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综合英语_II_

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									Lesson Three
Pub Talk and the King's English

Aims
1.

To learn the methods in developing an expository writing,esp. the use of examples
To know how to make good conversation To trace the history of the King‟s English To analyse the features of spoken English

2. 3. 4.

5.

To appreciate the language features

Teaching Contents



   

1. Exposition 2. History of Britain 2. Detailed study of the text 3. Organizational pattern 4. Language features 5. The characteristics of spoken English

Time allocation
1. Exposition and history (15 min.) 2. Detailed study of the text (105 min.) 3. Structure analysis (15 min.) 4. Language appreciation (15 min.) 5. The characteristics of spoken English (30 min)


Writing style


a piece of exposition
 

What is King's English? What is pub talk?

Writing style




The title of this piece is not very aptly chosen. It misleads the readers into thinking that the writer is going to demonstrate some intrinsic or linguistic relationship between pub talk and the king's English

Writing style




Whereas the writer, in reality, is just discoursing on what makes good conversation. He feels that bar conversation in the pub has a charm of its own.

Writing style




The writer illustrates his point by describing the charming conversation he had with some people one evening in a pub on the topic “the King's English". The thesis --- in the opening sentence of Para 1.

Writing style




Conversation is the most sociable of all human activities. The last sentence of the last par. winds up the theme by pointing out what is the bane (祸害)of good conversation ....... "talking sense“

Writing style




The real thesis --- in the 3rd para. “Bar conversation has a charm of its own”. A better title would be:




" The Art of Good Conversation“ "The Charms of Conversation"

The History of Britain


1.The native people in Britain Celts


--- Celt (language)



2. Roman Conquest 43 AD, ruled for 400 years


Latin (language)

The History of Britain




3. In 449 Angles, Saxon, and Jutes from Northwest of Germany , conquered the most part of England English --- old English

The History of Britain








4. 9th century, Scandinavian conquest Danish (language) 5. 11th century Norman Conquest for 400 years French (language) 6. British people conquered the conquest again. English won its recognition. *http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/timelines/bri tain/o_neo_bronze.shtml *

Detailed study of the text


pub talk


--- conversation held in the public house
--- standard English



The King's English


Detailed study of the text


Conversation is the .....:


Conversation helps to promote an agreeable pleasant and informal relationship among people.

sociable







---- friendly; agreeable The smiths are a sociable family. We spent a sociable evening drinking the other day. A sociable person is one who is friendly.

And it is an activity only of human…


-- And conversation is an activity which is found only among human beings.



Animals and birds are not capable of conversation.

intricate --- complicated




The intricate computer requires a skilled operator. an intricate argument / plot


design / pattern

indulge in


--- enjoy; satisfy 容许自己享受; 尽情



allow oneself to have or enjoy He indulged heavily in conversation and drink.

indulge in






He occasionally indulges in the luxury of a good cigar. We indulge in an expensive supper after the concert. Nazi madmen indulged in the torture of their victims before they killed them.

Par. 2


How to make good conversation?

What makes good conversation?


1. Anything can start a conversation. It does not need a special topic to start a conversation. And once started, no one knows how or where it will end.

What makes good conversation?




2. What spoils the conversation is people who think they have a lot of important things to say. He who would have anything important to say spoils the conversation. 3. Conversation is not for making a point.

What makes good conversation?


4. There is no winning in conversation. One does not try to prove himself right and others wrong. We may argue but we needn't try to convince others that they are wrong and we are right.

make a point


--- prove effectively truth of one„s statement by argument or in some other way.立论; 证明观点

 

This is the first point I want to make. In this case he made a point.


在这一点上,他发表了自己的观点。

in a flash --- in a second


 

In a flash he realized that they were presents from his patients. Everything happened in a flash. a flash in a pan

They are ready to let it go.


--- They are ready to give up the opportunity to tell one of their best anecdotes (because the conversation has

moved onto other subjects)

metaphor
 

meander leap ---- river
1. flow slowly turning here and there 2. jump over

metaphor
 

Sparkle glow ---- fire  1. small flashes  2. bright light

mixed metaphor
 

meander/ sparkle --- smooth / peaceful leap / glow ---- exciting / heated



The writer in the same sentence compares conversation to river and fire as well.

Para 3


the real thesis --

Bar conversation has a charm of its own

Why does the writer like bar conversation so much?
1. The writer is only a frequenter of pubs. 2. Bar goers are not intimate friends.


