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ソフトウェア工学特論 田中 譲 主題と目標 知識メディア技術を例にとり、オブジェクト 指向、オブジェクト指向ＧＵＩ，分散オブジェ クト指向などの基盤ソフトウェア技術と、そ れに基づくデザインパターンとフレーム ワーク、部品化と再利用などの技術を理解 し、近年のウェブ技術への展開を展望する。 さらに、オープンなネットワーク環境におけ るアプリケーションやサービスのフェデレー ションと再編集･再流通の技術、ユビキタス 知識環境への発展へと繋がる基盤技術を 理解する。 授業計画 （項目、授業実施回数、内容） 項 目 回数 内 容 知識メディアとソフ トウェア工学 オブジェクト指向ソ フトウェア工学 オブジェクト指向Ｇ ＵＩ １ ２ ２ 知識メディア技術を例に、ソフトウェア工学の目的、必要性、課題、基盤となるアプ ローチ法を概観する。 オブジェクト指向、クラス定義の精緻化、コンポーネントを用いたプロトタイピング、 部品化と再利用、パターンとフレームワーク グラフィカル・ユーザ･インタフェース（ＧＵＩ）、ＭＶＣ（モデル･ビュー・コント ローラ）アーキテクチャ、ウィンドウ･システムとイベント･ディスパッチング、オブ ジェクト指向ミドルウェア クライアント･サーバ･モデル、分散オブジェクト間通信、分散オブジェクトの定位、分 散オブジェクト管理、トランザクション、オブジェクト・マイグレーション、ＣＯＲＢ ＡとＣＯＭ、ウェブ技術、ウェブサービス、セマンティック・ウェブ、3層モデル 分散オブジェクト指 向技術とウェブ技術 ３ 知識メディア・アー キテクチャ ワークフローとオー ケストレーション ３ １ 知識メディア･アーキテクチャ、更新依存関係、複合文書アーキテクチャ、標準メッセー ジ、レガシー・マイグレーション、アプリケーション・フレームワーク プロセス・コーディネーション、ワークフロー･モデル、オーケストレーション技術 フェデレーションと タプル空間 ３ ウェブ・アプリケーション連携、フェデレーション、タプル空間、JavaSpace（Jini）、 ユビキタス知識環境 講義資料 http://km.meme.hokudai.ac.jp/class/2009/so ftware/ 第１回は以下よりダウンロード http://km.meme.hokudai.ac.jp/class/2008/so ftware 知識メディアとソフトウェア工学 知識メディア技術を例に、ソフトウェア工学 の目的、必要性、課題、基盤となるアプ ローチ法を概観する。 Mega Trend of Software Systems: “ネオダマ” Network Distribution Open Environment Down Sizing Multimedia Contents Information Systems Environments & Resources (1) 1970 – Organization Environment Integrated Management for data, information – Databases 1980 – – Personal Environment Integrated Environment for data, information, documents, multimedia Object orientation Information Systems Environments & Resources (2) 1990 – – Community Environment Publication & Distribution of Documents, multimedia, service WWW+Browser 2000 – – – Meme Environment assets as memes Distribution, Re-editing, & Redistribution of Intellectual Meme media and meme pools Web Mashup, Federation Intellectual Assets: Knowledge Multimedia documents Application software tools Services etc. Anything represented and evaluated on computers Knowledge Media Mark Stefik (1986) The Next Knowledge Medium The AI Magazine, 7(1): 34-46 “In addition to the study of expert systems, we must study knowledge media for the exchange of knowledge.” “Such knowledge media may work as memes.” Knowledge Media and Meme Media Research Goals What kind of media technologies will enable us to edit, distribute, and manage a large variety of knowledge in the age of personal computers connected to the Internet? What distinguishes knowledge media and meme media from multimedia and hypermedia? What are the potentialities of meme media? How will meme media change our society? Knowledge Media (1) In his inspiring book, “The Dragons of Eden”, Carl Sagan briefly described the co-evolution of biological species and the mechanisms for their information inheritance between individuals. Primitive creatures can inherit information only through genes of their parents. The development of brains, however, led to oral communication. For human beings alone, unlike the other creatures, development of external ways to record and store information. The most typical one is a book. – Such information is referred to as being “extrasomatic”, in contrast to “somatic” information stored in a brain. Knowledge Media (2) The externalization of knowledge fragments out of brains into books makes them continue to exist independently from their previous owners. The development of extrasomatic ways of storing knowledge remarkably accelerated the evolution of human beings and their cultures. Knowledge Media (3) Marshall McLuhan considered media not only as a communication mediator but also as augmentation of our physical capabilities such as seeing, hearing, speaking, walking, grasping, understanding, and thinking. Computers: – Computers originally augment our computation capabilities. – Computers can store a large amount of information; they can also serve as augmentation of our memory. Knowledge Media (4) People have been trying to externalize various human capabilities and to implement them in computers. In this sense, today's personal computers are augmentation media that provide us with various tools for entertainment and thought; they provide tools to augment our individual capabilities. Some researchers and developers have been further expanding the target of augmentation from individual people to groups of people; their goal is to provide groupaugmentation media that support collaborative activities. Their systems are called groupware systems. – – – – Personal Group Enterprise Social Knowledge Media (5) Media for the externalization of knowledge enable each of us to extrasomatically record and archive knowledge fragments, and to distribute them to other people in our community. This encourages people to reuse and to edit the archived knowledge to create new knowledge fragments, which are again added to the knowledge shared by the society. This accumulation is what we call a culture. Knowledge Media (6) Books are typical examples of such media. Their main role is not the augmentation of individuals or of groups, but the distribution and the accumulation of knowledge as common property of our society. Knowledge media denote such media. The WWW (World-Wide Web) is an advanced example of knowledge media. Knowledge Media (7) The process of knowledge accumulation in a society consists of 6 activities. – (1) to externalize, – (2) to record and to archive, – (3) to distribute, – (4) to share, – (5) to quote or to reuse, and – (6) to edit fragments of knowledge. The current Web technologies support these six activities. Knowledge Media (8) However, the current Web technologies do not provide users with direct manipulation operations for reediting and redistributing Web contents. Therefore, Web