail: rkraus1@gmu.edu Allen Robert Kronlund [Cox] Pacific Biological Station Fisheries and Oceans Canada 3190 Hammond Bay Road Nanaimo, British Columbia V9T 6N7 telephone: (604) 291-5778 e-mail: kronlunda@pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca

Curt Lashley [Rubec] SASCO Inc. 4101-C 12 Avenue, Suite 2 Tampa, Florida 33605 telephone: (813) 293-2878 e-mail: curt@sasco-inc.com A. T. Laugen [Laugen] Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, IFREMER Avenue du Général de Gaulle 14520 Port-en-Bessin, France telephone: +33-231-515600 e-mail: ane.laugen@ifremer.fr Robert Lessard [Lessard] University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences Box 355020 Seattle, Washington 98195-5020 telephone: (206) 221-6768 e-mail: lessard@u.washington.edu J. Lester [Simons] Houston Advanced Research Center 4800 Research Forest Drive The Woodlands, Texas 77381 e-mail: jlester@harc.edu Phillip Levin [Essington] Northwest Fisheries Science Center 2725 Montlake Boulevard East Seattle, Washington 98112 telephone: (206) 860-3473 e-mail: phil.levin@noaa.gov Jesse Lewis [Rubec] Detect Inc. 3160 Airport Road Panama City, Florida 32405 telephone: (850) 763-7200 e-mail: worldsurf6@yahoo.com Kai Lorenzen [Lorenzen] Division of Biology Imperial College London Silwood Park Campus Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, UK telephone: (+44) 20 7594 2213 fax: (+44) 20 7594 2339 e-mail: k.lorenzen@imperial.ac.uk

Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri [Lowerre-Barbieri, S. Walters] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 100 8th Avenue Southeast St. Petersburg, Florida 33701-5020 telephone: (727) 896-8626 e-mail: susan.barbieri@myfwc.com Yasmin Lucero [Lucero] Jack Baskin School of Engineering 1156 High Street University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California 95060 telephone: (831) 459-5385 e-mail: yasmin@soe.ucsc.edu Alec D. MacCall [Alonzo] NMFS/SWFSC Santa Cruz Laboratory c/o Long Marine Laboratory 100 Shaffer Road Santa Cruz, California 95060 telephone: (831) 420-3950 fax: (831) 420-3977 e-mail: alec.maccall@noaa.gov Alison MacDiarmid [Butler] Benthic Fisheries and Ecology Group National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research P.O. Box 14-901 Wellington, New Zealand telephone: +64 4-386-0370 fax: +64 4 386 2153 e-mail: a.macdiarmid@niwa.co.nz Behzad Mahmoudi [C. Walters] Florida Marine Research Institute Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Saint Petersburg, Florida 33701-5095 telephone: (727) 896-8626 x 4120 e-mail: behzad.mahmoudi@fwc.state.fl.us Marc Mangel [Alonzo, Mangel, Kindsvater] Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics Jack Baskin School of Engineering University of California Santa Cruz, California 95064 telephone: (831) 234-2970 fax: (831) 688-5385 e-mail: msmangel@soe.ucsc.edu

David A. Mann [S. Walters] University of South Florida College of Marine Science 140 7th Avenue South St. Petersburg, Florida 33701-5016 telephone: (727) 553-1192 fax: (727) 553-1189 e-mail: dmann@seas.marine.usf.edu Steven J. D. Martell [Martell, C. Walters] Fisheries Centre 2204 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada telephone: (604) 822-0484 fax: (604) 822-8934 e-mail: s.martell@fisheries.ubc.ca Ivan Mateo [Mateo] Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Science University of Rhode Island Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 telephone: (401) 398-1742 fax: (401) 398-1742 e-mail: imateo32@cox.net; imateo32@hotmail.com Thomas R. Matthews [Matthews] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 2796 Overseas Hwy, #119 Marathon, Florida 33050 telephone: (305) 289-2330 fax: (305) 289-2334 e-mail: tom.matthews@myfwc.com Kerry E. Maxwell [Matthews] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 2796 Overseas Hwy, #119 Marathon, Florida 33050 telephone: (305)289-2330 fax: (305) 289-2330 e-mail: kerry.maxwell@myfwc.com and Department of Biology Georgia State University P.O. Box 4010 Atlanta, Georgia 30302-4010

