Review for Mid-Term Exam

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					Review for Mid-Term Exam

Lecture 13 HNRS 228 - Astrobiology Prof. Geller

Overview of Chapter 1
Life Elsewhere Worlds Beyond Imagination
distances between worlds distances between stars communications between star systems

Stuff of Life
birth and death of stars and planets origin of the chemical elements chemistry review formation of solar system other solar systems

Overview of Chapter 2
Roots of science
Greeks and Geocentrism

Copernican Revolution
Copernicus, Tycho, Kepler, Galileo, Newton

Nature of Modern Science
What you think you know

Overview of Chapter 3
What is Life
Its properties, evolution and definition

Cells: The basic units of life
Structure, composition, prokaryotes, eukaryotes

Metabolism: The chemistry of life
Energy needs and sources; water

DNA and Heredity
Structure, replication, genetic code

Life at the Extremes
Extremophiles and their implications

Chapter 4 - Rocks
How geologists tell apart different minerals and rocks
color, luster, texture hardness test
scratching one against another
• diamond is hardest

acid test
using weak hydrochloric acid to

streak test
form a streak across a ceramic tile

Chapter 4 - Geologic Time
Fossilization “Reading the Rocks”
principle of uniformity principle of original horizontality principle of superposition principle of crosscutting relationships principle of faunal succession radiometric dating

Geologic Time Scale

Chapter 4 Geologic Time

Chapter 5 - Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth
Searching for the origin Functional beginnings of life
From chemistry to biology at the molecular level

Prokaryotes and oxygen Eukaryotes and explosion of diversity Mass extinctions, asteroids and climate change Evolutions of humans Conclusions

Density vs. Temperature (water)

Biochemical Pathways

Chemical Beginnings

Molecular Features of Living Systems (continued)


Translation Translation/Genetic Code



Functional Protein

Taylor Hierarchy of Life
Community Population Organism Organ Tissue

Organelles Macromolecules Atoms

Taylor Hierarchy of Ecology
Earth Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Organisms

Chapter 6 - Searching the Solar System for Life
Review Requirements for Life Searching for Life in Our Solar System Exploring the Solar System
remotely from Earth or spacecraft, landers on surface, human exploration

Biological Tour of the Solar System

Sample Phase Diagram

Nebular Condensation Chemistry
Molecule H2 H2O CH4 NH3 FeSO4 SiO4 Freezing Point Distance from Center 10 K >100 AU 273 K >10 AU 35 K >35 AU 190 K >8 AU 700 K >1 AU 1000 K >0.5 AU

Planetary Summary
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Mass (Earth=1) 0.06 0.82 1.00 0.11 318 95 14 17 Density (g/cm3) 5.4 5.2 5.5 3.9 1.3 0.7 1.3 1.7 Major Constituents Rock, Rock, Rock, Rock, Iron Iron Iron Iron

H, He H, He Ices, H, He Ices, H, He