contents are not widely reused except static contents such as texts and images. The augmentation of societies for the promotion of their cultural evolution requires a new type of knowledge media that provide direct manipulation operations for these six activities in an integrated way. Meme Media (1) Biological evolutions are based on genes. We require similar genetic media for the augmentation of societies to promote their cultural evolution. Such media should be able – – – to replicate themselves, to recombine themselves, and to be naturally selected by their environment. They may be called „meme media‟ since they carry what Richard Dawkins called “memes”. Meme Media (2) Mark Stefik pointed out in 1986 the importance of understanding and building an interactive knowledge medium that embodies the characteristics of memes to distribute and to exchange knowledge fragments in a society. Meme Media (3) The accumulation of memes in a society will form a meme pool, which will work as a gene pool to bring a rapid evolution of knowledge resources shared by this society. This will cause an explosive increase of knowledge resources similar to the flood of consumer products in our present consumer societies. The explosive increase of knowledge resources is not only inevitable, but also fundamental for their rapid evolution since such increase forms a sufficiently large meme pool and increases the chance and the variety of recombination. Meme media will bring us a consumer society and consumer culture of knowledge resources, which requires new services for distribution, management and retrieval. Information life cycle and knowledge media (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) generation of new information conceive, create, generate, acquire, ... externalization of information externalize, write, scribe, represent, ... recording of information record, archive, store, remember, accumulate, ... protection of information protect, hide, secure, control, ... communication of information communicate, tell, inform, exchange, ... distribution of information distribute, publish, open, leak, broadcast, ... sharing of information share, ... Information life cycle and knowledge media (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) reference to information reference, cite, quote, reuse, ... editing of information edit, process, compose, arrange, ... search of information search, retrieve, look for, seek... analysis of information analyze, evaluate, ... management of information manage, ... annihilation of information annihilate, discard, forget, destroy, eliminate, ... Externalization media can be classified into four categories. Further classification of externalization media Ecology of information Externalization of information is not independent from its editing. The editing of information, on the other hand, requires that it is already externalized. Externalized fragments of information can be distributed or published. They can be quoted in another fragment of information, or can be recombined into a new fragment of information. When they lose their significance, they are discarded. The accumulation of externalized information fragments sooner or later requires their management, which makes people create a new type of information, i.e., information to access existing information. This new type of information is called meta information. Ecology of information and knowledge media During its life cycle, a fragment of information may change its representation and medium. However, it cannot exist at any moment without some representation and some medium. Personal computers as augmentation media have developed various tools to support these interactions. These tools are augmentation media. Information media and the tools applied to them are both considered as knowledge media. Tools as media behave as information media. They are used to externalize procedural or rule-based knowledge. Ecology of information and knowledge media People interact with fragments of information through various tools and media during the life cycle of these information fragments. These tools and media have been independently developed, and cannot effectively interact with each other. The total support of our interaction with fragments of information and knowledge requires a universal set of media that may cover all kinds of human interaction with information and knowledge through their life cycle. These media must be able to cooperate with each other through functional linkage and data conversion. Otherwise, they cannot continuously support our activities at different stages of the information life cycle in a seamless way. Ecology of information and knowledge media In his both reflective and perspective paper published in 1986, Mark Stefik at Xerox PARC said, “The most widely understood goal of artificial intelligence is to understand and build autonomous, intelligent, thinking machines. A perhaps larger opportunity and complementary goal is to understand and build an interactive knowledge medium.” Ecology of information and knowledge media He picked out three stories about the growth of knowledge and cultural change. – – – the spread of hunting culture, the spread of farming culture, and the rapid change in turn-of-the-century France that led peasants to recognize their identity as “Frenchmen”. The first two stories illustrate how the complexity of a culture affects its diffusion rate. The last story shows that a technology can accelerate cultural change. – It discusses the introduction of roads and railroads into France between the years 1870 and 1914, and the subsequent sweeping changes and modernization that took place. Ecology