Bar/church, the place for people to make friends. Bar plays an important role in social activities in the western world.

on the rocks --

infml cliché

1. wrecked or ruined  Mr Jones' business was on the rocks.
= His business was losing money and almost ruined.

on the rocks


2.with ice only
Sally ordered an orange juice on the rocks. = Sally ordered an orange juice with ice cubes.




Marriage is compared to a ship wrecked on the rocks.

Ancient superstition:
1. get out of bed on the wrong side
get up on the wrong side of the bed

Ancient superstition
Getting out of bed on the "wrong side" will bring you "bad" luck. The wrong side is usually the "left" side. When one get out of bed on the "wrong" side, it usually means you're in the "grumpy" or "bad" mood. Go back to bed and get up on the right side.



Ancient superstition
2. “Step on a spider... it is sure to rain”  This superstition is told to all children, because no one wants it to rain. Spiders generally live a long and healthy life. 3. The number 13 has often been thought to be a bad omen. People should never invite "13 guests to dinner. It is believed that one will die before the year is out .

Ancient superstition
4. " Friday the 13th " is day to stay at home and do nothing. It is doubly unlucky, when the 13th of the month falls on a Friday. "Bad" things will happen. Many people refrain from starting activities on the "13th" to make sure no evil will happen to them.

up-bringing
--- the training and education received while growing up


His upbringing explains a lot about

his attitude towards women.

of one's own
-- belong strictly to oneself



She has a mind of her own. 她颇有主见。 For reasons of his own, he refused to join the club.


由于某些个人理由,他拒绝参加那个俱乐部。

delve –


dig, research; investigate
  

delve into book 专研书本 delve into the past 调查过去的情况 If you delve into sth, you try to discover new information about it.

two kinds of language:
a) colloquial expression



on the rocks get out of bed on the wrong side

b) literary allusion 文学典故, 引喻 in reference to a person; event; story

"Musketeers of Dumas―


http://www.cadytech.com/dumas/biographie.php


The three Musketeers in Dumas' novel are very close friends. They supported each other with their fortune and their lives, yet they showed no curiosity in or tried to find out anything about each other's private life.

Para.1-3 Questions:
1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

How do you comment on the title? What is the first topic the writer puts forward? Do you think the writer sticks to this topic? What makes a good conversation? Why does the writer like bar conversation so much?

Para. 4


Specific example. It may be used as a transitional paragraph. In order to arouse the readers curiosity the writer didn't mention the topic until the next paragraph.

desultory
---- aimless, half-hearted (fml) 散漫


The word comes from the Latin "desultor" - leaper . Something that is desultory is done or happen in an unplanned and disorganized way, and without enthusiasm.

desultory
There were some desultory attempts to defend him.  He began to look desultorily for another apartment.

  

a ~ conversation 漫谈 ~ research 漫无边际的研究 a ~ walk 漫步

commonplace
-- ordinary, common




Disposable cigarette lighters are commonplace. Air travel has now become ~. n. In earlier centuries the death of children was a commonplace.

alchemy --- magic
1.

2.

the form of chemistry studied in the Middle Ages, which was especially concerned with trying to discover ways to change ordinary metals into gold. a literary use, the power to do sth. so well that it seems mysterious and magical the alchemy of his performance

affirmation
--- a statement of your belief in and support for them  the denunciation of privilege and affirmation 指责特权  affirmation of equality 赞同平等

a term of criticism -- why?


The King's English is a kind of language one should try to use and imitate. Someone told me that the language should not be used. The term is criticizing instead of praising.

convict
-- a person who has been found guilty of a crime and sent to prison esp. for a long time
 

an escaped convict an ex-con 前科犯

barrier, obstacle, difficulty


difficulty ---- the





most general of the words and may be applied loosely to any troublesome state of affairs to have difficulty in learning higher mathematics the difficulty of driving a car through deep mud

barrier, obstacle, difficulty


obstacle
-- something that one must either remove or go around before being able to proceed The huge tree that had been blown down by the storm was an obstacle to traffic. Ill health may be an obstacle to a child's progress in school.





barrier, obstacle, difficulty


barrier -- an obstacle that temporarily impedes progress but is not necessarily impassable.  Writers never tire of depicting the barriers that arise between parents and growing children.

barrier


The thick walls and moats of castles were built as barriers against attackers.


城堡修筑厚实的城墙及护城河都是为了 将其用作防御进攻的障碍物。

churl
-- (old use) a person of low birth, esp. a peasant

swing
--- (cause to) change to a large degree  She swung from happiness to tears  The value of the dollar swung downwards.

