Definitions of abnormality What are the 4 definitions of abnormality? Deviations form social norms Deviations from statistical norms Failure to function adequately Deviations form ideal mental health Statistical norms. Explain deviations from statistical norms This is based on the % number of people who carry out the particular behaviour. I.e. the average % score being 100 for IQ and most of us will fall within 2SD from this. Example of Statistical norms Give one example of deviation from statistical norms. IQ Shoe size – statistically most adult females will have a shoe size between 4 –7 if you fall over or under this you could be classed as abnormal. Height. Limitations of statistical norms Give 2 limitations for deviation from statistical norms What characteristics do you choose? Where do you draw the line? Common disorders would not fit this definition. Deviation from social norms A social norm is an accepted way of behaving in any given society. Deviation from this violates the rules and moral standards and you could be classed as abnormal. Example of deviation from social norms. Inappropriate dress. Crying at a funny film Driving on the wrong side of the road Eating disorders i.e. AN/BN Limitation for social norms Explain deviation from social norms Give one example of deviation from social norms Give 2 limitations for deviation of social norms When might Abnormal be normal The role of context / out of context. Change with the times Cultural issues Explain deviation from ideal mental health. Explain deviation from idel mental health Deviation from what is considered normal ideal mental health such as that put forward by Jahoda, would mean a classification of abnormality Criteria for ideal mental health Positive attitude towards the self Self-actualisation of one’s potential Resistance to stress Personal autonomy Accurate perception of reality Adapting to the environment Positive attitude towards the self What are the 6 criteria for ideal mental health put forward by Jahoda? Explain Jahoda’s positive attitude toward the self. This is having a positive self-concept and identity, displaying + attitudes towards issues such as confidence, selfreliance, self-acceptance. A negative self-concept may result in abnormal behaviour. Self-actualisation of one’s potential This suggested by Maslow, who believed we all have potential in some areas and that we should set goals to achieve this potential, mental health problems may occur if we are prevented from doing this. Resistance to stress Jahoda believed that we should be able to deal with stress without falling apart. We will have developed coping strategies to do so. If this is difficult then mental disorders may occur. Personal autonomy A person has the ability to make decisions, the inner resources to deal with hard knocks, frustrations & deprivations, because they are not dependant on others. Accurate Perception of reality Explain Jahoda’s self-actualisation of one’s potential Explain Jahoda’s resistance to stress Explain Jahoda’s personal autonomy Explain Jahoda’s accurate perception of reality The person has the ability to see things as they actually are rather than through rose tinted glasses or in an overly pessimistic manner. Being overly generous or pessimistic could result in depression. Explain Jahoda’s adapting to the environment Adapting to the environment If an individual is competent in all areas of life, personal relationships, work, is flexible rather than rigid adaptable then you fit this category. Fall outside of this and your behaviour may appear abnormal. 3 limitations for ideal mental health Difficulty in ever achieving full selfactualisation. There are many possible benefits from stress There is considerable cultural difference in connection to this definition. What may apply in one culture may very well not in another Explain failure to function adequately A person in unable to live normal life, to experience the normal range of emotions or engage in the normal range of behaviour. 5 indicators for failure to function adequately Give 3 limitations for Ideal Mental Heath. Explain failure to function adequately What are the 5 indicators of psychological abnormality in failure to function adequately Dysfunctional behaviour /maladaptiveness Personal distress or discomfort Observer discomfort Unpredictable behaviour Irrational behaviour Explain dysfunctional behaviour / maladaptiveness Dysfunctional behaviour / maladaptiveness This is behaving in ways that are inappropriate to society as a whole – behaving in maladaptive ways that people will see as strange or odd. Dysfunctional behaviour / maladaptiveness Explain personal distress or discomfort This is where the disorder prevents you from performing tasks and having feelings the same as that expected in society. Causes distress, moral problems. Prevents the person from fulfilling their social roles. Observer discomfort. Explain observer discomfort If you frequently behave in ways, which other people find upsetting, embarrassing, threatening, or uncomfortable you can be seen to be behaving inadequately. Classically alcoholics display type of behaviour. Explain unpredictable behaviour. Unpredictable behaviour As this claims behaviour which is unpredictable or unexpected, that doesn’t fit the situation can be considered abnormal. I.e. A person over-reacting, being overly enthusiastic or overly anxious would fulfil this category. Irrational behaviour. If a person’s behaviour does not fit the expected norms – doesn’t make sense, if they have trouble communicating in a reasonable way then this is seen as irrational and fit this category. However irrational behaviour may have nothing to do with psychological abnormality Explain irrational behaviour. 