of information and knowledge media Then he took up Richard Dawkins‟ concept of memes. In his book, “The Selfish Gene”, Dawkins suggested provocatively that ideas (he called them memes) are like genes and that societies have meme pools in just the same way as they have gene pools. Basic human capabilities for communication and imitation modulate the rate at which the memes spread. The spreading rate of memes, however, is not the only factor that determines the evolution rate of a culture. By bringing previously separate memes into competition, roads triggered a shift in equilibrium. Ideas from faraway places were continuously reinterpreted and reapplied. The very richness of this process accelerated the generation of recombinant memes. Ecology of information and knowledge media Memes require carriers, each of which is an agent that can remember a meme and communicate it to another agent. People are such carriers and so are books. However, there is an important difference. People can apply knowledge, whereas books only store it. Programs running on computers can apply knowledge as well, which makes computer systems very important for creating an active knowledge medium. Ecology of information and knowledge media Stefik then compares books with expert systems. Books can simply store fragments of knowledge. It is people who apply books, distribute them, and recombine them into new books. Expert systems can store and also apply fragments of knowledge. However, it is difficult for people to apply expert systems, to distribute them, or to recombine them into new expert systems. We need new active knowledge media that we can edit. Ecology of information and knowledge media He also pointed out that building a knowledge medium is a long-term goal, complementary to the goal of building artificially intelligent agents. He predicted that it stands on other work in the larger field of computer science, such as databases and network technology. The evolution rate of a meme pool depends on several factors. the number of people accessing this pool, how easy it is for them to recombine memes, and how often they encounter interesting memes. Three corresponding ways to accelerate the meme-pool evolution. To increase the number of people accessing the pool, we may establish a worldwide reservoir of memes and provide an easy way of accessing this reservoir. To make meme recombination easier, we may develop a user-friendly editing system for end-users to compose, to decompose, and to recombine memes. Finally, to increase the chance for people to encounter interesting memes, we may develop a good browser or a good reference service system for people to search the meme pool for what interests them. The fourth way to accelerate the meme-pool evolution Sometimes, new species appear and displace related species much more rapidly than would be predicted by the apparent change of environment or expected rate of genetic drift. This phenomenon of speciation and displacement is called a punctuated equilibrium. The leading model for explaining this process comprises three stages: isolation, drift, and displacement. – – First, a group becomes geographically isolated from the main population. This group undergoes selection and genetic drift more rapidly than does the larger body. Finally, the geographic isolation is removed, and the slightly fitter group competes against and displaces the original population. Punctuated equilibrium This hypothesis can be read in the context of memes as follows: To accelerate meme-pool evolution, it is not a good strategy to provide a single monolithic meme pool. Instead, it is better to provide a meme pool that enables people to dynamically develop smaller subpools within itself for subcommunities, to cultivate a local culture in each of them, and to dynamically merge some of them. Examples of a punctuated equilibrium in a meme pool Interdisciplinary studies between two well-developed research fields may often yield new development. Researchers like to organize a small community for intensive and deep discussion whenever a new research field starts to develop. Lego Group, famous for its toy block systems, distributes more than 60 new kits with different stories and themes every year, which has been stimulating the development of new meme subpools of Lego cultures: a doll‟s house world, an airport world, a train station world, a zoo world, a pirates‟ world, and so on. Meme media for all users Novice end-users: inexperienced or untrained users who have some difficulty to learn the art of utilizing the media functions. – – Kids under the age of three or four are the typical examples. Their meme media should be robust against their misuse. They do not learn from instructions but through their trial-and-error practices. These practices should not result in any system errors. Meme media for all users Nonprofessional end-users: the public at large, users who do not care about either the engineering to implement various media functions or the professional skill to utilize these functions. – – They can learn from instruction manuals and from examples. It is especially important to provide them with various sample compositions of application tools as well as online manuals. Meme media for all users Professional end-users: users who do not care about the engineering to implement various media functions, but are eager to develop their professional skill to utilize these functions in their professional activities. Among them are engineers, physicists, chemists, medical doctors, mathematicians, biologists, lawyers, economists, accountants, designers, architects, and teachers. – – Professional end-users form a community