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Review for Mid-Term Exam

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					Review for Mid-Term Exam

Lecture 13 HNRS 228 - Astrobiology Prof. Geller

Overview of Chapter 1
Life Elsewhere Worlds Beyond Imagination
distances between worlds distances between stars communications between star systems

Stuff of Life
birth and death of stars and planets origin of the chemical elements chemistry review formation of solar system other solar systems

Overview of Chapter 2
Roots of science
Greeks and Geocentrism

Copernican Revolution
Copernicus, Tycho, Kepler, Galileo, Newton

Nature of Modern Science
What you think you know

Overview of Chapter 3
What is Life
Its properties, evolution and definition

Cells: The basic units of life
Structure, composition, prokaryotes, eukaryotes

Metabolism: The chemistry of life
Energy needs and sources; water

DNA and Heredity
Structure, replication, genetic code

Life at the Extremes
Extremophiles and their implications

Chapter 4 - Rocks
How geologists tell apart different minerals and rocks
color, luster, texture hardness test
scratching one against another
• diamond is hardest

acid test
using weak hydrochloric acid to

streak test
form a streak across a ceramic tile

Chapter 4 - Geologic Time
Fossilization “Reading the Rocks”
principle of uniformity principle of original horizontality principle of superposition principle of crosscutting relationships principle of faunal succession radiometric dating

Geologic Time Scale

Chapter 4 Geologic Time

Chapter 5 - Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth
Searching for the origin Functional beginnings of life
From chemistry to biology at the molecular level

Prokaryotes and oxygen Eukaryotes and explosion of diversity Mass extinctions, asteroids and climate change Evolutions of humans Conclusions

Density vs. Temperature (water)

Biochemical Pathways

Chemical Beginnings

Molecular Features of Living Systems (continued)
DNA
Transcription

m-RNA t-RNA

Translation Translation/Genetic Code

Polypeptide

Conformation

Functional Protein

Taylor Hierarchy of Life
Community Population Organism Organ Tissue

Cell
Organelles Macromolecules Atoms

Taylor Hierarchy of Ecology
Earth Biosphere Biome Ecosystem Community Population Organisms

Chapter 6 - Searching the Solar System for Life
Review Requirements for Life Searching for Life in Our Solar System Exploring the Solar System
remotely from Earth or spacecraft, landers on surface, human exploration

Biological Tour of the Solar System

Sample Phase Diagram

Nebular Condensation Chemistry
Molecule H2 H2O CH4 NH3 FeSO4 SiO4 Freezing Point Distance from Center 10 K >100 AU 273 K >10 AU 35 K >35 AU 190 K >8 AU 700 K >1 AU 1000 K >0.5 AU

Planetary Summary
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Mass (Earth=1) 0.06 0.82 1.00 0.11 318 95 14 17 Density (g/cm3) 5.4 5.2 5.5 3.9 1.3 0.7 1.3 1.7 Major Constituents Rock, Rock, Rock, Rock, Iron Iron Iron Iron

H, He H, He Ices, H, He Ices, H, He


				
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