Par 8




History of English. T The writer here makes digression to show conversation going on without focus.

out of snobbery


--- (in order) because they want to show their superior taste in matter of food.

out of snobbery


In English restaurants, esp, in high-class restaurants, the names of the dishes on the menus are quite often in French. This is done out of snobbery because in the Western countries people consider French food to be the best.

out of snobbery


But even if they wrote their menus in English, they would have to use many words, such as pork, beef, veal, poultry etc

derived from French and which were first
introduced into England by the Norman rulers.

snobbery --

1. the attitude of someone who belongs to or admires the higher social class of society, and despises people of a lower social class

snobbery --

2. the attitude of sb, who believes that his own special tastes, interests and abilities are superior to those of other people.



snobbish / snob

rift --- fml, lit.


1. a crack, narrow opening made by breaking


The sun appeared through a rift in the clouds.



2. (fig) division I'm afraid there's been a rift between us. A deep rift has started in their family life.

Par.10




example to show class distinction scamper -- When people or small animals scamper, they move with small, quick, bouncing steps.  The mouse scampered into its hole.

turn up one's nose at
-- a trite expression  show contempt for / ignore / score / consider sth not good enough  I wish my child wouldn't turn up his nose at vegetables.


turn up one's nose at


My friend turns up his nose at anyone who hasn't had a college education. -- turn up one's toes – to die (slang)

 

bilingual education


--- using two languages in teaching





Since there are now some two or three million Americans of Latin American parentage whose language is Spanish, a recent movement has been for bilingual education, usually English and Spanish. Under this plan, students whose first language is sth other than English receive instruction in that language as well as English, so as not to deprive them of equal educational opportunity.

bilingual education


This proposal, which has been only sporadically(不时发生地) implemented (执行,生效)has caused a great deal of controversy in the US.

bi + adj.


--- meaning double, two, appearing twice


 

bimonthly 每月二次 biannual 每年二次 biplane 双翼飞机

into the shoes of


--- (infml) in the position of experiencing what another has to experience



I'm glad I'm not in his shoe just now.

cultural humiliation --

The English must have felt greatly humiliated when they were forced to listen to and use a foreign language and to accept a foreign language. So they took up arms against this cultural humiliation. The leader is Hereward the Wake.

Hereward the Wake


3image-1*




an Anglo-Saxon patriot and rebel leader, he rose against the Norman conquerors but was defeated. This sentence means like Herewaaard the Wake, when the English rose against the Norman conquerors, they must have felt greatly humiliated when they were forced to listen to and use a foreign language to accept a foreign culture.

heirs to it


--- "it" is not clear



1. the English we speak and write in America today also shows the French influence of that time. We have inherited this French influence on the English language.]

heirs to it


2. In America today we are facing the same problem that existed in England 900 years ago. The problem of having two languages existing side by side.(English and Spanish)

Par 12


the history of the King's English


Newes -- archaic spelling
 

Strange News of the Intercepting Certain Letters thou clipst the King's English ------ middle English

clip --- simplify


  

abbreviate in speech or writing as "n'kyou" for "thank you“ They gave him clipped and precise instructions. His plays are written in a very clipped style. A clipped style of language expresses things quickly and clearly using as few words as possible.

God's patience...




There will be a great trying of one's patience and plentiful misuse of the King's English. No matter how patient you are, you won't be able to bear him, because he will even try God's patience. God is more patient than any human being.

abusing –




1. take unfair or undue advantage of (one's patience) 2. improper or incorrect use of language (the King's English)

come into its own --





receive what properly belongs to one, esp acclaim or recognition 获得应得的 She didn„t really come into her own until she‟d won the election for Party leader. 才奠定了应有的地位 With the success of the Model T Ford, the automobile industry came into its own.


随着T型福特汽车的成功,汽车工业受到了应有 的重视。

Elizabethans--



the famous writers in Elizabethan time (period) Shakespeare/ Milton

Simile








Extended simile blow on a dandelion clock – seeds multiplied – floated to the ends of the earth To spread the English language is compared to the blowing of a dandelion clock. English was spread far and wide by those famous writers.