in each of their professional fields, and exchange both their knowledge resources on meme media and their know-how about how to utilize these media. It is especially important to provide a networked infrastructure for these users to easily exchange their meme-media objects. The re-editing and the redistribution of meme-media objects by these users are especially important to form a meme pool of knowledge in each of their professional societies. Meme media for all users Super-users: professional users who have developed their programming skill to develop useful tools by themselves to support their professional activities. – – – – Almost every professional field has such super-users. Some portion of the development tools for the meme media should be open to the public to encourage these super-users to utilize them to develop varieties of useful meme-media objects. Their meme-media objects, when published, will significantly increase the value of the meme pools for their professional field. This positive feedback loop will accelerate the evolution of these meme pools. Meme media for all users Application developers: including database designers and administrators, various application system developers, custom software developers, and so on. – – – – – Meme media promise to help application developers by the use of patterns and frameworks for varieties of typical applications. A pattern in meme media means a common composition structure and hence a common editing structure of meme media shared by the composite tools for the same typical application. A framework in meme media means a set of meme-media components and the composition rules that are typically used in the development of a specific kind of application. Patterns and frameworks are also provided for Lego blocks as varieties of kits that come with sample composition manuals. The patterns and frameworks are themselves developed by application developers. These are accumulated as application developers‟ know-how, and shared by developers. Meme media for all users System developers: including developers of platforms, application-independent servers, and general-purpose utility systems. Among these systems are spreadsheets, word processors, operating systems, and database servers. – – – For these experts, meme media help them to accumulate and to exchange their know-how. In the development of client systems, they can use patterns and frameworks of meme-media objects. However, system development by composition of meme-media objects is not relevant for the development of server systems. Meme media and compound documents Meme media should provide knowledge resources as generic components so that their users can easily combine them and edit composite documents and tools to dynamically interrelate them. One possible approach that would satisfy these requirements is the adoption of the compounddocument model as the basic media architecture, and the extension of this document-media architecture to cope with other types of knowledge. Meme media and compound documents The compound-document model was first adopted on computers by desktop publishing systems. – They allowed us to embed images, drawings, tables and charts into a single text page. Since then, the variety of embedded components available for compound documents has gradually increased, to include animations, video clips, and script programs. Now, the compound-document model can treat any object in the object-orientation paradigm as an embedded component whenever this object is given an appropriate media component representation. – The model with this extension is called the reactive compounddocument model. Compound Document Architecture IntelligentPad desktop media presentation II presentation I DTP toolkit object orientation video board Display PostScript compound documents text, chart, table, figure, image compound documents with animation compound documents, animation multimedia documents compound documents with animation, video, sound reactive documents multimedia documents, update propagation synthetic media reactive documents, server systems, application programs Meme media and compound documents Since meme media are reactive objects, their composition is not simply layout composition as in the case of nonreactive compound-documents. The embedding of a component into another should also define a functional linkage between the two. Such a composite object is called a composite mememedia object. Our system-design problem is how to merge these two different composition operationsthe physical layoutcomposition operation and the logical functionalcomposition operationinto a single simple operation. Meme media and compound documents The functional linkage definition through layout composition is quite different from diagrammatic visual programming methods that visually define a program as a data-flow graph with visually represented functional component objects as its nodes. Meme media, however, basically unify a layoutcomposition operation and a functionalcomposition operation into a single operation. Persistency and reeditability Meme-media objects are persistent objects. They continue to exist unless explicitly deleted. For their future re-editing, composite meme-media objects should be kept decomposable. Ease of object composition is the common goal shared by current authoring tools, tool kit systems, and visual programming tools. However, these systems do not keep composed objects as decomposable objects. While these systems only focus on rapid prototyping, meme media also focus on the future re-editing of composite objects and reuse of the results. Meme pool Meme media also require a distribution