The study of social skills of Secondary Vocational School Students by alextt

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									The study of social skills of Secondary Vocational School Students With Mild Mental Retardation

Hsin-Yi, Wang1* and Tai-Hwa Emily Lu 2
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National Taichung University , Taichung ,Taiwan

National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan

Introduction
According to Walker, McConnell, Holmes, Walker & Golden (1988), if a youngster finds it difficult to adapt himself or herself to personal relationship and society, he or she will be unable to get along with people, he or she will feel lonely and powerless, except he or she will be likely to drop out of school and be faced with some problems about physical and mental adaptation. In the definition of mental retardation in 1992 and 2002, American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR) opined that, the lack of social skills is one of the characteristics of students with mental retardation. Because mental retardation affects the students’ social adaptation, Sargent (1998) pointed out that some spccial students were poor in discrimination, attention, memory and generation, and thus their social skills were immature, and therefore their peers and surrounding adults declined to accepting them. Sargent also opined that, from a vocational rehabilitation point of view, adults who lack proper social skills are likely to lose their jobs. For those secondary vocational school students with mental retardation, it is necessary to learn proper social skills, because they are facing the transition from campus to career. Hence, learning proper social skills and job-related social skills at school will benefit them. As opined by Mathur and Rutherford (1996), the ultimate goal of teaching social skills to a learner is to improve the learner’s overall capability or social capability. In this study, secondary vocational school students with mental retardation are selected as the objects of teaching social skills for improving their ability to communicate with other people. Included in this teaching program are 19 units that the teachers designed in The subjects of these 19 units are “To take the initiative in asking teachers”, accordance with the suggestions of meeting the students’ needs or making up their weakness in performance. “To talk with others”, “To ask questions”, “To answer questions”, “To speak in turn”, “To use
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courtesy expressions”, “To greet others”, “To take the initiative in helping others”, “To take the initiative in seeking assistance”, “To concern friends”, “To praise others”, “To criticize others”, “To express their own feelings”, “To join others”, “To understand others’ feelings”, “To accept others’ criticisms”, “To face others’ mockeries or anger”, “To handle pressure imposed by the people of their generation”, and “To solve problems”. Therefore, this study was made for the purpose described below: 1. After completing this 19-unit training program, the secondary vocational school students with mental retardation make great progress in social skills. 2. After the secondary vocational school students with mental retardation complete this 19-unit training program, the effect of analogy can be presented.

Methods
With the nonequivalent pretest-posttest designs, this study was carried out through two groups: an experimental group composed of 13 students from the special freshman class of National Shalu Industrial Vocational Senior High School (referred to as “Shalu Industrial School” hereunder) and a control group composed of 13 students from the special freshman class of National Ta Chia Industrial Vocational Senior High School (referred to as “Ta Chia Industrial School” hereunder). This program took totally 12 weeks in which 19 units as to

teaching social skills were provided. Each of these 19 teaching units is designed in accordance with the steps of teaching including (1) to motivate, (2) to explain the steps of new social skills, (3) to let the trainees practice by following the demonstration made by the teacher, (4) to drill the trainees in accordance with the situation, (5) to feedback, (6) to correct the drill, (7) to review and draw conclusion, and (8) to give a test on the teaching unit. The compiled text of each teaching

unit was not finalized before it was approval by the tutor of the experimental class through discussion and correction. The control variates adopted in this study include intelligence, age, results of pretests given before the start of teaching and the position of the schools providing Control Group and Experimental Group. In the following is discussed the result of the teaching carried out in this study, in which two parts are included: 1. Analysis on quantity: (1) As the intelligence test did not result in significant difference between Experimental Group and Control Group, age and the grades of pretest were taken to be two covariates based on which a one-way analysis of covariance was given to the result
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of the posttest.

This was for the purpose of eliminating the influence of age and Before a one-way analysis of covariance

pretests over the results of the posttests.