Anne E. McElroy [Duffy] Marine Sciences Research Center Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 telephone: (631) 632-8488 fax: (631) 632-3072 e-mail: amcelroy@notes.cc.sunysb.edu Carolina V. Minte-Vera [Hilborn] DBI/NUPELIA Universidade Estadual de Maring Av. Colombo 5790 Bloco H90, Sala 17 Maring, PR, 87020-900, Brasil telephone: 1 44 32614622 e-mail: cminte@nupelia.uem.br, cminte@brturbo.com.br Stephan B. Munch [Clarke, Conover] Marine Sciences Research Center Stony Brook University Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 telephone: (631) 632-3087 fax: (631) 632-8915 e-mail: smunch@notes.cc.sunysb.edu Kerry Naish [Eldridge] School of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences University of Washington Box 355020 Seattle, Washington 98195 telephone: (206) 221-6375 e-mail: knaish@u.washington.edu E. J. Niklitschek [Niklitschek] Universidad Austral de Chile Portales 73, Coyhaique XI Region de Aisén, Chile telephone: +56 67-234467 fax: +56 67-239377 e-mail: eniklits@uach.cl Michael R. O‘Farrell [O'Farrell] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service, Santa Cruz Laboratory Southwest Fisheries Science Center 110 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, California 95060 telephone: (831) 420-3976 e-mail: michael.ofarrell@noaa.gov Lennart Persson [Boukal] Department of Ecology and Environmental Science Ume University SE-90187 Ume, Sweden telephone: +46-90-786-6316 fax: +46-90-786-6705 e-mail: lennart.persson@emg.umu.se

Guido Plaza [Plaza] School of Marine Science Faculty of Natural Resources Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso Av. Altamirano 1480 Valparaíso, Chile telephone: +56-32-274241 e-mail: guido.plaza@ucv.cl Joseph E. Powers [Brooks] Coastal Fisheries Institute Marine Resource Assessment 2147 Energy, Coast and Environment Building Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 telephone: (225) 578-7659 fax: (225) 578-6513 e-mail: jepowers@lsu.edu David Reed [Rubec] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 100 Eighth Ave. S.E. St. Petersburg, Florida 33701 telephone: (727) 896-8626 ext 3076 e-mail: dave.reed@myfwc.com Peter J. Rubec [Rubec] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Center for Spatial Analysis 100 Eighth Ave. S.E. St. Petersburg, Florida 33701 telephone: (727) 896-8626 e-mail: peter.rubec@fwc.state.fl.us Tom Quinn [Kendall] University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences Box 355020 Seattle, Washington 98195 telephone: (206)543-9042 e-mail: tquinn@u.washington.edu Andrew A. Rosenberg [Swasey] Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space Morse Hall 142 University of New Hampshire Durham, NH 03824 telephone: (603) 862-2020 e-mail: andy.rosenberg@unh.edu

Edward S. Rutherford [Swank] University of Michigan Institute for Fisheries Research 212 Museums Annex Bldg. 1109 N. University Ave. Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 e-mail: edwardr@umich.edu telephone: (734) 663-3554 x104 Bernard Sainte-Marie [Sainte Marie] Division of Invertebrates and Experimental Biology Maurice Lamontagne Institute Department of Fisheries and Oceans 850 Route de la Mer P.O. Box 1000 Mont-Joli, Québec, Canada G5H 3Z4 telephone: (418) 775-0617 fax: (418) 775-0542 e-mail: sainte-marieb@dfo-mpo.gc.ca William H. Satterthwaite [Satterthwaite] Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics Jack Baskin School of Engineering University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California 95064 telephone: 831-459-4942 e-mail: satterth@biology.ucsc.edu David H. Secor [Kerr, Niklitschek, Secor, Woodland] University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Chesapeake Biological Laboratory 1 William St. Solomons, Maryland 20688 telephone: (410) 326-7229 fax: (410) 326-7318 e-mail: secor@cbl.umces.edu Jean-Marie Sévigny [Sainte-Marie] Division of Invertebrates and Experimental Biology Maurice Lamontagne Institute Department of Fisheries and Oceans 850 Route de la Mer P.O. Box 1000 Mont-Joli, Québec, Canada G5H 3Z4 telephone: (418) 775-0636 fax: (418) 775-0740 e-mail: sevignyjm@dfo-mpo.gc.ca T. J. Shirley [Simons] Harte Research Institute 6300 Ocean Dr. Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 e-mail: thomas.shirley@mail.tamucc.edu