infrastructure to form a meme pool. In addition to offline distribution infrastructures such as the traditional book-publishing market, we need an online distribution infrastructure through the Internet to accelerate meme-pool evolution. A peer-to-peer transportation facility is not sufficient to form a meme pool. We have to organize a marketplace where all people can publish their achievements, browse through the achievements published by others, and arrange selling and buying of these achievements between arbitrary pairs of people. Objects and media From the software engineering point of view, a meme-media architecture constitutes a new object-oriented software architecture both for the graphical user interface and for object wiring and containment. Meme media are different from GUI (Graphical User Interface) systems. GUI Meme media are different from GUI (Graphical User Interface) systems. meme media object Inter-application communication mechanism and GUI (1) Cut-and-Paste, (2) Drag-and-Drop, (3) Object Wiring, and (4) Object Containment. – – Widget Containment, and Media Containment Widget Containment and Media Containment Widget containment Widget Containment and Media Containment Media containment Inter-application communication mechanism and GUI In OLE‟s terminology, both „object linking‟ and „object embedding‟ mean what we call object containment in this section. – With OLE‟s object linking, the containment of a component only holds a reference pointer to the original component, while with OLE‟s object embedding, the contained component is an independent copy of the original component. Interoperability and meme media: component-based architecture Current computers handle various types of intellectual resources. Unless a system provides a dedicated functional linkage between any pair of these object types, it fails to integrate these objects. Different pairs require different types of linkages. If there are n different types, we require O(n2) different types of linkages. This is the essential challenge of integration systems that are open to the future addition of new intellectual resource types. Interoperability and meme media : Media-based architecture Meme-media architectures solve this problem by separating media from their contents, and standardizing the logical structure and the interface of the primitive media objects. Each primitive media object consists of its wrapper and its content. Its wrapper defines its standard media structure and interface. In a media-based architecture, only one type of functional linkage is used to connect any pair of wrappers Interoperability and meme media: Media-based architecture Multimedia, hypermedia, and meme media Multimedia studies are focused on how to deal with various forms of information on computers. Multimedia researches have been extending their scope to deal with texts, charts, drawings, tables, images, movies, sounds, script programs, and environments. They have developed dedicated technologies to edit, distribute, and manage each of these different forms of information. Additionally, they have developed a compound document architecture. Recent multimedia studies are focused on multimediadocument editors with scripting languages, multimedia exchange formats based on various compression technologies, and multimedia databases using various retrieval technologies. Multimedia, hypermedia, and meme media Hypermedia studies are focused on associative, referential, and/or quotation relationships among multimedia documents, and navigational exploration along some of these relationships. They focus on nonlinear organization of a multimediadocument space for writing and reading. Ted Nelson, who coined the term “hypertext”, also coined the word “docuverse” to denote this nonlinear writing, reading, publishing, annotating, and/or quoting space of documents. He considered not only a personal „docuverse‟ but also a worldwide „docuverse‟. Later, the WWW and the Web browser technologies had partially implemented his dream on a world-wide docuverse. Multimedia, hypermedia, and meme media Meme-media studies are focused on new types of media that work as memes carrying various kinds of knowledge. They address uniform and integrated ways to edit, distribute, and manage all kinds of intellectual resource on present networked computer systems. These resources include multimedia documents, application tools, knowledge rules, and design models. Meme-media studies are aimed at forming an open set of primitive media components and a standard functional-composition mechanism allowing the easy composition/decomposition of multimedia documents and tools through direct manipulation. Meme-media studies are also focused on a worldwide marketplace architecture for the publication of various intellectual resources on meme media, their reuses, their re-editing, and the redistribution of reedited intellectual resources; it is assumed that all these operations are performed by end-users through direct manipulation. Meme media and meme pools Meme media requires the development of three subsystems. A meme-media editing system provides us with an open library of primitive meme media objects, and enables us to create composite meme media objects by easily and directly combining these components. A meme-pool system provides a worldwide marketplace of meme-media objects. We are especially interested in such a meme-pool system that works on the Internet. A meme-media management system works as a database system for media objects. We have to consider two types of meme-media management systems: one for the local management of meme-media objects, and the other for the global clearing