SMT Lead-Free Manufacturing and Troubleshooting Course Title: SMT Lead-Free Manufacturing and Troubleshooting Phil Zarrow and Jim Hall, ITM Consulting 1 Day Course Instructor: Course Duration: Objectives of the Course: Don’t fight a fact, deal with it. Whether we like it or not, Lead-free conversion, for most of the industry, will come down to “Adapt or Die”. This course presents a comprehensive and objective examination of the implications of Lead-free on materials, solder, equipment, processes, forward and backward compatibility issues and logistics. This course examines what lead-free and the aforementioned alloys mean to the electronic assembler at the process and logistics level. The workshop is intended to give the participant an in-depth understanding of SMT assembly using leadfree solder alloys. The various aspects of no-lead solder is examined including why the drive for lead-free electronic manufacturing as well as what lead-free alloys are being considered and by whom. The pros and cons of lead-free solder alloys are discussed and put into an applications specific perspective. The SMT assembly process will be reviewed in detail with the implications and considerations of lead-free on each of the individual processes. . Interactions with substrate finishes and components will be discussed as will the far-reaching implications and process adaptations that must be made to accommodate nolead soldering. Forward and Backward compatibility issues for both reflow and wave-solder will be examined as will Reliability and Reliability Testing. The second portion of the course will contend with operational implications and the adaptations that will have to be made by the purchasing, quality assurance and product development groups. The situations confronted by both OEMs and CEMs will also be examined. The third part of the workshop will present common defects in lead-free SMT soldering as well as root-cause and prevention. This is intended to help the participant troubleshoot his/her lead-free assembly process. What You Will Learn: The drivers behind the move to no-lead and the approaches and initiatives of various countries and industry organizations. The composition and behavior of lead-free solder and how these affect deposition, reflow, and ultimate solder joint quality The fundamentals of lead-free solder paste deposition and reflow What assemblers should be doing regarding implementing a Lead-Free Roadmap What your engineering, quality and procurement groups should know regarding Lead-Free implementation Part I: Lead-Free Manufacturing 1. Why (the burden of) Lead-free? a. Motivation and “Wisdom” of Lead-free b. Potential Costs c. Worldwide Perspective and Status of Legislation 1. Europe 2. Asia 3. North and South America 2. Lead-free and Product Requirements a. Properties of Tin alloys 3. Materials and Components a. Manufacturing Requirements i. So-called “Drop-in Replacements” b. Material Requirements 4. PCB Requirements i. Laminate ii. Surface Finish 5. Component Implications i. Thermal impact ii. Termination finishes 6. Lead-Free Solder Paste i. Chemistry ii. Alloy iii. Printing and Stencil Parameters b. Solder Paste Testing and Evaluation i. Impact of Reflow ii. Evaluation Tests 7. Moisture Sensitive Devices (MSDs) 8. Equipment and Assembly Processes a. Lead-free Solder Paste Printing 1. Stencil Re-design b. Placement and Lead-free c. Wave-soldering Lead-free 1. Wave and Selective d. Reflow Soldering 1. Lead-free profiles e. Inspection 1. Visual and AOI 2. X-ray 3. Voids in Lead-free joints 9. Forward and Backwared Compatibility Issues a. Reflow and Wavesolder b. Passives, ICs and BGAs i. Alternatives 10. Reliability and Reliability Testing of Lead-free Solder Joints a. Thermal cycling b. Drop Test c. Shear Test Part III: Lead Free Logistics and Implementation 1. Implementation Alternatives 2. OEM vs CEM considerations 3. Operational Requirements a. Organizational Concerns b. Implementation Logistics c. Gap-Analysis d. Procurement e. Quality Assurance f. Handling Multiple Alloys g. On-going Costs 4. Implementation Program 5. Lead-free Implementation Program a. Issues and Checklist 6. “The 5 Stages of Lead-free” Part III: Troubleshooting Lead-free 1. Lead-free alloy wetting behavior 2. Defects: Root Cause and Prevention a. Solder balls b. Wicking c. Opens and Insufficients d. Excessive Warpage e. Non Reflow f. Dewetting g. Nonwetting h. Tombstoning i. Bridging j. Voids i. Symptom or Defect ii. In BGA interconnections k. Delamination l. Component Cracking m. MSDs 3. Inspection and Workmanship Standards for Lead-free Part IV: Lead-free Question and Answer Session Who Should Attend: This course is intended for Manufacturing, Process, Design, and Quality Engineering personnel and management who are concerned about and wish to become familiar and comfortable with the Lead-Free SMT assembly. This course will be of benefit to both beginners and advanced SMT users. Most important, it will give your personnel a perspective on what they must be doing if your company’s Lead-Free roadmap is to be implemented successfully.