(two covariates) is carried out, a test on the homogeneity of within-class regression coefficient is first given. In case that the result does not reach the level of But if the

significance, a one-way analysis of covariance is carried out.

homogeneity of within-class regression coefficient does not reach the level of significance, the Johnson-Neyman method should be applied for verifying the effect of teaching. (2) Various tests given: With the “t” test adopted, a statistical analysis was given to the results of pretests and posttests listed in the form for assessing trainees’ social skills. The test given in each of teaching units for social skills was rated by the percentage, in which 75% was regarded as the criterion of pass. In observing analogy behavior, the students in each of training units were rated by 0~3 in which 2 was regarded as the criterion of pass. on percentage. 2. Analysis on quality: A report of the effect of this teaching was made in accordance with the well-arranged information collected from the interviews made to the teachers and the students’ parents. Three teachers and three students’ parents were interviewed; the former were numbered T01, T02 and T03, and the latter numbered PA05, PA07 and PA13. selected for Experimental Group were numbered A01~A13. The students In the students’ self-assessment, an analysis was given based

Results •

Discussion

I. Results of Experimental Teaching
(I) Analysis on quantity 1. Grades obtained in Experimental Group and Control Group are specified in the “Form for rating the mentally retarded students’ social skills by quantity”

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Form 1 The homogeneity of within-class regression coefficient shown in the “Form for rating social skills by scale” for the students in Experimental Group and Control Group MSb MSe F •i df=2•j •i df=20•j
Specified within-class behavior Initiative correlate behavior Responsively correlate behavior Interpersonal relationship Full scale

32.96 14.93 7.99 10.07 144.97

303.86 982.26 63.62 166.12 2025.63

1.08 0.15 1.25 0.61 0.71

Form 1 indicates that the homogeneity of within-class regression coefficient in either the four-item scale or the full scale reaches the level of significance. For this reason, an analysis on covariate is directly given with a result shown in Form 2.

Form 2

The result of an analysis on covariate in the “Form for rating social skills” for the students in Experimental Group and Control Group Adjusted means
Experimental Group Control Group

MSb •i df=3•j 51.97 107.36 1.64 0.05 159.40

MSe •i df=22•j 336.83 997.29 71.62 176.20 2170.60

F 3.39 2.37 0.50 0.01 1.62

Specified within- class behavior Initiative correlate behavior Responsively correlate behavior Interpersonal relationship Full scale

63.41 60.13 24.78 31.51 182.26

67.35 53.67 24.14 31.64 174.35

Note: Pretest and age are covariate
A fact shown in Form 2 indicates that the adjusted means result in higher means of “initiative correlate behavior” and “responsively correlate behavior” got by Experimental Group and higher means of “specified within-class behavior” and “interpersonal relationship” got by Control Group. The analysis of covariate leads to a result of non-significant difference between the four-item scale and the full scale. 2. Results of rating on the basis of curriculum (1)Results of pretests and posttests given in 19 teaching units shown in the “Form for assessing the social skills of the mentally retarded students at industrial vocational senior high schools. After the completion of these 19 teaching units, the researcher of this study gave a “t” test on the results of the pretests and posttests and the results got are shown in Form 3.
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Form 3

Results of the “t” tests on the pretest & posttest given in 19-unit experimental teaching shown in the “Form for assessing social skills” (n=13) Teaching Unit Pretest M 2.88 2.92 2.92 2.96 3.04 2.88 2.92 2.80 2.81 2.92 1.69 2.11 2.53 2.88 2.58 2.85 2.77 2.73 2.88 SD 1.03 0.74 0.79 0.77 0.92 0.82 0.84 0.80 0.89 0.98 1.49 1.11 0.86 0.91 1.24 0.97 0.86 0.92 0.86 Posttest M SD 3.11 2.88 2.92 3.15 2.81 2.96 3.00 2.96 2.92 3.15 2.57 2.73 2.73 3.19 2.88 2.96 2.92 3.00 2.81 0.95 0.86 0.79 0.67 0.57 0.72 0.69 0.66 0.69 0.73 0.64 0.67 0.60 0.63 0.52 0.45 0.48 0.57 0.63 “t” Value -0.84 0.17 0.00 -0.96 1.09 -0.36 -0.36 -0.75 -0.52 -0.96 -2.78** -2.43* 1.48 -1.42 -1.17 -0.55 -0.79 -1.27 0.37

Take the initiative in asking teachers Talk with others Ask questions Answer questions Speak in turn Use courtesy expressions Greet others Take the initiative in helping others Take the initiative in seeking assistance Concern friends Praise others Criticize others Express their own feelings Join others Understand others’ feelings Accept others’ criticisms Face others’ mockeries & anger Handle pressure imposed by the people of their generation Solve problems