"The King's English was no longer...―


The use of English was no longer restricted to a certain race or class. Now English is used both by the King and common people in England.

pejorative –


disparaging, downgrading




(a word, phrase) that suggests that somebody or sth, is bad or worthless I didn't think he is using inequality in a pejorative sense.

facetious


--- comes from the French "faetie" -- a jest


 

joking esp. at an inappropriate time I became angry with that facetious boy. A phrase used pejoratively or facetiously is clearly lowered in importance and dignity.

underling(s) --- derog


a person of low rank or position in relation to another such as a servant

"English as it should be spoke―


The deliberate poor grammar used here reflects the desire by some members of the lower classes to strip the language of any pretence, to keep it from being used in snobbish way.

Carlyle --- Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)




a Scottish essayist and historian and a very strong voice in the intellectual circles of Victorian England. Carlyleism卡莱尔风格

harden




-- become hard or forceful There exists a kind of danger. That's for us, words will become concrete things.

edict -- (fml)


an official public order having the force of law, which everyone must obey a firm, authoritative command or instruction

immune (to) 不受影响的


 

 

If you are immune to sth. that happens or is done, you are not affected by it. He was immune to the flattery of others people. The American economy is proving surprisingly immune to big fluctuations 波动in interest rates. be ~ against attack be ~ from taxation


n. diplomatic immunity外交豁免权

common sense --

头脑,见地, 应有的判断力


practical good sense and judgment gained from experience, rather than special knowledge from school or study

common sense


a person's natural ability to make good judgments and to behave in a practical and sensible way.




1. Although she is not very clever she's got a lot of common sense. 2. Haven't you enough ~ to know that it's unwise to go swimming just after a big meal?

ultimatum --

a final statement of terms made by one party or another. There is an implication of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted. The word comes from Latin “ultimatus” (last) and is obviously related to “ultimate” 最后通牒; 最后 条件

ultimatum -

When Iran held American diplomats hostage, ultimatums were issued by the Iranian now and then demanding concession from the Americans if their demands were not met.

Detailed study of the text


The King's English sets up an excellent standard for us to imitate for we can gain a lot of useful knowledge or information by studying it, but people should not forced to accept it.

Par 18


“so we may return…”


The writer realizes he has been digressing from his subject so he comes back to his central them -- conversation.

slips and slides –


metaphor




to slide on a slippery surface, to lose one's footing, hence to make a mistake, fall into error The English one uses is no longer absolutely correct.

Foster


"Collective Poetry"


--- Aspects of the novel is a major study of the novel and Foster's most important critical work.


  

1939 -- move to the US
1946 -- became a citizen 1956--1961 --- professor of poetry at Oxford 1967 - awarded the national medal for literature

Foster


 

THE DOG BENEATH THE SKIN 1935 皮 下之狗 ON THE FRONTIER 1938 边界上 JOURNEY TO A WAR 1935 战地行 a record of their experience to China

Foster






NEW YEAR LETTER 1941 新年来信 FOR THE TIME BEING, A CHRISTMAS ORATORIO 1945 暂时 FOR AGE OF ANXIETY 1947 Pulitzer Prize 忧虑的年代

sinister


the sinister corridor of our age – metaphor



the road we travel --- compared to a corridor in our age, people are traveling along a sinister road doing all kinds of evil things.
 

a sinister look on his face A rather sinister figure was walking about behind the bushes

sinister


Foster's metaphor refers to the ugly and frightening world of the 20th century which has indeed been a sinister corridor for mankind to walk down, fraught as it has been with danger on every side.

sit up—




If sth, makes you sit up, it makes you pay sudden attention to what is happening Why don't you threaten to resign, -- that would make them sit up.

great minds




--- people with great minds distinguished eminent people

salon -

1. A salon is a drawing room or large room for entertaining guests. In 18th century France, such salons of the rich were often gathering places for persons of social and intellectual distinction.

salon -



2. art exhibition "the Salon“ 3. parlor
 

a beauty salon literary salon

saloon --

  

1. a grandly furnished room for the social use of a ship's passengers ( in a hotel0 2. sedan (car) for 4 to 7 passengers 3. a large public drinking place = bar Italian word "sala" = hall

rank—



 


 



Sir Lady duke / duchess marquis / marchioness earl , count / countess viscount / viscountess baron / baroness the only difference ....

Detailed study of the text


the sauces prepared by Mme. Deffand's cook and supreme chef, Brinvilliers, were equally terrible. The only difference between the two cooks lay perhaps in their different purpose /intention in preparing the sauces.

Organizational pattern


4 sections


Sect. I par.1-3
 



The writer puts forward the theses. 1. Conversation is the most sociable of all human activities. 2. Bar conversation has a charm of its own.

