Analysis of Drought Coping Strategies in Balochistan and Sindh by lonyoo


									Coping Strategies in Balochistan & Sindh Provinces of Pakistan
Mujeeb Akhtar and Asad Qureshi

Living with Drought:

Drought in Pakistan
• The persistent drought occurred in Pakistan during 1997-2001 and severity was much higher in Balochistan and Sindh provinces. • Drought has severely affected crop production and livestock with serious consequences for the food security and livelihood for a large segment of population.

Reasons of Drought
500 400

Rainfall (mm)


Average rainfall
200 100 0









Year Sindh









Impact of Recent Drought in Pakistan
• This drought caused a loss of Pak.Rs. 71.50 billion in agricultural and livestock sector in the year 1999-00 in Pakistan. • About 2.21 million people and 23.51 million livestock population affected due to severe drought conditions only during 1999-2000. • Sindh has to face Pak. Rs. 33 billion losses due to drought and water shortage. • The loss of livestock to drought was about 40% in Balochistan and 60 % in Sindh.

Vulnerability of Drought
• The agriculture sector (crops, vegetable, orchards) was the most vulnerable to drought conditions. Severe impact of drought was found on fodder crop and orchards. • Due to persistent drought conditions during the period 1997-2001, the people are depending more on mixed occupations. • Men are the most vulnerable to drought in rainfed and irrigated areas. Being head of family, he has the responsibility of all socio-economic and financial matters. In case of his unemployment, whole family is affected.

Drought Study in Pakistan
The main objective of this study was to document

• • • • •

Farmer’s perceptions about drought Level of knowledge about drought phenomenon Impacts of drought on their socio-economic conditions Coping strategies adopted by farmers Role of NGOs and government organizations in providing relief measures and mitigating drought.

• The study was carried out in Sindh and Balochistan provinces.

Physiography and Social Profile of Sindh
• Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan (with an area 18 % of total Pakistan) • Population of the province is 32 million (23 % of the country total). About half is living in rural areas. • Total area is 14 million ha. • Cultivated area is 5.6 million ha. About 65% of this area is irrigated and rest 35% is rainfed.

Physiography and Social Profile in Balochistan
• Balochistan is the largest province of Pakistan (with an area 44 % of total Pakistan).
• Population of the province is 6.6 million (5% of the country total). About 85% is living in rural areas. • Total area is 34.7 million ha. • Cultivated area is 2.12 million ha. About half of this area is irrigated and rest half is rainfed.

Methodology for Field Investigation
Three different Questionnaires:

Village level, Household Level and for Govt./NGOs • From each province, two severely drought-hit districts, one from rainfed and another from an irrigated area, were selected. • Ten villages were surveyed from each district and 15 respondents were interviewed from each sample village. • All NGOs and government departments working for drought relief and mitigation were interviewed.

Study Locations Sample villages from Sindh and Balochistan provinces

Average Family Size of Household
9 8

Family Size (No.)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Male Female

Balochistan (Rainfed) Sindh (Rainfed)

Balochistan (Irrigated) Sindh (Irrigated)

Occupation of Household Respondents
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Agriculture Livestock & Animal Husbandary Non-Agricultural Activities Sindh (Rainfed) Mixed Activities

Percentage of Respondents

Balochistan (Rainfed)

Balochistan (Irrigated)

Sindh (Irrigated)

Animal Ownership of Households
16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Balochistan (irrigated) Balochistan (rainfed) Sindh (irrigated) Cows Sindh (rainfed) Bull


Results: General Perception on Drought
Rainfed Areas Common believe is that they are in drought condition if there is no rainfall for more than one year. Irrigated Areas Farmers mainly depend on canal and groundwater for irrigation. Therefore the shortage of water for agriculture and fodder for animals are considered as important indicators for drought in irrigated areas.

Frequency of Droughts
• Respondents in rainfed areas indicated that drought is not over yet. People consider drought as a more frequent phenomenon, which repeat usually after every 2-3 years. • In irrigated areas, respondents think that the situation of drought has improved marginally due to recent rainfall and the improved canal water supplies. The frequency of drought is reported to be 5-10 years.

Impact of Drought on Personal Security
• Reduction in household Incomes. • Migration to irrigated areas for additional income sources.