A fact shown in Form 3 indicates that the results of pretests and posttests given in the units “To praise others” and “To criticize others” reached significant difference, and no difference existed between the results thereof to other units. With regard to the means of the

results of pretests and posttests given in the three units “To talk with others”, “To speak in turn” and “To solve problems”, the means of the latter were lower than those of the former. Except for the identical means of the results of pretests and posttests given in the unit “To ask questions”, to other fifteen units, the means of those of the latter were higher that those of the former. (1)Results of the rating of unit tests In the period when the experimental teaching was proceeding, a test was given immediately after the completion of a teaching unit. 75% was taken as the base line of

passing the test. In Form 4 is shown the rate of pass among the 13 students in each unit.
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Form 4
Stud’t Teach’g Unit A1 90 100 100 100 85 100 100 84 100 76 100 100 100 100 93 90 70

Percentage of the results of unit tests for social skills
A2 100 80 100 100 85 •– 100 84 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 A3 80 100 100 100 85 100 100 68 70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 85 100 90 A4 70 100 90 100 0 100 80 68 80 100 80 100 80 100 91 100 70 100 80 •– 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 75 85 100 A5 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 84 A6 60 80 100 88 70 100 100 68 100 100 80 80 100 100 91 90 100 100 90 •– 100 80 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 A7 60 100 100 100 80 100 100 100 A8 80 100 100 100 100 100 95 84 100 100 100 100 80 100 100 100 100 100 90 A9 60 100 100 100 100 92 100 76 70 100 100 100 100 100 91 80 90 95 100 •– 100 100 100 60 60 84 80 100 100 100 91 80 85 100 90 •– 60 A10 100 A11 80 100 80 81 65 93 90 68 100 100 80 90 100 90 91 80 85 100 80 •– 100 92 80 100 100 100 81 90 75 85 100 •– 100 100 100 100 100 91 90 85 100 100 A12 80 100 90 100 100 92 85 A13 100 100 90 100 70 100 100 68 Rate of Pass on 75% criterion 69.2 100.0 92.3 100.0 76.9 100.0 100.0 50.0 70.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 76.9 100.0 100.0

Ask teachers Talk with others Ask questions Answer questions Speak in turn Courtesy expressions Greet others Help others Seek assistance Concern friends Praise others Criticize others Express their feelings Join others Understand others’ feelings Accept others’ criticisms Face mockeries

Handle pressure 100 Solve problems 90

Note•F The mark “•–

” stands for sick leaves

A fact in From 4 indicates that except for three units “To take the initiative in helping others”, “To take the initiative in asking teachers” and “To take the initiative in seeking assistance”, more than 75% of the trainees in each of 16 other units passed the specified criterion 75%. (1)Results of rating the students’ performance in analogy behavior Within 2~3 weeks after the completion of each teaching unit, the researcher and the tutor of the experimental class started to observe and rate the effect of analogy in the teaching unit. In Form 5 are listed the means of the grades got by the students.

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Form 5
Student Teach’g Unit A1 A2 A3 A4 A5

Results of analogy behavior
A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 M Rate of Pass 2-grade SD on criterion 0.33 0.38 0.19 0.47 0.16 0.00 0.14 1.31 0.75 0.00 0.56 0.00 0.00 0.48 1.11 0.61 0.46 0.00 100.0 92.3 96.2 96.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 76.9 72.2 100.0 92.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 85.0 93.8 76.9 100.0

Ask teachers Talk with others Ask questions Answer questions Speak in turn Courtesy expression Greet others Help others Seek assistance Concern friends Praise others Criticize others Express their feelings Join others Understand feelings Accept criticism Handle pressure Solve problems

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 • 2.0 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 1.5 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 2.0 • • 1.0 3.0

3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 • 2.5 2.0 3.0

2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 * 3.0 3.0 3.0 • 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 2.0 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 0.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 * 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 • 2.0 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 • 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 • 3.0 2.5 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 • 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 • 2.5 3.0

3.0 2.0 2.5 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 0.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 1.5 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 1.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 0.0 • 1.5 3.0

3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 * 3.0 3.0 3.0 • 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 3.0

2.89 2.85 2.93 2.85 2.95 3.00 2.96 2.27 2.00 3.00 2.77 3.00 3.00 2.35 2.55 2.63 1.81 3.00

Note•F 1. The mark•u *•v stands for absence from tests because of sick leaves 2. The mark•u • stands for students’ failure to perform this behavior for some reasons. Except for the unit “To take the initiative in seeking assistance”, in each of seventeen other teaching units (83.3% of the total teaching units), 75% of the trainees were qualified above the 2-grade criterion.

3. Results of filling the “Form for the students’ self-assessment as to social skills” in Experimental Group (1)After the experimental teaching, the progress that the trainees thought they had made: After the completion of this experimental teaching, the 13 trainees filled in Form 6 as shown below for reviewing the result of the training.