Organizational pattern


Sect. II par. 4-11
 



an example to support the thesis no fixed topic --- the King's English -- Australia -Saxon churls -- the language barriers The example has well explained where its charm lies.

Organizational pattern


Sect. III par.12--19 more digressions (what the writer thought about after the bar conversation the night before)




Para.12-15 He gives his personal reflection on the history and meaning of the King's English Para.16-19 By the mentioning of dictionaries and salons of 18th Paris, he reveals his attitude towards the King's English

attitude:
1) not ultimatum  2) slips and slides


Organizational pattern


Sect. IV. Para. 20--21 conclusion


Those people who ruin the conversation by trying to talk sense are just like chimpanzees who are not capable of conversation.

Language features


conversational style



loosely organized informal language --

to suit the theme

Language features


Reasons for the informal style:


1. the title misleading


 

The writer talks about the charm of conversation by illustrations. "How to Make Good Conversation“ "The Charm of Conversation“

Language features


2. the thesis


We have two theses here
 

a) Conversation is the most .... b) Bar conversation has a charm of ... (the real one)

Language features


3. the transition or digression
 

para.5 served as transition shift general discourse to specific one

Language features


4. two different kinds of language
  

a) colloquial expressions b) copious historical allusions literary allusions

Language features





5. mixed metaphors 6. no big and abstract words 7. sentence fragments

Exercise


Paraphrase:




Conversation is an activity which is found only among human beings. 2. Conversation is not for persuading others to accept one's own idea or point of view.

Exercise




3. In fact, those who really enjoy and skilled at conversation will not argue to win or force other to accept their point of view. 4. People who meet each other for a drink in a bar are not close friends for they are not deeply absorbed or engrossed on each other's lives.

Exercise




5. The conversation went on without knowing who was right or wrong. 6. These animals are called cattle when they are alive and feeding in the field, but when we sit down at the table to eat, we call their meat beef.

Exercise




7. The new ruling class by using French instead of English made it difficult for the English to accept or absorb the culture of the rulers. 8. The English language received proper recognition and became an official language.

Exercise




9. The phrase "the King's English" has always been used disparagingly or jokingly by the lower classes. 10. There still exists in the working people a spirit of opposition to the cultural control of the ruling class.

Exercise




11. There is always a great danger that we might forget that words are only symbols and take them for things they are supposed to represent. 12. Even the most educated and literate people do not use standard, formal English all the time in their conversation.

Synonyms




ignorant, illiterate uneducated unlearned

ignorant --- 无知


  

It implies a lack of knowledge, either generally or on some particular subject He's quite ignorant. He's not stupid, merely ignorant. You know I'm entirely ignorant about these things.

illiterate --- 缺乏文化修养






With little or no education esp. unable to read and write There is a large illiterate population in the countryside.在农村文盲占多数人口。 He is musically illiterate.他缺乏音乐修养。

uneducated --

没有受到正规的系统教育




It implies a lack of formal or systematic education He's uneducated enough not to be your secretary.

unlearned






It suggests a lack of learning, esp in a special field He was unlearned in the ways of the world.他 不通晓人情世故。 A lawyer is not unlearned profession. 律师是一 个需要学问的职业。

scoff




--- 嘲弄,嘲笑,专对普遍被人们所信任崇 拜或敬重的事物,冷嘲热讽 speaking slightly and with derision of sth usually accorded honor, reverence or respect by other

scoff




He scoffs an advice given by his elders. 他对长 辈的劝告总是冷嘲热讽。 Those who scoff history will be scoffed by history.


嘲弄历史的人们必将被历史所嘲弄。 炽热的爱国精神



They scoffed at his fervent patriotism.


sneer


--- 带有强烈的感情色彩,侧重于面部表情或语 言中所含的轻蔑嘲笑之意



sneer carries a much stronger feeling, as by a derision smile or scornful insinuating tone of voice

sneer


It's very discouraging to be sneered at all the time.


成天受讥笑是很令人泄气的。

jeer






--侧重指用粗鲁的,侮辱性的言辞或粗俗的 嘲笑来表示轻 It suggests openly insulting, coarse remarks or mocking laughter. The crowd jeered at the prisoners.

jeer




They jeered at the proposal put forward by the speaker. Don't jeer at the mistake or misfortunes of others.


不要嘲弄别人的错误或不幸。

gibe







--- 不带恶意的取笑或捉弄人的笑骂 It implies a taunting or mocking without illwill My brother gibed at my efforts to paint a picture. It„s unkind to gibe at another's English.

flout





-- 以不理不睬或视而不见的态度表示出轻视 It suggests a treating with contempt She flouted my offers of help and friendship.