Kate I. Siegfried [Siegfried] The Center for Stock Assessment Research (CSTAR) University of California, Santa Cruz 111 Weeks Ave. Santa Cruz, California 95060 telephone: (831) 459-5385 e-mail: ksiegfri@ucsc.edu J. D. Simons [Simons] Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 6300 Ocean Dr. Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 e-mail: james.simons@tpwd.state.tx.us Martin D. Smith [Smith] Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences Duke University Box 90328 Durham, North Carolina 27708 telephone: (919) 613-8028 e-mail: marsmith@duke.edu J. E. Smith [Simons] Texas State Aquarium 2710 N. Shoreline Blvd. Corpus Christi, Texas 78402 jesmith@txstateaq.org Melissa Snover [Snover] Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service 2570 Dole Street Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 telephone: (808) 983-5372 fax: (808) 983-2902 e-mail: melissa.snover@noaa.gov Collette M. St. Mary [St. Mary] Department of Zoology University of Florida Gainesville, Florida 32611 telephone: (352) 392-1636 e-mail: stmary@zoology.ufl.edu David R. Swank [Swank] University of California at Santa Cruz National Marine Fisheries Service 110 Shaffer Rd Santa Cruz, California 95060 telephone: (831) 420-3974 e-mail: david.swank@noaa.gov

Jill H. Swasey [Swasey] MRAG Americas, Inc. 65 Eastern Avenue Unit B2C Essex, Massachusetts 01929 telephone: (978) 768-3880 fax: (978) 768-3878 e-mail: jill.swasey@mragamericas.com Simon R. Thorrold [Clarke] Biology Department MS # 50 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 telephone: (508) 289-3733 fax: (508) 457-2158 e-mail: sthorrold@whoi.edu Maurizio Tomaiuolo [Koenig] Department of Biological Science Florida State University Tallahassee, Florida 32306-1100 telephone: (850) 644-6214 fax: (850) 850-644-9829 e-mail: mtomaiuolo@bio.fsu.edu Nicola Urbani [Sainte-Marie] GeneChem Management Inc. 1001 de Maisonneuve Blvd., West Suite 920 Montréal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3C8 telephone: (514) 849-7696 fax: (514) 849-5191 e-mail: nicola@genechem.com M. E. Vega [Simons] CINVESTAV-IPN Unidad Merida Km. 6 Antig.Carretera A Progreso A.P. 73 Cordemex C.P. 97310 Merida, Yucatan, Mexico e-mail: maruvega@mda.cinvestav.mx Salvatore Versaggi [Rubec] Versaggi Shrimp Corp. 2633 Causeway Blvd. Tampa, Florida 33619 telephone: (813) 248-5089 e-mail: versaggi-shrimp@intnet.net Carl Walters [Martell, C. Walters] Fisheries Centre 2204 Main Mall University of British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada telephone: (604) 822-6320 fax: (604) 822 8934 e-mail: c.walters@fisheries.ubc.ca

Sarah Walters [Lowerre-Barbieri, S. Walters] Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 100 8th Avenue Southeast St. Petersburg, Florida 33701-5020 telephone: (727) 896-8626 e-mail: sarah.walters@myfwc.com Benjamin D. Walther [Clarke] Biology Department MS # 50 Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543 telephone: (508) 289-3733 fax: (508) 457-2158 e-mail: bwalther@whoi.edu Robert Warner [Warner] Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology University of California, Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, California 93106-9610 telephone: (805) 893-2941 fax: (805) 893-4724 e-mail: warner@lifesci.ucsb.edu Robert H. Weisberg [Rubec] College of Marine Science University of South Florida 140 7th Ave. S. St. Petersburg, Florida 33701 telephone: (727) 553-1568 e-mail: weisberg@marine.usf.edu John Wiedenmann [Wiedenmann] Department of Ocean Sciences University of California, Santa Cruz Santa Cruz, California 95062 telephone: (631) 513-8748 e-mail: jrwied@soe.ucsc.edu K. Withers [Simons] Center for Coastal Studies Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi 6300 Ocean Dr. Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 e-mail: kwithers@falcon.tamucc.edu J. Wood [Simons] Harte Research Institute 6300 Ocean Dr. Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 e-mail: jwood@falcon.tamucc.edu

R. J. Woodland [Woodland] University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Chesapeake Biological Laboratory 1 William St. Solomons, Maryland 20688 telephone: (410) 326-7216 e-mail: woodland@cbl.umces.edu Lianyuan Zheng [Rubec] College of Marine Science University of South Florida 140 7th Ave. S. St. Petersburg, Florida 33701 telephone: (727) 553-1639 fax: (727) 553-1189 e-mail: lzheng@marine.usf.edu


								
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