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Form 6

Results of the statistics made by trainees on the “Form of self-assessment as to social skills•i n•• 13•j
A Little Progress No Progress % %

Teaching Unit
Take the initiative in asking teachers Talk with others Ask questions Answer questions Speak in turn Use courtesy expressions Greet others Take the initiative helping others Take the initiative seeking assistance Concern friends Praise others Criticize others Express their own feelings Join others Understand others’ feelings Accept others’ criticisms Face others’ mockeries or anger Handle the pressure imposed by the people of their generation Solve problems in in

Percentage of Rating
Terrific Progress % Much Progress %

23.08 46.15 30.77 30.77 30.77 41.67 30.77 15.38 38.46 30.77 25.00 23.08 30.77 30.77 23.08 23.08 23.08 30.77 23.08

30.77 7.39 15.38 23.08 15.39 41.67 23.08 15.38 7.39 23.08 33.33 38.46 30.77 30.77 23.08 30.77 38.46 30.77 30.77

46.15 46.46 53.85 46.15 46.15 16.67 46.15 61.54 53.85 46.15 41.67 30.77 30.77 38.46 53.84 46.15 38.46 30.77 46.15

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.69 0.00 0.00 7.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.69 7.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.69 0.00

There were only 5 of the 19 teaching units, including “To speak in turn”, “To take the initiative in helping others”, “To criticize others”, “To express their own feelings” and “To handle pressure imposed by the people of their generation” in each of which only one trainee (7.69% of the total trainees) believed that he did not make progress. In other words, the students in 14 other units agreed that they had terrific progress or was progressive more or less through the training. 2. The comments for the students who completed 19 teaching units in Experimental Group After the completion of 19 teaching units for social skills, among the total 13 students in Experimental Group, 92.31% of the trainees agreed that they prettily enjoyed the time
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with their teachers and classmates. Of these students, 30.77% agreed with their very harmonious relations, 61.54% agreed with prettily harmonious relations and 3.69% did not feel any change. Besides, 75% of the total trainees expressed their intention to come

back to the training in the following days.

(II) Analysis on Quality 1. Results of the interviews given to the teachers and the students’ parents (1) Trainees’ performance in social skills With regard to the trainees’ social skills presented before and after the experimental teaching, two of the teachers (67%) agreed that these trainees had made progress in their entire behavior. And 3 of the students’ parents agreed that their children had better abilities to communicate with their family and concerned their family more. (2) Students’ performance in each teaching unit All the teachers agreed that their students had progress in “taking the initiative in asking teachers” and two of them (67%) agreed that some specific students took the initiative in asking questions. Among the students’ parents, two of them (67%) agreed

that their children at home could call their teachers of their own accord when meeting problems. For instance, a parent (PA05) said, “My child took the initiative in calling his

teacher when meeting something unable to be understood. Anyway, he has got more guts now.” With regard to “talking with others”, one of the teachers believed that these trainees would continue to talk with other people and would have more materials to talk about. Two other teachers expressed that as they usually contacted these students at classes, they did not find their performance in this respect. Among the students’ parents, two of them said that their children could chat with family and neighbors after the training, and the other one expressed that his child with less intention to associate with other people did not know how to converse with others without appropriate inducement. With regard to “asking questions”, two of the teachers expressed that the trainees usually asking ordinary questions did not familiarize themselves with questions that got involved in causality, and one teacher said that a couple of specific students asked him questions after class. All the three parents stressed that their children had asked “When he met something

questions of their own accord when staying with family.

unable to be understand, he asked “Why?” Whenever he was curious about something he questioned,” stated the parent (PA07).
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With regard to “asking questions”, two of the teachers agreed that these students had better ability than before to answer ordinary questions and had less progress in answering questions getting involved in causality. All the three parents agreed that their children at For instance, the parent

home could more fluently answer questions than before.

numbered PA05 stressed, “Now he can fluently answer questions.” With regard to “speaking in turn”, one of the teachers believed that all the students from this class had progress. For inspection, a teacher (T01) said, “Now, they all know

how to follow this rule. In a class meeting, each of them knew, if having to express opinion, to lift a hand for asking for the right or to directly ask the host of the meeting standing on the stage for the right to express his opinion, or to directly give the host of the meeting several suggestions. They are pretty good in this performance.” The other two

agreed that a couple of specific students had progress and the reason for those students with no progress was probably because they were born timid children and need more inducement. Two of the students’ parents expressed that their children among the family For instance, a parent (PA07) said, “He never

had never interrupted others’ talk. interrupted others’ talk.” waiting.

