Review of a Project Regarding Small Inland-Water Ferries in Denmark by alextt


									Review of a Project Regarding Small Inland-Water Ferries in Denmark
Jesper Aagesen Carl Bro a|s Dwinger Marineconsult

1st International Conference on Double-Ended Ferries 22-24 April 2001 Alexandra Hotel Molde, Norway


Introduction of Carl Bro a|s – Dwinger Marineconsult
Dwinger Marineconsult is a division of Carl Bro a|s – one of the major consultancy companies in Denmark – providing design and inspection services worldwide. Our clients comprise shipowners, the shipbuilding and offshore industry as well as public institutions and ministries. The number of employees in Dwinger Marineconsult is 35, while the total number of employees in Carl Bro a|s is more than 2000.

With its long coastline and many small islands, Denmark is often called “ The country of Ferries” Denmark has more than 400 islands, some of them are connected to the . mainland or other islands by bridges while others are connected by ferries. The ferries have plied back and forth for decades, and before this the services were provided by sailing boats etc. The purpose was simply to connect people and maintain routes to the distant villages. The total number of domestic ferry routes in Denmark is about 65 and there are approx. 20 international routes. The construction of large bridges commenced back in the 1930s. These bridges have slowly changed the traffic pattern in Denmark culminating in the completion of the Great Belt Link in 1997/98 and the Øresund Link in 2000. Denmark is like a “ Traffic H” constituted by Jutland in the West and Zeeland, Lolland and Falster in the East. In the middle is Funen. Today there are only four ferry routes between the western and the eastern part of Denmark.

Map of Denmark (Reference:


However, the traffic arrangement to and from all the small islands is totally different. With few exceptions, this traffic has been maintained by local and private enterprises until the 1970s. With a gradual decrease in traffic, due to people leaving their islands for the big cities on the major islands, these operators have found themselves in a hard economical environment, not being able to manage investments in new tonnage. Therefore, back in the mid 1970s the Government agreed to a special “ Lex Islands” to allow financial support from local cities or county involved. However, quite a few inland-water ferries were built in the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid 1990s the average age of the inland-water ferry was quite high (approx. 33 years), and in 1994 the Ministry of Industry/Danish Maritime Authority decided to form a project team. The aim of this team was to co-ordinate and facilitate fleet improvement by virtue of conversions or replacement by newbuildings. Dwinger Marineconsult – a division of Carl Bro a|s – was appointed to carry out the technical part of this project. In September 1995 the group published their intentions of creating a standard ferry prototype which could fulfil the traffic requirement of several routes. The results were published in the report “ Mindre danske færger – før, nu og I fremtiden” (“ Smaller Danish Ferries – In the Past, Present and In the Future” ). First of all, we will step back some decades to consider the ferry development during the last 40 years.

Status of the Development of Ferries in Denmark during the last 40 Years
The development of ferry design during the last decades can be summarized as follows.

1960s: • Many “ large”car ferries (approx. 800 PAX and 120 cars) were built for the routes between the western and the eastern parts of Denmark and many of these ferries were of the same main type (although this was not especially co-ordinated) • Many heterogeneous inland-water ferries were built 1970s: • Fewer but considerable larger ferries (1200-1500 PAX, 250-400 cars) were built => rationalization • Quite a few inland-water ferries were built and still very heterogeneous


1980s: • The introduction of the “ Jumbo-Ferries”(1500-2000 PAX, 300-600 cars) e.g. M/F PEDER PAARS & NIELS KLIM in 1985/86

M/F PEDER PAARS & NIELS KLIM (designed by Carl Bro). The two Jumbo-Ferries were in domestic service from 1985/86 until 1991. Today they are named COLOR VIKING & STENA NAUTICA. • Only 5 Danish inland-water ferries were built during this decade: o 1980 – M/F LÆSØ o 1981 – M/F ANHOLT o 1982 – M/F ENDELAVE o 1987 – M/F HJARNØ o 1987 – M/F ULVSUND

M/F ANHOLT & LÆSØ (both designed by Carl Bro) – ferries from the 1980s.


