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									An Economic Analysis of Ecotourism, Case study: Austrian Alps

Michael Dall Simone Tumolo Sunghan Oh Szymon Kaczmarek Washington Samushonga

MSc Economic Policy and Management

1. Economic analysis of Ecotourism 1.1 Aim of the Report The aim of this report is to analyze Ecotourism through a PESTEL analysis and to identify the major driving forces within the subject business environment. 1.2 Ecotourism Background The main features of ecotourism have been identified with sustainable tourism, social and environmental impacts, educative and conservation of natural and cultural traditions. The broad objective of Ecotourism is to take advantage of the diversity of civilization and culture and integrating with sustainable tourism. Ecotourism is recognized as responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well being of local people. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) provides a clear understanding of Ecotourism through the following criteria laid down. 1. All nature-based forms of tourism in which main motivation of the tourist: is the observation and appreciation of nature as well as the traditional cultures prevailing in natural areas; 2. It contains educational and interpretational features; 3. It is generally, but not exclusively organized for small groups by specialized and small locally owned business. Foreign operators of varying sizes also organize, operate and/ or market ecotourism programs, generally for small groups; 4. It minimize negative impacts on the natural and socio-cultural environment; 5. It supports the protection of natural areas by generating economic benefits for host communities, organizations and authorities, increasing awareness towards the conservation of natural and cultural assets, both among locals and tourists. The individuals involved within ecotourism activities should be aware of the below mentioned principles as outlined by the International Ecotourism Organization (2004):  Minimize impact  Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect  Provide positive experiences for both visitors and hosts  Provide financial benefits and empowerment of local people  Raise sensitivity to host countries‟ political environmental and social climate  Support international human right agreements (International Ecotourism Organization 2004) 1.3 Industry outlook Reports show that ecotourism and related nature expenditure represented 20% of total international travel1 in 1998. Its importance to the global economy was underlined by the fact that in 1994 between US$166 and US$250 billion was spent in the ecotourism industry. There are a number of areas that are popular for ecotourism holidays including the United States (mainly National Parks), Nepal, Kenya and Australia. Of course, an ecotourism holiday can be taken in any country that fulfills the above criteria.

1

Ecotourism statistical fact sheet

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2002 has been declared International Year of Eco-tourism by United Nations in order to promote sustainable tourism development. 1.4 PESTEL Analysis 1.4.1 Political Due to its heterogeneity, there are a number of specific political aspects that apply to ecotourism in particular countries. Political situations in a particular country can affect the level of ecotourism greatly. A number of countries that have vibrant ecotourism industries also have volatile political situations. Many areas popular for ecotourism are also in developing countries, where political instability is often commonplace. For example, Rwanda is quoted as a good area for ecotourism holidays but is affected by civil unrest and an unstable political environment. It was popular for its “Mountain Gorilla Project” which charged entrance fees for tourists to see the gorillas. The high entry fees paid for salaries and the conservation of the animals while discouraging poachers, as it became more profitable for the gorillas to be alive. This changed when the political situation changed in the country and it became extremely dangerous to visit. Politically volatile situations effect ecotourism at the current time and their unpredictable nature may cause potential problems in the future. Governments become involved in ecotourism in a variety of ways, and their actions help shape ecotourism in that particular country. While they do hand out direct financial assistance to the ecotourism industry their first priority is to encourage technical assistance to be provided. This can be setting up contact between an ecotourism project developers and financial partners like NonGovernmental Organisations and private banks. They also negotiate with lenders on their behalf to secure low interest borrowing rates and various other financial incentives. Other governments have actual funding programmes. Indonesia, for example, introduced a financial support programme for the people who live around ecotourism areas. These regional policies help to develop local areas by giving the areas inhabitants the ability to continue to develop the region that they live in. Other government initiatives designed to promote awareness of ecotourism issues to the employees of the sector and the local inhabitants have been set up. This has been in order to maintain stable projects by fully educating those people who are directly involved in them. The more training they receive the better the project has of being sustainable in the long term as they are fully aware of all the relevant issues. 1.4.2 Economic Tourism is recognized as the fastest growing industry in the world and “the fastest growing component of it is Ecotourism. It is natural area tourism which is the most rapidly growing segment of tourism and WTO estimates it generates approximately 20% of all international travel expenditures”. 2 Ecotourism has a significant impact on the macroeconomic and microeconomic environment as it is able to affect the overall economy of the area where the project is developed. The results of the policies implemented to develop ecotourism provided considerable economic benefit to the areas where the projects have been located. Ecotourism enable the gain of a substantial economic return with a low impact towards cultural and natural environment. Hence,

2

Newsom D. Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology, Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. Pag.