And another parent said that his child had no patience for

With regard to “using courtesy expressions”, all the three teachers agreed that the students were more polite after the training. For instance, a teacher (T03) said, “These The three students’

students have more progress in speaking than in last semester.”

parents also expressed that their children were more polite when staying with family and “Thanks” was the word they used more often. With regard to “greeting others”, two of the teachers agreed that the students had more progress in saying “Hello” to their teachers. For instance, “When they met their When they met a military

tutor or other teachers, they said, “Hello!” or smiled at them.

instructor they greeted, •u Hi, Good Morning/Good Afternoon!•v ,” said a teacher (T01). Another teacher said that these students only greeted with looks, not by oral expressions. Only two of the students’ parents agreed with the progress made by these students. instance, a parent (PA05) said, “He greeted our neighbors when he met them.” For But a

parent stressed that when the child stayed at home he should be reminded of how to deal with others from time to time. With regard to “helping others”, two of the teachers agreed that a couple of specific students did better. For instance, a teacher (T03) said, “When this class was divided into

a couple of groups, the students in each group could do something of their own accord.
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Students A08 & A05 moved desks and chairs to their group, if they found the number of the desks and chairs was inadequate. Student A04 helped teachers collecting the colored chalks without the teachers’ request. He also helped me collecting his classmates’ Another teacher expressed that

homework even though I did not ask him for doing it.” he had little change to meet this in his class.

One of the students’ parents expressed that For

his child expressed his intention to help doing housework more often then before.

instance, a parent (PA13) said, “My child took the initiative in expressing hid intention to help doing housework.” But two other parents expressed that they had little chance to

find their children performance in this respect. With regard to “seeking assistance”, two of the teachers agreed with the improvement of their students in this respect. But these students usually did not ask for

others’ assistance until they found the situation losing control. For instance, “Student A10 has had great progress in this respect. But if the trouble he met had no connection with his school, he usually kept it to himself and did not ask for teachers’ assistance until the whole situation lost control,” said a teacher (T01). And another teacher agreed that

he had little chance to find that his student had such problem. All the three students’ parents expressed that their children asked for family’s assistance whenever they met trouble. With regard to “concerning friends”, two of the teachers agreed that only a couple of specific students expressed their concern more than before being trained. girl students do better than boy students in this respect. As a whole,

One of the teachers expressed Nevertheless, all the

that he did not often observe his students’ behavior in this respect.

students’ parents agreed that their children concerned others more than before having been trained. For instance, a parent (PA05) expressed, “The child now concerns others more One day one of his classmates came to visit him at home. When his friend

then before.

was going to leave, he asked his friend if the friend could find the way leading to the home. Besides, he also showed much concern about the postman’s hard work when it

was raining. With regard to “praising others”, All the three teachers agreed that their students had made apparent progress in praising others with body language and less progress with oral language. For instance, a teacher (T02) stressed, “These students are not accustomed to expressing feelings by speaking, and more inducement is still necessary. They agree Among

with body language, such as applauses, and have difficulties in oral language.”

the students’ parents, one agreed that his child praised others at home more than before
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receiving training. else.

For instance, “He praises his younger brother more than to any other

He often said to his brother, “You are very nice.” And said to his grandmother,

“You look younger in this robe.” He did not do this before receiving training,” stated a student’s parent (PA13). But two other students’ parents said that they did not see any

improvement on their children. As for “criticizing others”, two of the teachers agreed that most negative criticisms were made in a teasing tone and most of these students do not know how to give constructive criticisms. negative criticisms. One of the teachers pointed out that the student A11 often gave

Among the students’ parents, two of them expressed that their

children made less negative criticisms and one of them said that he only heard the child criticize the family not to the classmates. As for “expressing their feelings”, two of the teachers agreed that these students had better ability to express their own feelings, but they could not take the initiative in letting the teachers know it. If his classmate questioned him, he might speak his feelings. The

teachers believed that the trouble with spoken language had resulted in the difficulties in expressing their feelings. All the three students’ parents agreed that their children had But their children did not take the initiative

made progress in expressing their feelings.

in expressing feelings; and would not express them unless they were questioned. For instance, a parent (PA05) stated, “If I asked, he would tell me about the cause for his delightedness, anger, sorrow or rejoicing.” As for “joining others”, two of the teachers were satisfied with the results of the training. For instance, a teacher (T02) said, “All of their performance in this respect is

O.K. I sometimes saw the students A04, A02, a01 and A07 going to the campus coop or the basketball playground.” Another teacher expressed that he could seldom find the Among the students’ parents, two of For

response of these students in this respect at class.

them expressed that at home their children took the initiative in joining the family.

instance, the parent (PA13) stated, “My child never went to the people he was not familiar with. But if his family were chatting, he would join us. Besides, in the park he also But another parent expressed that he could see no

joined the activities of his familiars.” difference in his child’s responses.