1990s: Most of the ferries from the 1970s and 1980s on the regional domestic and international routes were replaced by one or more of the following ferry types: • Highly specialized ferries built to highly specific requirements (” Traffic Machines” ): o 1991/92 – M/F TYCHO BRAHE & AURORA o 1997 – M/F PRINS RICHARD & PRINSESSE BENEDIKTE

M/F TYCHO BRAHE (designed by Carl Bro). Double-ended ferry built at Langsten (Norway) in 1991 for the Elsinore-Helsingborg route.

M/F PRINS RICHARD (pre-project by Carl Bro). Double-ended ferry built at Ørskov, Denmark in 1997 for the Rødby-Puttgarden route.


• The RO-PAX concept became widespread, e.g.: o 1996 – M/F MAREN MOLS & METTE MOLS

M/F METTE MOLS (designed by Carl Bro). The so-called RO-PAX ferry built at Ørskov, Frederikshavn (Denmark) in 1996 and put into domestic service between Jutland and Zeeland. • High-speed ferries were introduced on domestic as well as international routes • While the larger ferries were replaced by either high-speed ferries, RO-PAX ferries or highly specialized ferries, then a project regarding standardization of small inland-water ferries were introduced (to be discussed in more detail in next section): o 1993-2000 – 16 small inland-water ferries were built o 2001-2002 – Today 3 ferries are planned to be replaced

M/F FEMØSUND (designed by Carl Bro). Built in 1995/96 in Assens (Denmark) parallel to the Inland-Water Ferry Project.


Inland-Water Ferry Project in the Mid 1990s
Now back to the situation in the mid 1990s. The Inland-Water Ferry Project started in 1994/95 and the main criteria for the ferries and routes to be included in the project were as follows: • • • • • The ferry route existed at that time (in 1995) The ferry route was of extensive traffic importance The ferry route had a timetable (but not necessarily 365 days a year) The route had a character of being a “ nerve” (only connection) life The ferry tonnage on the route was (in 1995) less than 300 BRT/BT

The Terms for the Inland-Water Ferry Report were: • Preparing an overview of the existing ferries and routes (59 routes and 59 ferries) • Preparing proposals for solutions regarding existing and new requirements for small ferries • Preparing concrete directions about suitable improvement of small ferries in future and matching port facilities making the greatest possible standardization • Bring about the designed ferries preliminarily approved by The Danish Maritime Authority The overview of the existing ferry tonnage can be summarized as follows. The ferries were generally quite old, the average age was approx. 33 years. In spite of the high age, many of the ferries were in quite good condition due to good maintenance during the years. Nevertheless, the good maintenance did not change the fact that several of the ferries were technologically out of date and had some capacity restrictions. Furthermore, new rules and regulations had been implemented making it continuously more and more difficult to upgrade old and existing ferries to meet the new requirements. Another important aspect regarding all types of ferries is that vehicles – personal cars as well as lorries etc. – had become wider and heavier which caused the vehicle capacity to be reduced. With regard to the passenger facilities, the situation was that the passenger facilities on several ferries were quite outdated with dark and poorly ventilated saloons below the car deck. The location of such a saloon is also a safety risk in an evacuation situation. With respect to life-saving appliances, it was expected that during a few years stricter rules and regulations would be implemented. This would cause some constructive and operational modifications on the existing ferries.