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Honey (1999) suggests “Ecotourism provides direct financial benefits for conservation and provides financial benefits and empowerment for local people.” 3 Therefore, this is the main reason why governments and conservation organizations take advantage of the development of such a kinds of project in order to gain both the environmental and economic benefits within the area to be protected. With reference to the benefits, “these include generating revenue for management of natural areas and creation of employment opportunities for the local population” 4. Furthermore it must be underlined that ecotourism projects are able to attract both national and foreign investment to those areas where ecotourism development projects have been implemented. The above mentioned benefit are the main reason that enable to consider Ecotourism as a sustainable development strategy adopted by protected area managers, politic organizations and conservation agencies to ensure a practical conservation and protection (Newsom D., Moore A, Dowling R.K., 2002) It must be taken into consideration that often ecotourism is not understood properly also because it is confused with other form of tourism development. A results the term is abused and the concept is misrepresented to the extent that “in recent years ecotourism has become something of buzzword in the tourism industry…promoters of tourism have tended to label any nature oriented tourism product an example of ecotourism.”5 Thus, the economic impact of Ecotourism is characterized from its significant commercial features; Ecotourism can be seen as a major economic driver for those areas to be developed through tourism projects. However, “it has also been stated that ecotourism is often nothing more than a marketing tool. In theory it should be an economically and socially sound mean to conserve biodiversity, and also to provide revenue to improve the lives of people living or near biologically important area. It really constitutes a niche market for environmentally aware tourists who are interested in observing nature.”6 However, when an area of natural and cultural relevance is deemed to be protected and preserved but the financial means are not available to sustain such a project, Ecotourism has been identified as a vehicle to finance the protection of the subject area and at a same time contribute to the local economy and as a result contributing to the overall wealth of the local community. 1.4.3 Social The benefits provided by ecotourism must be recognized within the context of the social environment. The local community is able to take advantage of Ecotourism when the main economic, environmental and politic objectives have been achieved, enabling the gain of social benefits and minimizing the negative factors. “The involvement of local communities not only benefits the community and the environment but also improve the quality of the tourist experience. These benefits should outweigh the cost of ecotourism to the host community and environment” 7. Local communities can become involved in the provision of knowledge, services, facilities and products
3 4

Newsom D.Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology, Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. Pag. Newsom D.Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology, Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. Pag 19 5 Newsom D. Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology, Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. Pag. 14 6 Newsom D. Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology , Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. Pag.12 7 Newsom D., Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology, Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. Pag.18