More than 9% people of both provinces migrated from rainfed areas to irrigated areas to find alternate off-farm income generation activities to supplement their household income.
• Increased burden on women for household income generation in addition to fetching water and food from far distances.

Impact of Drought on Agriculture in Sindh
Crop %age of farmers that grow crop
Rainfed Wheat Cotton 9.1 4.5 Irrigated 99.0 90.0

Average Area Sown (ha)
Rainfed 1.0 0.6 Irrigated 2.5 1.6

Average Area Damaged (ha)
Rainfed 0.1 0.2 Irrigated 0.0 0.0

Fodder Vegetable

70.9 6.8

35.0 35.0

1.8 1.9

0.9 0.7

1.0 0.6

0.0 0.0

Impact of Drought on Agriculture in Balochistan
Crop %age of farmers that grow crop
Rainfed Wheat Cotton 38.2 1.8 Irrigated 96.7 1.7

Average Area Sown (ha)
Rainfed 5.6 0.4 Irrigated 2.5 8.1

Average Area Damaged (ha)
Rainfed 4.8 0.2 Irrigated 0.0 3.2

Fodder Vegetable

2.8 25.4

4.9 7.0

2.2 1.7

2.0 1.6

1.4 1.3

0.6 0.6

Impact of Drought on Livestock in Sindh
Livestock Type Household with Livestock (%) 95.8 31.3 Present Ownership Died during 19972001 7 0 Sold during 19972001 6 2 Average Price (Rs.) Actual 690 7143 Normal 2100 10900

Goat/sheep Cows

4 2








Impact of Drought on Livestock in Balochistan
Livestock Type Household with Livestock (%)
93.3 30.0 0.8 2.3

Present Ownership

Died during 19972001
16 0 0 0

Sold during 19972001
16 2 1 0

Average Price (Rs.)
Actual 612 8000 9500 N.A. Normal 1250 13500 12300 N.A.

Goat/sheep Cows Buffaloes Bull

10 2 1 1

Coping Strategies at Households Level in Rainfed Areas
• Seasonal human and livestock migration to irrigated areas in search of food and water. • Slaughtering/Sale of livestock and livestock products to earn cash to meet other demands of life. • Selling of trees and other household items. • High interest rate credits (About 60% respondents got credit for their daily living in Sindh province @ 2.5-10% per month). • Sale of embroidery work/handicrafts – mainly produced by women to generate household income. • Changing diet habits (shifting from 3 times per day to 2 times per day)

Coping Strategies at Households Level in Irrigated Areas
• Groundwater development. • Changes in cropping patterns. Sindh: Cotton instead of rice, sugarcane instead of mango and banana orchards Balochistan: Apple orchards replaced with Pomegranate • Reduction in cropped area.

Relief Measures
• No relief was given to farmers of the irrigated areas. • In rainfed areas, 60% respondents got some relief mainly in terms of wheat flour,oil, sugar, tea and pulses. • Some NGOs also installed hand pumps to improve supply of drinking water. • 80% respondents believe that relief efforts were only partially successful. • There were major concerns regarding the amount, quantities and unfair distribution of relief items.

NGOs Relief Measures
Items Quantity provided (kg/house/ month) 5-10 Quantity required (kg/house/ month) 110-126 Quantity provided (kg/house/ month) 65-130 Quantity required (kg/house/ month) 118-150

Sindh Flour


Sugar Rice Tea Pulses

1-2 2-5 0.25 2-5

3-15 5-12 1-2 3-10

N.A. 12 N.A. 27-35

N.A. 10 N.A. 5-11

Concluding Remarks
• Rehabilitation of traditional irrigation systems such karezes, should be done on emergency basis. Farmers need both technical and financial help. • Availability of potable drinking water should be given priority. • Infrastructure development and extending small credit facilities to drought-affected areas is a key for extending relief measures. • Farmers should be educated to adopt water conservation strategies both at household and field level. • Innovative rainwater harvesting techniques to store more rainwater should be introduced. • To strengthen anti-drought efforts, coordination between different NGOs and govt. agencies should be enhanced. • Farmers participation in drought relief efforts should be increased to address their concerns.

Thank you

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