As for “understanding others’ feelings”, all the teachers agreed that their students knew the reason for the teachers’ anger. If comparing the classmates’ relations, they

found that the girl students had stronger intention to understand others than the boy students. Among the students’ parents, two of them agreed that their children had
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intention to understand others’ feelings. For instance, a parent (PA07) expressed, “My saw my child asking others about the reasons for their happiness or sorrow.” another parent expressed that he saw no change in his child’s responses. When reviewing the students’ “accepting others’ criticism”, all the three teachers agreed that these trainees accepted constructive criticisms. Except for a few of them, And

such as the student A7, who were very angry when facing a negative criticism, most of them retorted or accepted it or considered it to be nothing. All the three students’ parents believed that their children at the time could accept constructive criticisms. One of the

parents agreed that his child had made progress in facing negative criticisms and the two other parents said that their children could not accept negative criticisms and would be mad at or retort them. With regard to “facing mockeries or anger”, two of the teachers said that as very few students had suffered mockery, they could hardly observe the students’ responses. But another teacher pointed out that among these students, only the student A11 would launched counterattack, if facing mockeries, and all other students would keep a mild and relaxed attitude. Among the students’ parents, one believed that his child, who was

suffering a mockery, would not counterattack the mocker immediately and would weep and complain to his parents. The two other parents believed that none of people laughed

at their children or expressed that they never saw their children being laughed at. With regard to “handling pressure imposed by the people of their generation, one of the teachers said that these students had better ability to handle the pressure than before, and the other two expressed that they had little chance to observe the students’ responses in this respect. pressure. All the students’ parents expressed that their children did not stand The parent PA05 stressed, “I never saw this If their children did not know how to take care of the pressure, they would take If my child did not know how to take care of it, he would call his

the initiative in contacting their teachers. occur in the past. teacher of his own accord.”

With regard to “solving problems”, all the three teachers agreed that these students had better ability than before to try means to solve problems. Among the students’ parents, two of them expressed that their children had learned to solve problems of their own accord. For instance, a parent (PA07) said, “He would give up the thing if he could not handle it. interested him.” of responses.
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But he would try to solve the problem of his own accord if the thing But a parent expressed that he never found that his child had this kind

The results of the above interviews separately given in the mentioned units are presented in Form 7.

Form 7
Teaching Unit

Results of the interviews given to teachers & students’ parents (%)
Teacher•i n=3•j Progressive Not Progressive Students’ Parents•i n=3•j Progressive Not Progressive

Take the initiative in asking teachers Talk with others Ask questions Answer questions Speak in turn Use courtesy expressions Greet others Take the initiative in helping others Take the initiative in seeking assistance Concern friends Praise others Criticize others Express their feelings Join others Understand others’ feelings Accept others’ criticisms Face others’ mockeries or anger Handle pressure imposed by the people of their generation Solve problems

67 33 100 100 100 100 67 67

33 •– 0 0 0 0 33 •– •– •– 0 33 33 •– 0 0 33

67 100 100 100 67 100 67 33

33 0 0 0 33 0 33 •– 0 0 67 33 0 0 33 0 •– •–

67 67 100 67 67 67 100 100 •– 33 •–

100 100 33 67 100 67 67 100 33 •–

67 33 67 33 Note: The mark “•– ” stands for the students’ performance as to this particular that the teachers or the students’ parents did not observe.

According to the results shown in Form 7, 13 teaching units, including “To take the initiative in asking teachers”, “To ask questions”, “To answer questions”, “To speak in turn”, “To use courtesy expressions”, “To greet others”, “To take the initiative in seeking assistance”, “To concern friends”, “To criticize others”, “To express their own feelings”, “To join others”, “To understand others’ feelings,” and “To solve problems” in which more than 67% of the teachers and the students’ parents agree with the progress made by the trainees. But only 3 units, including “To take the initiative in helping others”, “To
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praise others” and “To accept others’ criticisms” in which all the teachers agree with the progress made by the trainees, and only one unit “To talk with others” in which all the students’ parents agree with the progress made by their children. Besides, there are two units, including “To face mockeries or anger” and “To handle the pressure imposed by the people of their generation”, in which neither the teachers nor the parents agree with the progress made by the trainees. 4. Important record of the students’ analogy behavior The researcher asked the tutor (the assistant teacher in the experimental teaching) to observe the students’ analogy behavior in the course of teaching. In the period when the