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Often social issues are one of the most critical variable of the success or failure of Ecotouri sm project. As a result the social impact can determine the feasibility of the project. When cost benefit analyses are carried out often the social benefit can justify a project that is not financially sustainable. This is a recurrent case when the project is developed by the public sector. The benefits in order to provide a significant advantage to the local community environment must take into consideration. Thus, these kinds of projects often do not succeed because they do not have a considerable positive social impact and the local communities reject them. As mentioned above, Honey (1999) points out that the financial benefits must be in accordance with local culture and human rights and democratic movements. However, when the projects provide social benefits such as conservation of natural resources and cultural integrity of the subject communities, they are often successful because the social benefits are one of the major driving forces toward sustainable tourism and toward the conservation of natural and cultural traditions. Assuming that Ecotourism is identified as “tourism for the environment” (Newsom D., Moore A, Dowling R.K., 2002) it is evident that due to reasons outlined above the preservation of the natural environment and cultural environment provides significant social benefits. Furthermore, Ecotourism “on individual level it should add value to people‟s lives through their learning about the natural world”. 8 Thus, ecotourism enable the tourists to gain a cultural understanding of their holiday. The educative feature of Ecotourism is an important factor that differentiates itself from other forms of competitive tourism. Ecotourism can be marketed for individuals who are keen to develop their knowledge, awareness within the natural environmental context and at the same time “advance the cause of conservation”. 9 1.4.4 Technological Ecotourism, in common with the tourism industry in general, will be affected greatly by the rise of the Internet. It has transformed the provision of tourism in recent years and made it easier for people to find the holidays that they want and book them. Furthermore, in the ecotourism industry, a way of promoting the relevant nature issues and increasing awareness of them is via the Internet. This way more people become aware of your project and are better informed when they arrive. This can promote long-term development for that particular project and increase its sustainability. 1.4.5 Environmental The idea of ecotourism implies that any project will be beneficial for the local environment, as the money gained from it will be reinvested into the area to maintain the focal point of the project. Not only will it maintain that, it will also provide finance to the local areas inhabitants which in turn will be helped to develop the local environment. The main problem with ecotourism is when an area becomes so popular with tourists that it starts to destroy the habitat and nature that they are there to visit. This is a classic dichotomy for the ecotourism industry and many projects can result in overcrowding and pollution. For example, in Kenya‟s Nairobi National Park the poupularity of “Cheetah Spotting” increased causing interruption to their hunting patterns and causing their population to decline.
8

Newsom D., Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology, Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. Pag.12 9 Newsom D., Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology, Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. Pag. 18

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Clearly, a balance has to be sought by ecotourism, so that they can get the right amount of visitors to sustain the natural the habitat, while not destroying the central focus of the project. This requires meticulous planning from the developers, as well as the tourists and local inhabitants. It is one of the reasons why so many educational programmes are undertaken by national government organisations. Educating the people concerned with the project can help alleviate the problem of overcrowding. 1.4.6 Legal Eco-tourism development must be taken into consideration within a legal framework according to the land and property rights. Furthermore, the right to self-determination and cultural sovereignty of indigenous and local communities including their protected, sensitive and sacred sites as well as their traditional knowledge. Some countries have passed specific legislation on ecotourism that makes provision for its development in the future. Ecuador, Puerto Rico and the Philippines are those countries. Tourism legislation in countries such as the Czech Republic can help promote ecotourism. They protect natural heritage and can help the development of ecotourism projects as they safeguard the natural resource that they are designed around. This aids the sustainability of the projects, as the project managers know that they can develop the idea while safeguarding its contents. National environmental protection legislation in a number of countries also relates to ecotourism and helps to regulate certain aspects of it. Wildlife protection legislation for example has the effect of protecting the ecotourism project as it safeguards some important features of it. 2. Case study: Austrian Alps, Project: “Soft Mobility Car- Free” at the example of the community of Werfenweng /Salzburg/ 2.1 Basic facts on the Austrian (Eco) tourism Austria is a country, where the tourism industry, and its recently developed and nowadays, in response to the growing need of meticulous care for the environment, widely expanding sub- branch eco- tourism, receive a far- reaching recognition. In 2002 the tourists‟ organisations and institutions were carrying out an array of events under the heading International Year of Ecotourism and also the respective part of them under the title International Year of Mountains. It was the latter, however, which received the much more intense media coverage and urged the public dispute. This fact is self- explanatory, when we consider that it is the Alps, which attract tourists from all over the world to Austria, and that tourism in Austria‟s mountain regions especially stands for a very important substitute for and/ or supplement to its traditional agriculture and forestry. The data behind this statement is also unequivocal: the share of overnight stays in four Alpine provinces, Tyrol, Salzburg, Carinthia and Vorarlberg, in 2002 amounted to 72 % of the total figure for the entire country. This leads to the conclusion that these regions stand for three fourth of the Austrian tourism.

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Chart 1.