service. From information architectures to media architectures Today's advanced information society has three major problems. – – – information explosion software crisis Current computer systems are still poor vehicles for our culture. Information explosion Today's information explosion has come from the following two causes: – – people's insufficient understanding of the ecology of information in the research and development of conventional information processing technologies, and people's insufficient attention to the important roles of media in human societies. Information explosion In designing information processing technologies, people have not focused on how and why varieties of information are communicated, classified, acquired, filtered, and discarded. Information system developers have not yet formed any mental models about the ecological systems of information. We need a new media architecture that may foster such mental models. In our long human history, whenever new media technologies were developed, they always brought with them new mental models on how to manipulate and to manage information. Software Crisis While information productivity has been remarkably improved in these decades, software productivity still remains the same as ten or twenty years ago. The ever-increasing demand for new software systems is caused by seriously increasing backlogs. The remarkable improvement of information productivity during the past couple of decades can be attributed to the development of document editing, reproduction, and distribution technologies. These technologies are not yet well developed for software. Software Crisis There have been many projects aimed at improving software productivity. Software developers tried to provide software components and to distribute them for their reuse. However, none has managed to achieve particular success. They only considered the distribution of components. They assumed that the composite products need not be decomposable. The distribution of components is not sufficient to promote their reuse. We need to distribute a complete application product in its decomposable form so that other people can easily decompose this into subsystems not only to reuse some of them for other purposes, but also to learn how to use each component with others. Roles of media A medium adds varieties of functions to an information fragment. Media of the same type treat varieties of information in a uniform way, and provide them with a standard access and operation protocol. A medium integrates varieties of information. Roles of media In the history of media, human beings developed various media to provide information fragments with various functions, including verbalization media, visualization media, recording media, archiving media, transportation media, and replication media. Media provide varieties of information with the same standard access and operation protocol. Books are good examples. While books may contain various types of information, their forms are standardized for easy use and management. Books share the same structure. This standard structure provides a uniform protocol for the access and the manipulation of different types of information. As we mentioned, it took a long history for books to develop this standard structure. Roles of media A medium supports people to editorially arrange various information fragments from different sources, and to integrate them to create a single new intellectual resource. Various articles are collected in a newspaper as a single new intellectual resource. A notebook is used to memorize fragments of ideas, quotations and references, and it later works as a new source of knowledge. The concept of media that play the above mentioned roles, when successfully implemented on computers, will allow us to treat varieties of information and knowledge using a single type of media. Such media provide their content information and knowledge with various functions, and furthermore, standardize the protocol for accessing and managing varieties of information and knowledge. They can be used to integrate different information and knowledge fragments into a single intellectual resource. History of books The Egyptian book took the form of a scroll. A text of long works was divided among several scrolls, keeping the length of each portion more or less the same, while respecting chapter-breaks. Short texts, on the other hand, were joined together in a single scroll, indicating a tendency to adopt a uniform length. The nature of the scroll forced authors to publish their works in relatively short sections, hence the divisions into somewhat short books of the major works of Latin authors. One of the most important characteristics of media is that the form of media influences not only the style of its knowledge content, but furthermore the way that both writers and readers think about that content. History of books A strip bearing the identification of the work was glued on to the outside of the scroll; it was called the „index‟ or „titulus‟. When, much later on, works came to be given a title, this was written at the inner end of the scroll, probably because placing it within the roll served to protect it. The folded and sewn manuscript book is properly called a „codex‟. During the early first century AD the scroll or „volumen‟ met competition from, and was then replaced by, the codex. Though it is not clear when the codex superseded the scroll, from the fourth century onward, the codex gradually took the place of the volumen as the normal form for books. The format, that is, the height and the width of the page, became known as „forma‟ or „volumen‟ during