Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections
Prepositions begin prepositional phrases. A phrase ends with a noun called the object of the preposition. The phrase shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. A prepositional phrase is not needed in a sentence. You can remove it, and the sentence will still be complete.
about above across after against along among around As at before behind below beneath beside between beyond by despite down during except for from in inside into like near of off on out over past through to toward under until Up with within without
Never end a sentence with a preposition. This is called a dangling preposition. In order to be used properly, a preposition must have an object, therefore a preposition cannot be the last word of a sentence. ***** There is one exception. Some prepositions are also adverbs. If the word is being used as an adverb to tell - How? When? Where? To what extent? - it can end the sentence. For example: The sun shone above. “Above” tells “where the sun was,” therefore, it is an adverb and does not need an object.
Example Prepositional Phrases
The girl with the long brown hair sits near the windows. Prep. Phrase 1- with the long brown hair Prep. = with O.P. = hair Prep. Phrase 2 – near the windows Prep. = near O.P. = windows
Example Prepositional Phrase
In the darkness of the night, a cold, creepy hand grazed my face. Prep. Phrase 1 – In the darkness Prep. = In O.P. = darkness Prep. Phrase 2 – of the night Prep. = of O.P. = night
Adjective Prepositional Phrase
Adjective prepositional phrases are prepositional phrases that function like adjectives. They describe nouns and pronouns. They answer the questions: Which One? What Kind? How Many? How Much?
Example Adjective Prepositional Phrase
I drank tea with sugar and honey for breakfast. Adj. Prep. Phrase - with sugar and honey Prep. = with O.P. = sugar and honey (compound O.P.) This phrase describes “what kind of tea,” therefore, it is an adjective prepositional phrase.
Adverb Prepositional Phrase
Adverb prepositional phrases are prepositional phrases that function like adverbs. They describe verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They answer the questions: How? When? Where? Why? How Often? How Long?
Example Adverb Prepositional Phrase
The student closed the book with a clatter. Adverb Prep. Phrase – with a clatter Prep. = with O.P. = clatter This phrase describes “how the book was closed,” therefore, it is an adverb prepositional phrase.
A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words. And But Or Yet So For Nor
You must use correlative conjunction in their pair groups. If you use “not only” you have to use “but also” later in the sentence, etc.
Not only Both Neither Either Whether
But Also And Nor Or Or
Rules for Conjunctions and Commas
If the list has only two items, do not use a comma. For example: Rick and Steve made a snowman. If the list has more than two items, use commas between each item, but not after the last item. For example: Rick, Steve, and George made a snowman. If you are joining two sentence, you must use a comma before the conjunction. For example: Rick and Steve made a snowman, and George was jealous.
Example Conjunction Joining Words
Sheila, Suzy, and Shannon ran, jumped, and fell over the fence. “And” joins Sheila to Suzy and Shannon (nouns). “And” joins ran to jumped and fell (verbs).
Example Conjunction Joining Groups of Words
After recess but before the end of the day we need to put together the Wednesday folders. “But” joins the prepositional phrases “after recess” and “before the end”. They brushed their teeth, and then they went to bed. “And” connects the two complete sentences: They brushed their teeth. Then they went to bed.
Interjections are words that are used to show emotion. An interjection has an exclamation point or comma after it. The interjection can stand alone; it does not need to be in a complete sentence. Although a complete sentence usually follows it.
Wow! That is a big dog! Aha! I caught you! Oops! I didn’t mean to do that. Ouch! That hurt! Well, that’s a wrap! Oh, one more example won’t hurt.