Source:http://www.bmwa.gv.at/NR/rdonlyres/9E124BF3-277B-4AA6-BE02-99C29195BE6F/9200/CompilationIYE2002engl.pdf

Given the fact that, contrary to the successfully marketed in economic terms ecotourism in some countries of South America, Africa and in Australia/ New Zealand, the ecotourism in Central Europe is rather looked upon as the “landscape- oriented” tourism, it becomes less surprising that according to numerous market studies by WTO ecotourism in the sense defined in the WTO definition accounts for only a limited market share in Europe. Accordingly, the Austrian natureoriented holiday packages can hardly be found in information brochures under the category of ecotourism. Its offers are in turn marketed under such brands as e.g. “Farmhouse Holidays”, “Austrian Hiking Villages”, etc. Nonetheless, three Austrian projects are said to fall close to the WTO definition of ecotourism: “National parks Austria”, “Austrian Eco- label for Tourism” and the pilot project “Soft Mobility – Car- free Tourism”. It is the last one that we look at in more detail. 2.3 Project “Soft Mobility Car- Free” in the community of Werfenweng /Salzburg/ 2.3.1 Introduction The community of Werfenweng is situated approximately 45 km south of Salzburg. It has 700 residents and is located on a plateau based on the mountain of Tennengebirge 1, 000 m above sea level. Having the capacity of 1, 800 visitor‟s beds the register demonstrates that the community experiences about 190, 000 overnights p.a. with equal numbers of summer and winter tourists, out of which around 70% are German, 15% Austrian and 8% are from the Benelux.

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The tourist highlights of Werfenweng have been developed and meticulously elaborated to become an integral element of the highly standardised holiday package resting on the “soft mobility” concept. The main three of them are: (1) local farmers shop offering authentic, natural and regional products (e.g. home- made jams, crispy bread), (2) the Salzburg Ski museum presenting the origins of alpine skiing and its long-lived history and tradition in Austria through a. o. the film documentaries and equipment exhibitions (the Austrian national hero in this discipline, Hermann Maier, serves here as an advertising slogan), (3) the recreational park and its little lake with drinking water quality, giving the opportunity of undertaking a variety of activities, such as e.g. a game of volleyball or table tennis (additional facilities are a. o. a playground for kids or a 27 meter high waterslide). Moreover, we have to note that the offer is specified separately for the summer and winter seasons giving tourists a possibility to indulge into numerous activities typical for both seasons, such as for instance hiking or bicycle tours (summer), and ice skating, skiing, curling or even (!) lama trekking (winter). 2.3.2 PESTEL analysis of the project Werfenweng is one of the two communities that have been chosen for implementation of the “Soft mobility Car- free” pilot project in Austria (the second one is Bad Hofgastein, also located in the region of Pongau in the Salzburg province). A set of institutions collaborate in its realization, and namely three federal ministries, the two pilot communities and the government of the Salzburg province. The project was initiated in 1998 and is co- financed by the European Union. It covers a variety of aspects of the sustainable development of the Austrian tourism: environment, transportation, tourism, technology and regional policy, thus comprising many dimensions of ecotourism laid down in the WTO definition of this notion.

2.3.2.1 Political Austria is politically very much stable. As a very well- developed country and member of the European Union since 1995 it guarantees that no significant disturbances of this kind will arise. The full and decisive commitment of the federal government and practically all other bodies at particular tiers of the administrational structure in development and propagation of the (eco) tourism industry builds up a very wide and solid platform for thriving of the country‟s tourist potential. The institutional network also comprises many NGOs, which additionally strengthens the industry‟s prosperity. The set of institutions of this kind is behind the pilot project in question. The co- operation in its implementation is, however, much more far- reaching and has wide implications, which to a considerable extent presuppose the quality and diversification of the product. In general, we should note that this initiative has been and is being carried out under the auspices of the European Union. As the pilot project it is obviously unique countrywide and accordingly fits into the wisely elaborated structure of already existing undertakings in the field of mobility. The first project representing a vital framework for the Werfenweng one is a trans-national project called “Alps Mobility”. It is targeted at environmentally sound travel logistics connected with electronic booking and information systems in Alpine tourism regions (Pongau collaborates on 31943 Integrative Economics 7