the Middle Ages. The oldest format was square. This was followed by a rectangular shape with the height greater than the width. History of books Like their predecessors papyrus scrolls, medieval manuscripts usually did not have title pages. Instead, a phrase from the beginning of the text was written at the head of the text. The name of the author was not stated. Attention was drawn to the opening phrase by the use of red ink and large capital letters. Information about the author and the work‟s title were placed at the end of the book. Since the large number of quires needed to make a codex could easily be gathered in the wrong order when bound, copyists developed the custom of numbering the quire with marks on the last page. In the thirteenth century, after the founding of the first universities had increased the demand for books, a system was needed that would also indicate the order of the pages within each quire, to permit the designer and illuminator to work in sequence on the same volume without any confusion. By the end of the thirteenth century, the folios were sometimes numbered throughout a volume. History of books The history of books is a good example to see how long it takes to develop one type of media. Note that this long history was required to develop the structure of media, namely the presentation structure of information, but not the representation structure of information. From information processing to social information infrastructure Current computers are capable of dealing with varieties of intellectual resources. Among them are multimedia documents, tools, procedures, rules, and design models. This list covers most of our descriptive knowledge. While it is important to add new types of intellectual resources to this list, much more important and fundamental for us is how to provide these intellectual resources with functional linkage mechanisms, and how to make these resources exchangeable and reusable across different platforms through networks. From information processing to social information infrastructure Human beings, as social creatures, communicate with others to exchange information and ideas, and share common knowledge and culture. While computer systems in 1980s dramatically expanded the repertoire of what can be processed, they provided only personal and organizational information processing and management environments. Computer systems in 1990s, together with their Internet connections, have opened a new vista toward worldwide publishing and reuses of intellectual resources. Computers and networks are coming to work together as a social information infrastructure for sharing intellectual resources. Our focus on information systems is shifting from information processing technologies to social information infrastructures. Meme media will work as fundamental vehicles for social information infrastructures. Editing, distribution, and management Almost nothing is known of Egyptian libraries of the New Kingdom period (1500-1085 BC). In general, libraries were associated with temples or other religious centers. Ptolemy II Philadelphia (285-246 BC), a son of Ptolemy I Soter who made Alexandria the Egyptian capital, founded the famous Alexandrian Library, with the intention of bringing together all of Greek literature in the best copies, edited and assembled with the help of professionals. Editing, distribution, and management The art of book making was well-organized in Greece, and books were exported. Initially, the copyist and the bookseller were one and the same person. Only around the fifth century BC did book-dealers, called „bibliopoli‟, begin to form a separate profession and carry on their trade in shops open to the public. Besides being the places where books were sold, these shops were meeting-places where the educated gathered to listen to readings of the newest works, to determine whether to buy or hire them. Such readings offered the producers and sellers of books a chance to assess popular taste in order to meet it with new works. The active book trade in the Greek world is confirmed by the existence of several celebrated public and private libraries. Editing, distribution, and management Around the first century BC, there appears the „editor‟. However, nothing like author‟s royalties then existed. Indeed, no law protected literary property and everyone was free to copy any text and sell the book at any price. The invention of portable media to record varieties of knowledge was immediately followed by the development of editors, libraries, and markets. This is surprising when we notice that all this happened before the invention of printing technologies, during the time when their replication required lots of time, money, and skill. Editing, distribution, and management Due to the development of the open system concept and the popularization of the Internet, media on computers are becoming more portable across different platforms through the Internet. Media history clearly indicates that these portable media will soon extend their capability to support their editors, and develop their meta media for their management and worldwide distribution. This change will happen very rapidly since, unlike the case of books before Johann Gutenberg, the replication of computer media does not cost any time, money, or skill. The only serious obstacle might be the necessity to develop new royalty and security services. However people‟s desire to share varieties of knowledge with each other will surely surpass this drawback; researchers will develop new technologies such as „superdistribution‟ proposed by Ryoichi Mori.
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