experimental teaching was carried on, the researcher and the assistant teacher read the data about these students’ daily analogy behaviors, including the subject of conversation about “swimming” (Feb. 25, 2003) created by the students A01 and A02 in the teaching unit “To talk with others”. In the training of “using courtesy expressions, the students did use some courtesy expressions. When a teacher got or was leaving the classroom, these students took the

initiative in greeting the teacher. Besides, they also took the initiative in helping their classmates sweeping or moving chairs. The student A12 took the initiative in picking up

the thing lost by the teacher, and responded the teacher’s gratitude by saying “you’re welcome”. The student A02, who wanted to ask the teacher at class a question, raised

his hand for requesting approval. Every time when a teacher reached the class, these students greeted the teacher by saying, “How do you do?” (April 1st, 2003). In the respect of “taking the initiative in helping others”, these students can help their classmates moving chairs or sweeping the classroom (April 8, 2003) On April 10, 2003 Shalu Industrial School held outdoor teaching activities. According

to the teachers’ responses, the students were considered to have good performance in the respects described below: In the respect of “greeting others”, these students took the initiative in greeting the female workers with “How do you do, Auntie?” the school, they took the initiative in saying good-by. When leaving

In the respect of “using courtesy

expressions”, when receiving drink from the mothers of their classmates, they took the initiative in expressing gratitude. With regard to “praising others”, they took the

initiative in applauding whenever a student was finished with singing.

II. (I)

Discussion Discussion of the effect of teaching
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1.Analysis on the Results of tests After the results of posttests given in Experimental Group and Control Group as are shown in the “Form for rating the social skills of the mentally retarded students, the result of the one-way analysis of covariance indicates that there is no significant difference between the two groups. This result can be inferred from two reasons. First, the

students of these two groups may originally have significant difference in showing social skills. After the completion of this teaching, Experimental Group got higher adjusted This reveals a fact that though the difference does not reach the level

means in full scale.

of significance, if comparison is made between the results of the posttest and the pretest, Experimental Group has made progress. As to the cause for the non-significance of In other words, if the

progress, it may be ascribed to inadequate length of teaching.

period of teaching had been as long as one semester, a better effect should have been obtained. The second reason that influences the whole effect of teaching might be As a matter of fact among the 19

ascribed to insufficiently supplied rating instruments.

teaching units, only the nine units, including “To talk with others”, “To ask questions”, “To answer questions”, “To greet others”, “To take the initiative in helping others”, “To take the initiative in seeking assistance”, “To concern friends”, “To praise others”, and “To join others” have connection with the scale. The 10 other units cannot be found in the rating form. For this reason, if there had been other applicable instruments for rating the

social skills of mentally retarded students at vocational senior high schools, the effect of the whole experimental teaching should have been further enhanced. Judging from the results of the instant curriculum-oriented unit tests, the three teaching units including “To take the initiative in helping others”, “To take the initiative in asking teachers”, and “To take the initiative in seeking assistance” were unsuccessful, of which the unit “To take the initiative in asking teachers” was the worst in effect. The

reason for this might be because it was the first time for the students to learn this unit and the mental gap exists to some extent between teachers and juvenility In reviewing these

3 units as a whole, the failure might be ascribed to the students’ accepting tests for the first time and not familiarizing themselves with the style of the tests. Other reason for this might be because after the completion of teaching, the students had no strong intention to take tests. As the researcher found the flaws in the first 9 units, special

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attention has since then been paid to the connection of the students’ learning at classes and the moods the students have in taking tests. In the last 10 units, this unstable situation never occurred. As for the unsuccessful effect of learning in the unit “To face others’