this basis with Bavaria, Lombardy, South Tyrol, Trento, Veneto and Friuli- Venezia- Giulia). Thanks to this framework such critical for the success of the project in Werfenweng services as mobility management centre Pongau, the luggage (door- to- door) logistics, travel information system and Public Relations (PR) activities get significant support. The second initiative in question, „mobilito- the Mobility Management Centre in Salzburg”, is at the root of literally a plethora of elements we find in a product bundle offered in Werfenweng. To recall a couple of them, we should mention: (1) coordination between the innovative mobility services with the traditional means of transportation in the form of timetable information for trains, buses, service or call taxis (including the fastest relevant service and best change possibilities all over Europe), which materialises in the fact that at the touch of a button we receive our personal itinerary; (2) counselling by skilled mobility consultants (offered at the station of Bishofshofen, from and to which Werfenweng provides a regular shuttle); (3) adoption of the concept and organisation of arrivals in and departures from the destination area; (4) organisation of training courses or classes (e.g. „Mobility in Tourism”). The third project, Interest Group (IG) Sustainable Mobility stands for the success of the Werfenweng‟s luggage logistics scheme. Finally, NETS being the network for tourist soft mobility in Europe (launched as initiative during the Austrian EU presidency) is aimed at connecting partners in the economic sectors of tourism, transport and environment in order to support the implementation of innovative solutions for a quality in tourism, which rest on the concept of sustainable mobility. This helps attain the desired partnerships comprising for example transportation enterprises, vehicle producers and tour operators (in case of Werfenweng the cooperation between tour operators: Austrian Federal Bus Transportation and Austrian Federal Railway, “mobilito”, and producers of electric vehicles is of high importance). The multinational dimension of this stakeholders‟ platform of the project encompasses Ita lian and German regions already, and is very likely to be extended to Switzerland and France as well. 2.3.2.2 Economic While analysing this aspect of the project we shall point out that the pilot profile of the Werfenweng‟s initiative, and thus the rather small size of the community, ought to be viewed in terms of the statistical sample and any inferences for the potential larger scale projects should be carried out with due care. As the Alpine region the area of Werfenweng was surely the one of natural and cultural relevance, and therefore required protection. The project in question in fact generates such protection fully, but we should probably note the course of events, which took place in this case, in the sense that local initiatives arose and service quality improvement (in non- transport sectors) was attained, but these were the results and indispensable supplements of the original idea, which was focused on the mobility aspects of tourism in the community. Nonetheless, the entire achieved product bundle helped improve the environmental status quo in general and renders necessary protection in the region. Economic benefits are tremendous and can be summarised as follows:  In the period of 1998- 2002 an increase in overnights in Werfenweng amounted to 46,403 (+28.07%),  In the period of 2000- 2002 increases in overnights of enterprises offering “car- free holidays” totalled: 43% (winter) and 65% (summer),

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 The economic profit of these overnight increases in Werfenweng can be estimated at the level of approximately €3,387,000 (overnight increase multiplied by about €73 additional sales per tourist and overnight) 10,  Since Werfenweng has focused its entire marketing campaign on “car-free holidays” and no additional overnight capacities have been built, this surplus in sales/ turnover can be ascribed to the pilot project in question exclusively. The project‟s impact on generation of employment opportunities in the community is also by far favourable (it seems enough to mention the shuttle, night taxi, hiking programs, the recreational park, etc. to envisage it). “Sales and maintenance of the e- vehicles are provided almost exclusively by local businesses!”11 Marketing and PR aspects of the project are very well developed and yield the desired results. In a considerable part based on the concept of E- Commerce the solutions applied in this respect are magnificent, the navigation is very easy and all necessary links rendered available make us switch between the important for the product bundle websites very conveniently (see the logos above and also references below). 2.3.2.3 Social Since we demonstrate that the political, economic and environmental (see below) objectives of the project are met, we can also roughly conclude that the social benefits of the project do occur. This statement gets additional evidence when we look at particular examples. Local culture gets adequate recognition and cultural integrity becomes strengthened through the attractions mentioned above, such as the ski museum or local farmers shop. Conservation of natural resources takes place as a result of the undertaken investments (turnover increases find here fortunate application), the reduction in combustion gases emissions, and the quality improvement in the public transportation infrastructure and services (this benefits automatically the local community as well). The guided hiking programs also stand for a form of securing the nondevastating mountaineering. All these elements leading undeniably to the preservation of the natural and cultural environment make us authorised to state that we observe the occurrence of important social benefits brought about by the project. Finally, as regards to the educative feature of the project we should conclude explicitly that it holds for both visitors and residents, the latter being treated as a close partner in the implementation of the entire undertaking. This is reflected by among others the activities aimed at raising the awareness of children, who are affected by the traffic volume, and reporting on t he developments of the project in the Journal of Sustainable Mobility, which is published quarterly. 2.3.2.4 Technological At this point the pilot project in Werfenweng proves to be very much versatile and innovative. The complete electronic transportation schedule information system for the province of Salzburg, integral travel information system for the Pongau region, and the very much user- friendly Internet websites demonstrate clearly that the project probably fully captures the opportunities that the new economy opens up.