2 limitations of failure to function adequately Give 2 limitations of failure to function adequately This is not a true definition of abnormality but a way of defining individual problems. There can always be exceptions to the rule. A student who is showing anxiety about exams may behave uncharacteristically but it would be wrong to consider them abnormal! Cultural issues may also prevail here. Assumptions of the medical model What are the basic assumptions of the Biological / medical model of abnormality Origins of abnormal behaviour are physical. I.e. genetic, chemical, brain structure Causes of mental disorders are similar to causes of physical illnesses. Implication for treatment of medical model What are the implications for treatment of the medical model of abnormality Mental disorders can be treated in the same way as a physical illness, by physical intervention. Chemotherapy ECT & Psychosurgery. Link between biology and illness Masterson and Davies (85) relatives of Name 3 studies that show a link between biology and illness schizophrenicsare 18Xmore likely to be diagnosed than random population Sherrington et al (88) gene-mapping study that found evidence of a link between chromosome 5 and schizophrenia Barr et al (90)who found a connection between mothers who had flu when pregnant and schizophrenia, suggesting a link between this and other disorders. PKU research + for Biological model. Genetic research has revealed the important genetic basis for some mental disorders. Drug treatment is effective for relieving symptoms and requires little effort on the part of the patient ECT and psychosurgery are helpful treatment when others have failed Diagnosis of ‘ mental illness’ removes blame from the patient Give 3 positive support points for the Biological model Criticisms for the Biological model Genetic research detracts from environmental causes. Side effects of drugs can lead to problems as dependency. ECT is controversial and side effects can be long lasting Diagnosis of a mental disorder carries a stigma Psychosurgery is not used very often now and is only really used as last resort Give 4 criticisms for the biological model Assumptions of Psychodynamic model What are the basic assumptions of the psychodynamic model of abnormality Behaviour is driven by unconscious drives and motives Childhood experiences can cause times conflict that if left unresolved can lead to abnormal behaviour 3 parts of the personality What are the three parts of the personality that may influence our basic drives. ID EGO SUPEREGO Pleasure principle Reality principle Morality principle Stages of development Conflicts may arise during the stages of development. What are these stages? Oral --Phallic --Genital Anal Latency Defence mechanisms Defence mechanism help in dealing with the conflicts name 4 Repression Projection Denial Regression Displacement Sublimation What are the implications for treatment of the psychodynamic model of abnormality Implications for treatment Pdynamic Free association Dream analysis Traditional therapy Parapraxes. (Freudian slip of the tongue) Freud support Which case study does Freud use as a support of his own model. The case of Anna O + support for psychodynamic model The model changes peoples perceptive about metal illness by looking at psychological factors It identified traumatic childhood experiences as having a role in adult disorders The person is not necessarily held responsible for their disorder. Give 3 positive support points for the Psychodynamic model of abnormality Criticisms of the psychodynamic model There is an overemphasis on past rather than present problems Sexual experiences are overemphasised rather than exploring interpersonal / social factors Freud stressed that biology is destiny rather than seeing inequality as the result of social or cultural factors. The model is non-falsifiable, non scientific as it cannot be disproved Ethical concerns due to the emphasis on childhood. Give 3 criticisms of the psychodynamic model of abnormality Repression? What is repression? The memory of an event is place beyond conscious awareness. Denial? What is denial? Refusing to believe that an event has actually occurred in an effort to avoid provoking unwanted emotions. Sublimation? What is sublimation? Diverting emotions onto something else that is considered more socially acceptable Displacement? What is displacement? Diverting emotions onto someone else. But the emotions cannot be expressed to the person concerned What is projection? Projection? An individual will attribute his or her own faults/wishes to someone else. Crediting someone else for something they have done. Regression? The person goes back to childish behaviour. Behaviourist model assumptions If behaviour has been learned then it can be unlearned. Behaviour can be unlearned by the use of conditioning to eliminate the unwanted behaviour but he use of classical and operant conditioning Individuals with mental disorders maladaptive forms of behaviour. What is regression? What are the basic assumptions of the behaviourist model of abnormality? What are the implications of treatment of the behaviourist model of abnormality Treatments for behaviourists Classical conditioning therapies Aversion therapy Systematic desensitisation Implosion therapy/flooding Operant conditioning therapies Token economy Copying and modelling Aversion therapy Classical conditioning therapy What is aversion therapy? The use of unpleasant stimuli to prevent the behaviour occurring. i.e. using an injection for alcoholics that induces sickness when consuming alcohol What is the token economy? Token economy Operant conditioning therapy Using a secondary reinforcer, you issue a child with token as a reward for good behaviour; the token then can be used to buy privileges. Strengths of behaviourist model of abnormality What are the strengths of the behaviourist model of abnormality? It is effective both in treating and explaining many psychological disorders It gives the patient the power to overcome their anxiety concentrating on actual behaviour. The patient can UNLEARN what has been learnt It allows for cultural and individual difference. Weaknesses of the behaviourist model of abnormality What are the weaknesses of the behaviourist model of abnormality The model is reductionist in that it reduces behaviour to overly simplistic forms. It overemphasises the role of the environment and ignores biological causes of disorders. There are ethical concerns with this theory as some therapies may have been imposed on the patient without their consent. Assumptions of the cognitive model of abnormality Faulty thinking (cognitions) distort perceptions of reality Emotional problems can be attributed to distortions in our cognitions or thinking processes. Irrational beliefs, illogical errors polarized