她对我所提供的帮助与友情均嗤之以鼻。

The Characteristics of Spoken English






the characteristics of spoken conversational language those which interfere with and interrupt the fluency of speech features of normal non-fluency

The Characteristics of Spoken English


1. Hesitation pauses (or filled pauses) 填补 词语


Filled pauses are those which are plugged by stopgap noises such as "er""erm“

The Characteristics of Spoken English


2. False starts


These can take the form either of a needless repetition of a word, eg "I erI", or of a reformulation of what has been said eg. "you get taught you're taught to drive" the result is an ungrammatical sequence of words.

The Characteristics of Spoken English


3. Syntactic anomalies (不规则)


Often we fail to keep control of the syntax of what we are saying, and produce anomalous constructions which, if they are not entirely ungrammatical, would nevertheless be regarded as awkward and unacceptable in written composition eg. "We've got... you've got to take".

The Characteristics of Spoken English


The voiced fillers er and erm, for example, are useful delaying devices, so that we are able to continue holding the floor while we think of what next to say

The Characteristics of Spoken English


fillers - or tag constructions




such as: you know, well, oh, you see, I mean mm, shall I say, I think isn't it -- an invitation to the listeners to confirm the speaker's observation

On the syntactic level


Conversation tends towards coordination rather than subordination of clauses, for coordination simplifies the planning of sentence structure "and"'but".

On the syntactic level




1. Sentences are short and the structure is simple. 2. Verbal phrases are simple.
 

seldom use passive voice often use present and past tenses

On the syntactic level




3. more use of none pre-modifiers 4, in conversation, there is more use of declarative sentence than interrogative sentence(interrogation )


less frequent use of imperative sentence

On the lexical level (lexis)


lexis is short, simple and easy to understand , plainly colloquial, emotional, exaggerative

On the lexical level (lexis)




1. the use of basic verbs, seldom use different words to describe the same thing or the same action. 2. a great deal of informal words, slang words and taboo, vogue words 时髦词

On the lexical level (lexis)




3.the use of emotional words and exaggerative words 4.the use of vague terms 模糊词语




kind of, sort of, thing, whatsit, what'shisname, eg. I met old what'shisname in town this morning things like that, like anything, for anything, somehow , somewhat

On the lexical level


   

5. the use of abbreviation or abbreviated verb forms dorm = dormitory lab = laboratory flu = influenza ad = advertisement

On the lexical level


6. conversational gambits 套话
  

Excuse me, but... Sorry, but.. In my opinion

On the phonological level


1. an obvious feature in conversation is abbreviated verb forms and negative forms
  

I'm he's she'd wouldn't

2. use of stress, intonation pause

The Characteristics of Spoken English




The pragmatic实用,语用学的 analysis of language can be broadly understood to be the investigation into that aspect of meaning which is derived not from formal properties of words and construction but from the way in which utterances are used and how they relate to the context in which they are uttered.

The Characteristics of Spoken English


The pragmatic实用,语用学的 analysis of language can be broadly understood to be the investigation into that aspect of meaning which is derived not from formal properties of words and construction,but from the way in which utterances are used and how they relate to the context in which they are uttered.

The Characteristics of Spoken English


In pragmatics, much of what we learn comes from inference from the language, rather than from what is openly said. The "extra meanings" that we infer, and which account for the gap between overt sense and pragmatic force, may be called implicatures

The Characteristics of Spoken English


The term "implicature" was proposed by the philosopher HP Grice. He suggests that when people converse with one another they acknowledge a kind of tacit agreement 默契 to cooperate conversationally towards mutual ends. This agreement he calls the Cooperative Principle. When one abides by the cooperative principle, one agrees to act according to various rules, or rather Maxims 准则.

The Characteristics of Spoken English


Grice has suggested four conversational maxims:
1. The maxim of quantity 数量准则


Give the required amount of information -not too much or too little

The Characteristics of Spoken English 2. The maxim of quality 质量准则


Do not say that for which you lack evidence or which you believe to be false.

The Characteristics of Spoken English

3. The maxim of relation 关联准则
Make your contributions relevant to the purpose in hand. A: I'm running out of ink. B. There is a shop round the corner.


The Characteristics of Spoken English 4. The maxim of manner 风格准则
Avoid:


obscurity不明,




ambiguity 模棱两可
unnecessary prolixity 罗嗦


								
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