10

„2002 The International Year of Ecotourism (IYE) and the International Year of Mountains (IYM)”, Publication by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour. 11 Ibid., p.21.

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The key element of the project is the promotion of new, environmentally compatible technologies. The largely emission- free electric vehicles, be it e- scooters, e- bikes or e- cars, are used widely for different purposes (in 2002 there were 99 e- vehicles circulating in both pilot communities Werfenweng and Bad Hofgastein). Their use is planned to be extended to the public transport, and various test busses have already been exploited. The absolute highlight of Werfenweng is a solarpowered petrol station, which is said to be one of the first of its kind. 2.3.2.5 Environmental The project itself cannot of course prevent tourists from coming to Werfenweng with their own cars. The product bundle is designed, however, the way, which really makes it easier to come with the public transportation means, as it comprises the complete and consistent electronic timetables, shuttle service, e- vehicles, luggage logistics or price reductions for those without a car, to name probably its most important elements. This should result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and reduction in the level of noise, i.e. the impacts, which the Alpine community is so determined to minimise. In Werfenweng it works, the empirical data behind it is as follows:  In winter 2000/ 2001 the share of tourists arriving by train rose from 9 to 25% as compared to the previous year level,  The car- free arrivals of resident tourists save as much as 1.2 million kilometres, which is to be translated into the reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 375 tons compared to the country wide trend. Judging by the length and development of the project we may assume that the additionally engendered for the community revenue is reinvested into not only maintaining its focal point, but also into its enhancement. The issue of overcrowding is for the time being not so much relevant, since no new overnight capacities have been built in Werfenweng so far. 2.3.2.6 Legal Given the fact that this project is realised by a. o. three federal ministries, this aspect is of no relevance for our evaluation. 2.3.3 Conclusion The PESTEL analysis indicates clearly that the project in Werfenweng is “an empirical success story”, yielding very positive results for each of the categories. However, as noted above, given the fact that this is a pilot project in nature, run in a rather small community, under the auspices of the Austrian government and co- financed by the EU, we emphasize that one should make significant allowances for these aspects while drawing any inferences as regards to potential larger scale projects of that kind. 31943 Integrative Economics 10

References:

1). Honey, M. Ecotourism and sustainable development: Who Owns Paradise? 1999, Washington DC, Island Press 1). Newsom D., Moore A, Dowling R.K., “Aspect of Tourism, Natural Area Tourism, Ecology, Impacts and Managements” (2002), Channel View. 2). United Nations General Assembly: Assessment of the results achieved in realizing aims and objectives of the international year of ecotourism. 18 June 2003. 3). The Economist, A good trip?, August 28 th 1997 4). Ecotourism Statistical Fact Sheet, The International Ecotourism Society, 2000 5). „2002 The International Year of Ecotourism (IYE) and the International Year of Mountains (IYM)”, Publication by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour, 2003, downloadable at: (http://www.bmwa.gv.at/NR/rdonlyres/9E124BF3-277B-4AA6-BE0299C29195BE6F/9200/CompilationIYE2002engl.pdf) 6). “The Model Project „Sustainable Mobility – Car- free Tourism‟”, Partnership for Quality, Innovation and Sustainable Development in Tourism, Environment and Transport, Milestone Report Spring 2001, downloadable at: (http://www.sanftmobil.com/english/zeitung/index.htm) 7). The website of the Tourist Office in Werfenweng: (http://www.werfenweng.org/eng/index.htm) 8). The website of the Community/ municipality of Werfenweng: (http://www.gemeinde-werfenweng.at/) 9). The website of the mobility centre for information and reservation of public transport: (http://www.mobilito.at/ )

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