The Outputs of the Inland-Water Ferry Project were: • 5 standard ferries – preliminarily approved by the Danish Maritime Authority • Standard concept for port facilities • Operational considerations regarding: o Safety (MOB, evacuation, fire-extinguishing) o Environment o Comfort Main Particulars of the 5 Standard Ferries Main particulars for the 5 standard ferries from the Small Inland-Water Ferry Project. Main Particulars Double/Single-Ended Length oa. (m) Breadth mld. (m) Draught mld. (m) Deadweight (t) Passengers Cars Power (kW) Speed (knots) Crew Type 1A D-E 30,8 9,4 2,0 105 95 10 2 x 240 10,0 2 Type 1B S-E 32,6 9,4 2,0 105 98 10 2 x 240 10,5 2 Type 2A D-E 37,9 11,4 2,1 193 98/180 18 2 x 300 10,0 2/3 Type 2B S-E 40,0 11,4 2,1 193 98/180 18 2 x 250 10,5 2/3 Type 3(B) S-E 45,3 13,1 2,4 327 296 39 2 x 550 12,0 4

Choice of Ferry Type (Double-Ended vs. Single-Ended) When a double-ended ferry is more suitable than a single-ended ferry primarily depends on the sailing route, size of ferry, crossing time, harbour conditions, time for maneouvring and considerations about inland-water/open sea. On ferry routes of a distance of up to 5 nautical miles it may almost always be most advantageous with a double-ended ferry, while on sailing routes of more than 10 nautical miles there will hardly be any advantage. With a sailing distance between 5 and 10 nautical miles it will be necessary to carry out individual evaluations for the ferry route in question to decide which ferry type is most suitable. Basically, the situation is that all the inland-water ferries which have been replaced during the last decade have been replaced with a type similar to the original one. This indicates that the type of ferries has been optimal.


Standard Concept for Port Facilities During the project it was identified that 70% of the existing berth facilities were constructed as berths with a quay in both sides and 80% of the berths had movable ramps. Especially these two facts make it difficult to standardize the ferries because the berths are fitted individually to each ferry. With regard to mooring of the ferries, some ferries are kept in position in the ferry berth by a small propeller force. Other ferries use conventional moorings or are moored with a wire or similar via the ramp. In the future, it is therefore suggested that by implementing standard ferries, the berths are constructed as “ L-berths” i.e. ferry berths with only one quay at one side. Furthermore, it , is suggested that the shore ramps are fixed instead of movable. In return, the ferries should be fitted with ramps. This solution will make the ferries more expensive, on the other hand the berth facilities become cheaper. A flexible solution could be the solution shown on the sketch below where the fixed shore ramp is equipped with a movable shore connection. This system has been used in Sweden for many years and from the mid 1990s has also been used in some Danish ports.

Sketch and photo of a ramp/shore connection arrangement for M/F SEJERØFÆRGEN. With respect to mooring, it is recommended that mooring is carried out by a wire or similar via the ramp. Alternatively, auto-mooring is to be considered.


Operational Considerations With regard to handling evacuation situations, the Type 1 & 2 ferries are designed in a way that evacuation of passengers take place from the car deck. In each side of the ferries an evacuation zone is arranged with a door at the ship’ side. The vertical distance from the s evacuation zone to the water level is approx. 1 m, which is approximately on the same level as the top of the liferafts. On the Type 1 & 2 ferries no Man-Over-Board Boat (MOB boat) is arranged. Instead of the MOB boat a rescue crane is provided right above the evacuation door. This arrangement makes it possible to rescue persons from the water. In this way it is possible to obtain a crew size consisting of 2 persons. One of the crew members can manoeuvre the ferry while the other crew member can concentrate on manoeuvring the rescue crane and saving the person in the water. A conventional MOB boat normally requires three persons (one for operating the MOB boat, one for operating the MOB boat crane and finally one for manoeuvring the vessel) On the Type 3 a Marine Evacuation System (MES) was selected. As an alternative means of evacuation a system with evacuation directly from the car deck level can be arranged (similar to the system on Type 1 & 2). A conventional MOB boat is arranged. With regard to fire-extinguishing, all the 5 standard ferry types are equipped with a CO2 system for the engine room, a sprinkler system and water cannon for the car deck, and a sprinkler system for the accommodation. Crewing of the standard ferries has also been considered by the Danish Maritime Authority, and the crew size has been preliminarily approved by the Danish Maritime Authority as well as the layout and arrangement of the ferries. With regard to the environmental aspects, emission from the smaller ferries was only approx. 5-10% of the total emission from domestic ferries. However, action should be taken to reduce the emission by reducing the fuel oil consumption and changing to fuel oil with a less sulphur content. Noise emission from the ferries was not described as a general problem in the project. However, in Denmark there has been an increased focus on the noise from ferries to the environment, among other things after the introduction of high-speed ferries in the mid 1990s. Therefore, the noise aspect should be taken into account when designing new ferries. The passenger comfort on the new ferries has been improved considerably. Large and bright saloon(s) has been arranged where the passengers gather, and of course the saloon is located at the car deck level (Type 1) or above (Type 2 & 3). Compared to the old ferries of which many had saloons below the car deck, this is a considerable improvement to the comfort as well as safety in the event of an emergency situation. The layout of passenger accommodation is also taken in account when the number of crew members is decided/approved.


