Chapter 19 - PDF

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					Chapter 19 Study Guide 1. A) B) C) D) 2. A) B) C) D) 3. A) B) C) D) Modernism was a cultural movement that: marked the end of the Middle Ages rejected both Greco-Roman Classicism and the Judeo-Christian tradition began with the Renaissance shared the revolutionary ideas of Marxism Three major forces that helped shape events between 1871 and 1914 were: Christianity, feudalism, manorialism war, famine, plague imperialism, militarism, nationalism overpopulation, pollution, class violence Europe between 1871 and 1914: moved closer to political unity was increasingly involved in internal disputes came increasingly under the influence of American culture launched a moral crusade against Modernism

4. Comparing the First Industrial Revolution to the Second Industrial Revolution, which of the following is correct? A) the pace of urbanization slowed down in the Second Industrial Revolution B) the Second Industrial Revolution found no new forms of energy and still relied on coal and water C) Great Britain had no competitors and continued to be the leader in the Second Industrial Revolution D) scientific research played a larger role in the Second Industrial Revolution than in the First Industrial Revolution 5. A) B) C) D) In the period 1871-1914, many Europeans moved to the cities because: Urban jobs paid better than those in the country. The cities promised free social benefits to their citizens. City life was more spiritual than isolated rural areas. Urban school systems were better than those in the countryside.

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Life in the growing cities of the late nineteenth century: was much better for the working class than the middle class moved at a slower pace than life in the country provided women new opportunities for jobs blurred the lines between the wealthy and the poor

7. Women, in the Second Industrial Revolution, experienced which of the following? A) they had no opportunities to advance in education B) they were unable to get themselves organized around certain common goals, such as property rights and divorce laws C) they found new careers, including teaching, nursing, and retailing D) they established labor unions for females 8. Which of the following can be considered a social change that occurred between 1871 and 1914? A) the passing of laws giving women the right to vote B) the establishment of public school systems C) the creation of a bill of rights for peasants in Western European states D) the founding of a social welfare system in Russia 9. Which of the following weakened the appeal of liberalism for industrial workersafter 1871? A) Liberals' opposition to social welfare programs made the their ideas unattractive to workers who wanted more state services. B) Liberals' claims that free trade would lead to a harmoniously working economy was proved untrue. C) Socialism offered more concrete everyday benefits to workers than did liberalism. D) All of the above. 10. A) B) C) D) 11. A) B) C) D) Unlike Germany and France, Great Britain during the 1871–1914 period: was beset with violence at home saw the rise of militant socialist parties reformed the living conditions of the poor witnessed the decline of its middle class The city that epitomized Modernism during this period was: Vienna Budapest Rome Prague

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12. A) B) C) D) 13. A) B) C) D) 14. A) B) C) D) 15. A) B) C) D)

Between 1871 and 1914, European nations: treated domestic and foreign affairs as equal in importance turned their attention exclusively to domestic matters shifted their interests from domestic to foreign affairs and the global economy dismantled their military machines As the Industrial Revolution came to Russia: The standard of living improved for all classes. Agriculture expanded and became a vital source of wealth. The government became more oppressive and dictatorial. The leaders kept the country out of war so the economy could grow. One of the major causes of late-nineteenth-century imperialism was: the balance of power in Europe needed to be redressed the industrialized nations required new markets the rise of India as a great industrial power a decline in surplus capital Before World War I, how significant was imperialism as a cause of war? It had no impact. It heightened tensions but did not lead directly to war. It led directly to warfare in Europe among the great powers. It lessened tensions among the great powers as all were united by the bond of imperialism. The immediate cause of World War I was a quarrel between: Germany and Russia France and Germany Austria and Serbia Austria and Russia Early Modernism was characterized by: an admiration for medieval thought and art a desire to reinvent the past through painting and music the needs of many artists and thinkers to identify with the new rich classes a yearning to move to an uncertain but exciting future

16. A) B) C) D) 17. A) B) C) D)

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Early Modernism's optimism about the future was reinforced by: a renewal of Christianity advances in science and technology the spread of Marxism an upsurge in the arts

19. Nietzsche's life and thought are ironical in what way? A) Despite his anti-Christian views, many Christians admired him. B) Although he was an opponent of a strong German state, his writings were later taken up by the Nazis, who advocated a unified Germany. C) A popular thinker during his lifetime, he ceased to have any influence after World War II. D) While he glorified socialism, the West's individualistic artists made him one of their heroes. 20. A) B) C) D) Nietzsche and Freud: supported the traditional values of Western thought praised middle-class morality explored beneath the surface of human motives to find the underlying truth accepted the basic decency and common sense of human beings