thinking as common. Maladaptive thoughts take place without our full awareness What are the basic assumptions of the cognitive model of abnormality? What are the implications for treatment in the cognitive model of abnormality Implication of treatment, cognitive model of abnormality Abnormal behaviour can be dealt with by altering the thought patterns. Irrational thoughts should be replaced with rational thoughts. This done by:Rational emotive behaviour therapy Cognitive-behavioural therapy Strengths of the cognitive model of abnormality What are the strengths of the cognitive model of abnormality? Cognitive therapy takes a practical problem solving approach and teaches the patient to recognise maladaptive thinking patterns. Cognitive approach offers a model for living that promotes psychological wellbeing and avoids the stigma of mental illness. Give 2 criticisms of the cognitive model of abnormality 2 criticisms of the cognitive model The model suggests that everyone is self-sufficient. It has little sympathy for the patient It is inclined to blame the individual for their behaviour. Symptoms of AN Fear of gaining weight Distorted body image Denial of a problem Perfectionism Obsession with food Avoidance of high calorie foods Excessive exercising. Give 3 symptoms of anorexia nervosa AN mean? What does anorexia nervosa mean? Nervous loss of appetite Answers to general AN questions General Questions on AN What is the % of An suffers who are female? Most male suffers are……..? Age of onset is? Two professional types to suffer AN are? 60% homosexual between 13-18 Dancers/ models /professionals / managers Percentage of anorexics ? What percentage of anorexics….. Recover after one episode/ Yo-yo…. gain and lose weight Never recover 20% 60% 20% with 10% of cases being fatal Physical changes in AN What physical changes occur in a suffer of Anorexia? What physical and psychological effects can occur as a result of AN? Dry, rough, dirty looking skin Hair growth on face arms and/or thighs Loss of scalp hair Intolerance of the cold Physical and psychological effects of AN Low metabolic rate Sleep less than normal Low sex drive Constipation swollen ankles Mood disorders i.e. depression Characteristics of BN What are the characteristics of bulimia nervosa? Normal body weight nut distorted but image. Indulge in secretive eating up to 10,000 calories at a time Eating only stops when the food runs out. Use coloured food so as to ensure that all food eaten has been vomited Depression is common Meaning of BN What does bulimia nervosa mean? Ox hunger General questions on BN General questions on BN……….. Percentage number of bulimics that are female? Age of onset? What % of BN suffers are self-harmers? 95% Late teens early twenties 4:25 Physical problems with BN Cardiac problems, fits, kidney damage, hair loss, metabolic disturbance, throat problems, bad teeth. What physical problems are seen with BN? Causes of eating disorders /bio. Genetics Chemical / neurotransmitters noradrenalin and serotonin A link to hormone CCk-8 Infection such as glandular fever Abnormality in the temporal lobes of the cortex. What do the medical/ biological explanations claim is the cause of eating disorders. Study for genetics AN What study would you use to discuss the genetic link to AN? Holland et al (88) APFCC study Study for genetics BN What study would you use to discuss the genetic link for BN? Kendler et al (91) APFCC study Social-psychological reason for eating disorders. What are the social psychological explanations for eating disorders? Behaviourist Cognitive Psychodynamic Family relationships Behaviourists and eating disorders. It is a learned behaviour via C/O conditioning. It is a weight phobia Media influences can be seen via magazine messages that slim is beautiful as supported by Garner et al and Wade and Travis Cognitive explanation What do behaviourist say is the cause of eating disorders? What do cognitive psychologist believes is the cause of eating disorders? Attitudes and beliefs influence eating disorders i.e. thin = successful, happy and attractive. Faulty thinking patterns / cognitions Psychologists to support the Cognitive explanation What psychologists would you raw on to support the cognitive explanation for eating disorders? Slade & Russell; weight / size overestimations Crisp & Kalucy; age affected size estimations Thomson; 95% of wome overestimate their weight - Yager et al; Blind women still suffer from eating disorder Freud and eating disorders. What would Freud claim is the reason for eating disorders? Eating disorders are a substitute for sexual expression. Eating disorders could be a symbolic way of repressing sexual impulses. They are a way of avoiding the demand s of adulthood by regressing to childhood That conflict in childhood has not been resolved. Problems with Freud’s ideas on eating disorders. The ideas are very difficult to test. The link to amenorrhoea can only apply to females and males are affected too. The connection of eating disorders to childhood trauma is indirect, i.e. sexual abuse may lead to depression, which in turn leads to the eating disorder While the onset for AN is early teens, the idea of avoiding sexuality /adult responsibilities cannot explain why onset is later in BN What are some of the problems with Freud’s ideas about eating disorders? Family as a cause for eating disorders. Family relationships are often regarded as a reason for eating disorders, why might this be so? Conflict at home as the young person tries to establish themselves / their identity. Bemis claims that in many young girls it is the struggle to deal with high levels of control by others / parents Over controlling parents may lead young people to feel a lack of identity. Cultures where AN/BN is common? In what culture do we find most anorexics? Industrial societies where there is an abundance of food BUT slimness is seen as attractive. Eating disorders rare in Japan and China, why? This may be due to the respect that the Japanese and Chinese have for food. It is the cultural norm in China that meals are social occasions and there is a pressure to conform to family eating patterns. Why might eating disorders be rare in cultures like China and Japan?
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