Access to the passenger areas (saloons as well as open deck areas) is provided by wide staircases with a reasonable inclination. This is also important in an emergency/evacuation situation. The crew accommodation and facilities have also been located at the car deck level or above. One of the very critical aspects in connection with the old ferries was – as mentioned earlier in this paper – that vehicles had become wider and heavier which caused the vehicle capacity to be reduced, and that loading/unloading was in some cases difficult, time-consuming and could cause danger to the crew and passengers.

On many of the old ferries the room on the car deck was limited. The photo is from one of the old Danish ferries built in the 1930s. The requirements to space between cars or lorries made by the authorities was regarded as outdated. Therefore, new recommended distances were specified in the Inland-Water Ferry Project. The recommended distance is 500 mm between vehicles in transverse direction, while 600 mm between vehicles and the casing which was already required by the Danish Maritime Authority. The distances are shown on the following sketch:

Recommended distances between vehicles on the car deck.


What has happened since the Inland-Water Ferry Project in 1995?
The experience can be summarized as follows: • • • • • The basic concepts of the 5 standard ferries are unchanged Capacity on Type 3B (single-ended) has been increased Design of a lengthened version of Type 3B (single-ended) Design of a double-ended version Type 3A of Type 3B 3 ferries have been built according to the designs in the project with an improved design and aesthetic impression • The basic considerations and experience have been used in other projects

The project has generally caused an improved focus on new tonnage combined with the fact that new rules and regulations have been implemented, making it more and more difficult to upgrade old and existing ferries to meet the new requirements. Unfortunately, there has been no co-ordinated effort to standardize the new ferries. This is due to several reasons. One reason is that the ferry routes are owned and run by different owners with their own preferences. Another reason is that when the building of a new ferry to serve an island is decided, the owner, crew, inhabitants and other interest groups know that this will be their “ only new ferry” for the next 25-30 years, and therefore they now have a unique opportunity to implement their own needs and wishes rather than buying a standard ferry. However, most of the new ferries are designed by the same three or four naval architectural consultant companies, and therefore some of the ferries are based on the same principles. So, in general, the ferries become more alike, but with their own individual character. Until now three ferries have been built directly on the basis of the designs in the InlandWater Ferry Project. These are M/F AARØ (based on Type 1A) and M/F MARSTAL & ÆRØSKØBING (based on Type 3B). Photos and deck arrangements of the mentioned ferries are shown on the following pages as well as a complete list of the Danish inlandwater ferries built from 1993 until 2002. With regards to the means of evacuation, the recommendations in the project have been followed by all the small types while the larger types have not been equipped with MES systems as originally recommended. However, evacuation is carried out via the car deck level according to the same principles for the smaller ferries.


M/F AARØ designed by Carl Bro and built in Hvide Sande (Denmark) in 1999. The ferry is designed on the basis of Type 1A.

Layout of Tween Deck and Car Deck for M/F AARØ.