21. Freud thought that human personality was: A) shaped by the environment and was therefore able to be altered by changing the situation B) determined by what God had implanted in each person and was thus unchangeable C) the product of an inescapable struggle between inborn instincts and a culturally-created conscience D) free and spontaneous and could change at will 22. A) B) C) D) 23. A) B) C) D) The three styles of Early Modernist literature are: Realism, Impressionism, Romanticism Naturalism, Decadence, Expressionism Functionalism, Organicism, Constructivism Fauvism, Cubism, Surrealism Kate Chopin can be described as: one of the most important of the Romantic authors a writer moving away from Romanticism and toward Realism and Naturalism the last of the Naturalistic writers a poetess who caught the meaning of nature in her verse

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24. A) B) C) D) 25. A) B) C) D) 26. A) B) C) D) 27. A) B) C) D) 28. A) B) C) D) 29. A) B) C) D)

Zola's novels express Naturalism by: being set in the countryside ignoring details and focusing on impressions exploring serious social issues dealing with the power of nature Ibsen's A Doll's House is written in which style? Naturalism Decadence Expressionism Realism The hero in Huysmans's Against Nature expresses what Decadence means by: cultivating unfashionable and exotic pleasures embracing materialism escaping to a tropical island becoming a devotee of mass culture An example of Decadence in literature is: Kafka's The Trial Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray Ibsen's A Doll's House Zola's Germinal An example of Expressionism in literature is: Chekhov's The Three Sisters Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray Proust's Remembrance of Things Past Strindberg's The Dream Play Kafka's novel The Trial and novella “Metamorphosis” have this Modernist theme: a person brought to a tragic end for having broken the universe's moral code a person overwhelmed by the spiritual forces of nature a person victimized by forces beyond the individual human's control a person forced to choose between conscience and the laws of the state

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30. A) B) C) D) 31. A) B) C) D) 32. A) B) C) D) 33. A) B) C) D) 34. A) B) C) D) 35. A) B) C) D)

The first scientist to win two Nobel Prizes for science was: Albert Einstein Madame Curie Max Planck Gregor Mendel Max Planck is credited with: discovering X rays establishing the quantum theory of radiation formulating the theory of dominant and recessive genes explaining the behavior of electrons at the subatomic level Niels Bohr: established the quantum theory of radiation proved that the Newtonian system was still valid explained the behavior of electrons at the subatomic level discovered X rays Einstein's theoretical work in physics did which of the following? It eventually led to the overthrow of Newtonian concepts of space and time. It asserted that the only absolute in the universe is the speed of light. It proved that there are no absolutes in space and time. All of the above. Impressionist painters were innovative because: they painted out of doors, not in their studios they created the first abstract paintings they were concerned with precise forms and lines in their works they worked from many carefully drawn sketches and plans The Impressionists were influenced by the: Neoclassical painters Baroque painters Pre-Raphaelites Romantic painters

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36. A) B) C) D) 37. A) B) C) D) 38. A) B) C) D) 39. A) B) C) D) 40. A) B) C) D) 41. A) B) C) D)

The first critics of Impressionist painting: praised the new style as representing a turning point in art ridiculed the new style as being messy and slapdash ignored the new style, hoping it would go away greeted it with faint praise, seeing little difference between it and Romantic painting Monet's painting Impression: Sunrise: was embraced by the critics as a great work of art became a rallying cry for his fellow artists caused him to change his style of painting influenced the traditional art schools in France Renoir's painting style can be described as: pioneering the tradition that led to Cubism moving beyond Impressionism to a greater concentration on form experimenting constantly with various styles restoring Classical principles to art One of the results of the Impressionist movement was that: A single international style now emerged. Content now became more important than form in art. Myth, literature, and history became the subjects of art. Art was freed to move in many directions. The leading painters of Post-Impressionism were: Monet, Renoir, Morisot Cézanne, Gauguin, van Gogh Picasso, Matisse, Braque Courbet, Manet, Millet Cézanne's paintings pointed the way to the twentieth century's: primitivist art abstract art Expressionist art Surrealist art

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42. A) B) C) D) 43. A) B) C) D) 44. A) B) C) D) 45. A) B) C) D) 46. A) B) C) D) 47. A) B) C) D)

Van Gogh launched the Post-Impressionist trend in painting called: abstraction fantasy Expressionism primitivism In painting, the term “expressionism” me representing the emotions finding a painterly vocabulary to symbolize music capturing the fleeting play of light on humans and objects working with geometric shapes Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon was significant for which the following reasons? It foreshadowed later developments, especially nonobjective art. It opened the door to influences from non-Western art. It was the prelude to Cubism. All of the above. Which architect coined the phrase “form follows function”? Louis Sullivan Frank Lloyd Wright Auguste Rodin Georges Seurat A characteristic of Expressionist music is: music that is harmonious and soothing a text that is reflected expressively in the musical sounds music that incorporates elements of chance into its composition a text unrelated to the musical sounds What was the most striking feature of Expressionist music? lyricism atonality word painting pounding rhythms

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48. A) B) C) D)

Jazz was influenced by: Gregorian chants Baroque opera Indian sacred music West African and African-Caribbean rhythms

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