mockeries or anger”, this might be ascribed to the uneasy control of the frequency of occurrence or the behavior occurring in the mimic or the real situation 2.Students’ self-assessment and discussion of the results of the interviews given to the students’ parents: According to the form of self-assessment filled in by the students after completing the 19-unit experimental training, 92% of the students believe that they have made progress in each of the units, 92.31% of them believe that they enjoyed good time with the teachers and their classmates in the period of this learning, and 75% of them have interest in attending this kind of classes once more if possible. According to the interviews given to the teachers and the students’ parents, two of the teachers (67%) agree that most of the students have made more progress than last semester. All the students’ parents (100%) feel that their children are happier and have better progress in social skills. In the assessment and the interviews we can find most of the students, teachers and parents are satisfied with this training and agree with the students’ progress in social skills. (II) Discussion of the effect of analogy With regard to the performance of analogy behavior by students (see Form 5), in the 17 training units, more than 75% of the students are rated above the 2-grade pass criterion. According to the interviews with the teachers and the students’ parents about the students’ analogy behavior, the teachers and the parents agree the trainees have progress in analogy behavior in 13 units. The situation that the teachers see at school is different from that the parents see at home and some situations more easily occur at school and some more easily at home. According to the record of the important analogy events, either in or

outside the school, the trainees can appropriately express their social skills on the proper occasion. All this reveals the effect of analogy behaviors. Nevertheless, the result of the interviews indicates that both the teachers and the parents express that the trainees have the least significance of progress in the two units including “To face mockeries or anger” and “To handle the pressure imposed by the people of their generation”. The important reason for analogy is because no matter in the mimic or the real situation there are the least chance for the students to be drilled in these two situations and neither the parents nor the teachers can easily find the effect of analogy in these two situations.

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Conclusion (I) Effect of learning

1. Results of experimental teaching (1)Experimental Group is not superior to Control Group in the results of Posttests shown in the “Form for rating the social skills of mentally retarded students”. (2)In the 15 units, the students of Experimental Group get higher means of the posttests than those of the pretests shown in the “Form for examining the social skills of mentally retarded students at vocational senior high schools”. But only the two units “To praise others” and “To criticize others” have reached significant difference. (3) With regard to the results of the unit tests got by the students of Experimental Group, in 16 units, more than 75% of them are above the 75% pass criterion. In the analogy tests

given in the 17 units, more than 75% of the students are above the 2-grade pass criterion. (4)According to the self-assessment made by the students, in the 19 units, more than 92% of the students agree with their progress.

To sum up the results of the aforementioned four items, though in the rating instruments, the students’ performance in the pretests is significantly different from that in the posttests given in “To praise others” and “To criticize others”, in viewing the data used to rate the effect of other teaching units, the students have shown their excellence in learning social skills.

2. Effect of learning of the skills containing in each of teaching units (1)In the unit “To take the initiative in asking teachers”, the students get worse effect of learning. (2) The students have excellent performance in the 4 unit tests and the form for self-assessment by students. These 4 units are “To talk with others”, “To ask questions”,

“To answer questions”, and “To speak in turn”. (3) The students have got effect of learning in the units including “To use courtesy expressions”, “To greet others”, “To concern friends”, “To praise others”, “To criticize others”, and “To express their own feelings”. But they fail to make progress in learning in the units “To take the initiative in helping others” and “To take the initiative in seeking assistance”. (4)The students have made more progress in the learning units including “To join others”, “To understand others’ feelings”, “To accept others’ criticisms”, “To handle the pressure
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imposed by the people of their generation”, and “To solve problems”. learning is not evident in the unit “To face others’ mockeries or anger”.

But the effect of

(II) Effect of the students’ analogy behavior 1.Effect of analogy as a whole When interviewed the teachers and the students’ parents, two of the teachers (67%) and 3 students’ parents (100%) all agreed with the students’ progress as a whole in social skills 2. Effect of analogy in each of social skills (1)In the unit “To take the initiative in asking teachers”, the students present their analogy behavior in a way of spanning two situations (mimic and real situations) and periods. (2)In the four units “To talk with others”, “To ask questions”, “To answer questions”, and “To speak in turn”, the students present analogy behavior in “To talk with others”, in which the time is lengthened and the content of talk is richer. presented in spanning two situations and periods. Besides, the effect of analogy is

The students can more fluently ask and In the performance of “speaking in

answer general problems with the effect of analogy.

turn”, the analogy behavior appears in other classes in spanning two situations and periods. (3)Effect of analogy appears in the 8 units including “To use courtesy expressions”, “To greet others”, “To take the initiative in helping others”, “To take the initiative in seeking assistance”, “To concern friends”, “To praise others”, “To criticize others”, and “To express their own feelings”. But it is necessary to strengthen the expression of the oral language.

(4)In the 4 units including “To join others”, “To understand others’ feelings”, “To accept others’ criticisms”, and “To solve problems”, the students present analogy behavior with spanning situations and periods. But their performance is not evident in the two units including “To face others’ mockeries or anger” and “To handle pressure imposed by the people of their generation”.

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