M/F MARSTAL (and sister vessel M/F ÆRØSKØBING) is designed by Carl Bro and was built by Esbjerg Oilfiled Services (Denmark) in 1999. The ferry is designed on the basis of Type 3B.

Layout of Saloon Deck and Car Deck for M/F MARSTAL & M/F ÆRØSKØBING.


M/F SEJERØFÆRGEN is designed by Jørgen Pedersen Rådgivende Skibsingeniører and was built at Esbjerg Oilfield Services (Denmark) in 1998. The other small inland-water ferries built in the 1990s and those which will be completed soon are listed in the table below – classified by double-ended or single-ended type. Danish Small Inland Water Ferries built 1990-2002 NAME OF VESSEL Type Built PAX Double-ended ferries: SLEIPNER-FUR FENJA & MENJA AARØ BITTEN CLAUSEN New ferry for Fejø New ferry for Anholt Single-ended ferries: ASKØ TUNØFÆRGEN AGERSØ FÆRGEN VESBORG FEMØSUND ENDELAVE MARGRETE LÆSØ HØJESTENE KYHOLM SEJERØFÆRGEN MARSTAL & ÆRØSKØBING Catamaran (≈2B) (≈1B) (> 3B) ≈1B (> 2B) (> 3B) (≈1B) (> 3B) (≈3B) 3B 1993 1993 1994 1995 1996 1996 1997 1997 1998 1998 1999 98 196 127 440 98 246 586 98 450 245 395 14 8 12 76 17 22 76 10 96 36 42 30 min. 60 min. 15 min. 1 h 15 min. 50 min. 60 min. 1½ h 35-40 min. 1¾h 55 min. 1-1¼ h (> 2A) (> 2A) 1A (> 2A) (> 2A) ? 1996 1998 1999 2001 2002 200? 148 396 98 147 ??? ??? 30 34 12 30 ?? ?? 5 min. 12 min. 7 min. 8 min. 15 min. 2¾ h


Crossing time

On the last pages of this paper other Carl Bro designs are shown.


What will happen in the Future?
Of course, it is difficult to predict the future, but the expected developments are listed below: • Continuous development of the ferry designs (“ evolution” ) • Still some individual solutions due to specific owner or operational requirements and needs such as ramps, mooring etc. • Considerably improved passenger comfort and working environment compared to the old ferries • More automation => Decreased crew size • Slightly increased service speed on some routes making a reduction in the crossing time possible • Joint ventures or merging of ferry companies will improve co-ordination between the routes and make large-scale operations possible => standardization, flexibility and reduced costs per ferry The possibilities of having high-speed ferries carry cars as inland-water ferries have been considered. However, this has not been considered as being realistic due to the following reasons: • • • • • • Limited time saving due to relative short crossing distance Very varying cargo composition Advanced high-tech => reduced reliability Larger sensitivity to wind and weather More expensive operation => increased fares and/or increased subsidies Environment

However, small high-speed passenger crafts (“ water busses” could be a realistically and ) economically reasonable supplement to conventional inland-water ferries. In 2000 two socalled “ Harbour Busses” were put into service in the Port of Copenhagen. These have been quite successful and could be a realistic supplement to the large ferries for some small islands for service in off-peak hours etc. Finally, one thing is sure: In “ The country of Ferries”the ferries will always ply back and forth to the small islands because it is not possible to build bridges everywhere!




Mindre danske færger, - før, nu og i fremtiden Danish Maritime Authority, Copenhagen, September 1995

Cruise & Ferry Info ShipPax Information, Halmstad, Sweden, February 1999

Photos from Carl Bro a|s photo archive

For further information, please contact:
Carl Bro a|s Division Dwinger Marineconsult Egeskoven 222 DK-2600 Glostrup Denmark Telephone: Telefax: E-mail: Website: +45 43 48 61 78 +45 43 48 66 88

Author’ direct telephone no. and e-mail are: s Telephone (direct): +45 43 48 60 42 E-mail:


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