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					SCORM 2004

Introduction to SCORM 2004
Alexandra Toedt, University of Cologne

Source: Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL), Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM ®) • 2nd Edition Overview, 2004 • Content Aggregation Model Version 1.3.1, 2004 • Run-Time Environment Version 1.3.1, 2004 • Sequencing and Navigation Version 1.3.1, 2004

SCORM 2004
Overview

What is SCORM?

• Technical framework that provides a harmonized set of guidelines, specification and standards for elearning • In the beginning: Sharable Courseware Object Reference Model • Today: Sharable Content Object Reference Model

SCORM 2004
Overview

Vision of SCORM

SCORM 2004
Overview

Scope of SCORM

Content

LMS

SCORM 2004
Overview

Goal: Interoperability

Authoring Tool Content

Authoring Tool 1 Content

Authoring Tool 2 Content

LMS 1

Content

LMS 2

Content

LMS

Content Content

SCORM 2004
Overview

Goal: Reusability

LMS 1

LMS 2

LMS 3

SCORM 2004
Overview

Parts of SCORM

SCORM consists of four books:

Overview

Content Aggregation Model (CAM)

Run-Time Environment (RTE)

Sequencing and Navigation (SN)

SCORM 2004

Content Aggregation Model Book

CAM

• The SCORM CAM Book describes ...
– ... the components used in a learning experience – ... how to package those components for exchange from system to system – ... how to describe those components to enable search and discovery – ... how to define sequencing information for the components
Content Aggregation Model (CAM)

SCORM 2004

Content Organization

CAM

Content

Organization

Organization Item Item Item Item
Resource (SCO) Resource (Asset) Resource (SCO) Resource (Asset)

Content Aggregation
Resource (Asset) Resource (Asset) Resource (Asset)

Activities

Item

Resources

SCORM 2004

Content Packaging

CAM

Content Package File Manifest File (imsmanifest.xml)

Manifest Meta-data Organizations Resources (sub)Manifest(s) Physical Files

SCORM 2004

Run-Time Environment Book

RTE

Run-Time Environment (RTE)

SCORM 2004

RTE Requirements

RTE

• The LMS ...
– ... manages content launch process – ... supports standardized communication between content and LMS – ... manages standardized data model elements (for passing and tracking learner data)

• The SCOs ...
– ... must use the common Application Programming Interface (API) – ... (optional) use the RTE data model elements

SCORM 2004

Content Launch

RTE

Server Side

Client Side Web Browser
1. Provides

API Instance
3. Searches 4. Initializes Communication

LMS Server

2. Launches

ECMAScript

SCO

SCORM 2004

API Functions
Client Side Web Browser API:
Session Initialize() Terminate()

RTE

ECMAScript

API Implementation (Functional Code)

Data-Transfer GetValue() SetValue() Commit() Support GetLastError() GetErrorString() GetDiagnostic()

SCO

SCORM 2004

Sequencing and Navigation Book

SN

Sequencing and Navigation (SN)

SCORM 2004

Activity Trees

SN

Course Module 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Module 2 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Module 3 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Chapter 1 Chapter 2

SCORM 2004

SN

Deriving an Activity Tree from a Content Package
imsmanifest.xml <organization> <resources> Activity Tree
Sequencing Tracking Data

SCORM 2004

Cluster in activity trees

SN

C1
Module 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 2

Course

Module 2 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3

Module 3 Lesson 1 Lesson 2

C4

C2 C3

Chapter 1

Lesson 4

C5

Chapter 2

SCORM 2004

Learning Activity

SN

• „Meaningful unit of instruction“ • A learning activity may provide a learning resource to the learner or it may be composed of several subactivities Take a lesson • Learning activities ... Take a pre-test
– ... have a discrete start and finish Experience Content – ... have well-defined completion and Take a final test mastery conditions – ... can consist of sub-activities – ... occur in context of their parent activity (if one exists)

SCORM 2004

Attempts

SN

• An attempt is an effort to complete an activity • Attempts on activities always occur within the context of attempts on their parent activities • Only one leaf activity can be attempted at any given time
Course Module 1 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Module 2 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Module 3 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Chapter 1 Chapter 2

SCORM 2004

Learning Objectives

SN

• Learning Activities may have one or more learning objectives assiciated with them • Learning objectives are local to activities by default, but an activity may reference globally shared objectives too • Shared global objectives may be shared within a single Activity Tree or across multiple Activity Trees within the LMS

SCORM 2004

Tracking Model

SN

• Dynamic sequencing state information for each activity that must be managed by the LMS for each learner based on communication by the SCO:
– Objective Progress Information: Describes the learner‘s progress related to a learning objective (satisfied / measure) – Activity Progress Information: Describes the cumulative learner progress across all attempts on an activity (duration, attempt count) – Attempts Progress Information (completion status, duration) – Activity State Information (is Activated, is Suspended)

SCORM 2004

Sequencing Rules

SN

Preconditions Actions Conditions Skip Attempted Objective Status Known Objective Measure Known Objective Measure Greater Than Objective Measure Less Than Always Attempt Limit Exceeded Exit Actions Exit Disabled Hidden From Choice

Postconditions Actions Exit Parent Exit All Retry Retry All Continue Previous

If (not)

Satisfied Activity Progress Known Completed

then

Stop Forward Traversal


				
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